Yazid ibn al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik or Yazid III was an Umayyad caliph. He reigned for six months, from April 15 to October 3 or 4,744, Yazid was the son of a Persian princess who had been given as a concubine to Caliph al-Walid I. Al-Tabari quotes a couplet of Yazids on his own ancestry, I am the son of Chosroes, my ancestor was Marwan, Caesar was my grandsire, tabari further records descriptions of Yazid as being tall and handsome. Yazid slipped into Damascus and deposed Walid in a coup, following this up with a disbursement of funds from the treasury, according to Yazids own account, Yazid sent Abd al-Aziz ibn al-Hajjaj to meet Walid at al-Bakhra. Abd al-Aziz offered to set up an assembly to decide the future of the realm. Walid rejected this offer and attacked, by which action he lost his life, Yazid had Walids head hoisted on a lance and paraded around Damascus, Yazid imprisoned Walids sons Uthman and Hakam, whom Walid had designated as his heirs. On accession, Yazid explained that he had rebelled on behalf of the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet, and he promised abdication if he failed to meet these goals, and held in principle to al-amr shura - to an elected caliphate.
Tabari records Yazids nickname the Diminisher, given because he reduced military annuities by 10%, according to Islamic popular tradition, recorded in an apocalyptic style, Yazid would go himself into the marketplace. The city of Hims refused allegiance to Yazid, and there were several other dissident movements against him, another cousin, Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan, governor of Armenia, had initially supported Walid and on Walids death entered Iraq to avenge him. Yazid appointed Mansur ibn Jumhur to replace Yusuf ibn Umar as governor of Iraq, on May 15, Yazid wrote a letter, preserved from oral sources in al-Madaini and in al-Baladhuri. It supports the Umayyad dynasty up to but not including the enemy of Allah al-Walid II, at the end, Tabaris rendition has Yazid exhorting the Iraqis to follow Mansur ibn Jumhur. Yusuf ibn Umar was subsequently imprisoned and killed by the son of Khalid ibn Abdallah al-Qasri, Mansur attempted to dismiss the Khurasani governor Nasr ibn Sayyar, but Nasr refused to accept this.
Facing opposition from Juday al-Kirmani, Nasr invited al-Harith ibn Surayj to return from his stay in Turgesh territory. Al-Harith arrived wearing a suit of armour the Khaqan had given him. Yazid named his brother Ibrahim as his successor, Yazid fell ill of a brain tumour and died on October 3 or 4,744. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari History, v.26 The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate, carole Hillenbrand, SUNY, Albany,1989 Sir John Glubb, The Empire of the Arabs and Stoughton, London,1963
Al-Andalus, known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the century, southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control. Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange, a number of achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus including major advances in trigonometry, surgery and other fields. Al-Andalus became an educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for culture. For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north, after the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into a number of minor states and principalities. Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI, the Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule.
In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo, starting a gradual decline of Muslim power, with the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, finally, on January 2,1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested to by inscriptions on coins minted by the new Muslim government in Iberia, the etymology of the name has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. A number of proposals since the 1980s have contested this, Vallvé proposed a corruption of the name Atlantis, halm derives the name from a Gothic term *landahlauts.
Bossong suggests derivation from a pre-Roman substrate and they crossed the Pyrenees and occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France. Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire and it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. Visigothic lords who agreed to recognize Muslim suzerainty were allowed to retain their fiefs, resistant Visigoths took refuge in the Cantabrian highlands, where they carved out a rump state, the Kingdom of Asturias. In the 720s, the al-Andalus governors launched several raids into Aquitaine. At the Battle of Poitiers in 732, the al-Andalus raiding army was defeated by Charles Martel, in 734, the Andalusi launched raids to the east, capturing Avignon and Arles and overran much of Provence. In 737, they climbed up the Rhône valley, reached as far as Burgundy, Charles Martel of the Franks, with the assistance of Liutprand of the Lombards, invaded Burgundy and Provence and expelled the raiders by 739.
Relations between Arabs and Berbers in al-Andalus had been tense in the years after the conquest
Muawiyah I established the Umayyad Dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan. During the first and second caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar, to stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea, Muawiyah developed a navy in the Levant and used it to confront the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. The Caliphate conquered several territories including Cyzicus which were used as naval bases. Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan was born in Mecca to Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the Quraysh controlled the city of Mecca and the Banu Abd-Shams were among the most influential of its citizens. The meaning of Muawiyah in Arabic is strength of the arms and his father Abu-Sufyan struggled against Islam until Muhammads army entered Mecca in 630. Muawiyah and Ali shared the same grandfather, ‘Abd Manaf bin Qusay, who had four sons, Muttalib, Nawfal. Hashim was the grandfather of Ali and Muhammad. Umayyah bin Abdu Shams was the grandfather of Muawiyah.
Muawiyah and remaining members of his family were opponents of the Muslims before the ascendancy of Muhammad, in 630, Muhammad and his followers entered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams clan, formally submitted to Muhammad and accepted Islam. Muawiyah, along with his father Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, became Muslims at the conquest of Mecca, although Muawiyah had been a crypto-Muslim since the 628 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Ibn Kathir wrote in his book Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya, In terms of his appearance, he was fair and tall, bald with a white head and he was mild-tempered, dignified and noble amongst the people, generous and astute. Muawiyah worked as a scribe for Muhammad, according to al-Baladhuri, Urwa ibn az-Zubayr, relating from his father, Aisha said I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was in a room with Umm Habiba on her day. Muawiya knocked on the door and he gave him permission to enter and he had a pen behind his ear which he had not used.
The Prophet said, What is this on your ear and he said, A pen which I have made ready for Allah and His Messenger. May Allah repay you well on behalf of your Prophet, during the time of Abu Bakr, Muawiyah used to serve under his brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan. Muawiyah was one of the first to be sent into Syria, in May 636, Emperor Heraclius launched a major expedition against the Muslims, but his army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Yarmouk in August 636. In the battle, Muawiyahs brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan served under Khalid ibn al-Walid and Abu Ubaydah and was in command of one of the wings, Muawiyahs mother Hind took part in the battle. Amr ibn al-As was sent to take on the Byzantine Army in Egypt, with limited resources his marriage to Maysum was politically motivated, as she was the daughter of the chief of the Kalb tribe, that was a large Jacobite Christian Arab tribe in Syria
Al-Hakam Ibn Hisham Ibn Abd-ar-Rahman I was Umayyad Emir of Cordoba from 796 until 822 in the Al-Andalus. Al-Hakam was the son of his father, his older brother having died at an early age. When he came to power, he was challenged by his uncles Sulayman and Abdallah, Abdallah took his two sons Ubayd Allah and Abd al-Malik to the court of Charlemagne in Aix-la-Chapelle to negotiate for aid. In the mean time Sulayman attacked Cordoba, but was defeated, Abdallah was pardoned, but was forced to stay in Valencia. Al-Hakam spent much of his reign suppressing rebellions in Toledo, Saragossa, an attempt was made to dethrone Al-Hakam and replace him with his cousin Mohammed ibn al-Kasim, but the plot was discovered. On 16 November 806,72 nobles and their attendants were massacred at a banquet, such display of cruelty was not unusual during this period, with the heads of rebel leaders or Christians killed in expeditions to the north being put on show at the gates of Cordoba. Rabi was removed and executed by crucifixion for alleged misappropriations, in 818 he crushed a rebellion led by clerics in the suburb of al-Ribad on the south bank of the Guadalquivir river.
Some 300 notables were captured and crucified, while the rest of the inhabitants were exiled, some moved to Alexandria in Egypt, some to Fez and Crete. Al-Hakam I died in 822 after having ruled for 26 years, Al-Hakam was the son of Hisham I, Emir of Cordoba and a concubine named Zokhrouf. Al Hakam was the father of, Abd ar-Rahman II, Umayyad Emir of Córdoba 822–852 al-Mughira Said Umayya al-Walid bin al-Hakam and he led an army to attack Galicia in 838. Al-Hakam had a concubine named Ajab and she established a foundation for lepers in the suburbs of Cordoba. The leper colony was funded by the proceeds of the Munyat Ajab, Ajab was the mother of, Abu Abd Al-Malik Marwan Another concubine was named Muta. She established a cemetery which was still in existence in the 10th century
Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, and mainstream scholars observed in 1911 that The term Moors has no real ethnological value. Medieval and early modern Europeans variously applied the name to Arabs, Berber North Africans and Muslim Europeans. The term has used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general, especially those of Arab or Berber descent. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names Ceylon Moors and Indian Moors in Sri Lanka, in 711, troops mostly formed by Moors from North Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Iberian peninsula came to be known in classical Arabic as Al-Andalus, in 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily, developing it as a port. They eventually consolidated the rest of the island and some of southern Italy, in 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, which was destroyed by European Christians in 1300. The fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, the Berber tribes of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, which was subsequently rendered as Moors in English and in related variations in other European languages.
Mauri is recorded as the name by Strabo in the early 1st century. This appellation was adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii, in medieval Romance languages, variations of the Latin word for the Moors developed different applications and connotations. During the context of the Crusades and the Reconquista, the term Moors included the suggestion of infidels. Apart from these associations and context and Moorish designate a specific ethnic group speaking Hassaniya Arabic. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Morocco, Niger, in Niger and Mali, these peoples are known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara. Some authors have pointed out that in modern colloquial Spanish use of the term moro is derogatory for Moroccans in particular, this designation has gained more acceptance in the south. In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many modern Filipinos call the large, local Muslim minority concentrated in Mindanao, the word is a catch-all term, as Moro may come from several distinct ethno-linguistic groups such as the Maranao people.
The term was introduced by Spanish colonisers, and has since been appropriated by Filipino Muslims as an endonym, moreno can mean dark-skinned in Spain, Portugal and the Philippines. Also in Spanish, morapio is a name for wine, especially that which has not been baptized or mixed with water. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, Moro refers to all things dark, as in Moor, etc. It was used as a nickname, for instance, the Milanese Duke Ludovico Sforza was called Il Moro because of his dark complexion, in Portugal, mouro may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura, where moor implies alien and non-Christian
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm is a unit of currency in several Arab states and formerly, the related unit of mass in the Ottoman Empire and Persian states. The name derives from the ancient Greek currency the drachma, in the late Ottoman Empire, the standard dirham was 3.207 g,400 dirhem equal one oka. In Egypt in 1895, it was equivalent to 47.661 troy grains, there is currently a movement within the Islamic world to revive the Dirham as a unit of mass for measuring silver, although the exact value is disputed. The word dirham comes from drachma, the Greek coin, the Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire controlled the Levant and traded with Arabia, circulating the coin there in pre-Islamic times and afterward. It was this currency which was adopted as an Arab word, near the end of the 7th century the coin became an Islamic currency bearing the name of the sovereign
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya, commonly known as Yazid I, was the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. Yazid was the Caliph as appointed by his father Muawiyah I, according to some sources Muawiyah warned his son Yazid against mistreating Hussein ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad. The appointment of Yazid was unpopular in Madina too, narrated by Yusuf bin Mahak, Marwan had been appointed as the governor of Hijaz by Muawiyah. He delivered a sermon and mentioned Yazid bin Muawiyah so that the people take the oath of allegiance to him as the successor of his father. Then Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr told him something whereupon Marwan ordered that he be arrested, but Abdur Rahman entered Aishas house and they could not arrest him. Marwan said, It is he about whom Allah revealed this Verse, And the one who says to his parents, do you hold out the promise to me. On that, Aisha said from behind a screen, Allah did not reveal anything from the Quran about us except what was connected with the declaration of my innocence, upon succession, Yazid asked Governors of all provinces to take an oath of allegiance to him.
The necessary oath was secured from all parts of the country, hussain ibn Ali and Abdullah ibn Zubayr refused to declare allegiance. Yazid sent Marwan, a soldier in his army, to assist in this task, Muawiyah had summoned the people to give an oath of allegiance to him that Yazid would be his heir. Yazids concern was to bring their attitude to an end, Yazids paternal first cousin Waleed bin Utbah bin Abu Sufyan was the Governor of Madinah, where Husayn bin Ali and the Hashimite family resided as did Abdullah ibn Zubayr. Act so fiercely that they have no chance to do anything before giving the oath of allegiance, when summoned by the Governor of Madinah, Waleed bin Utbah, Husayn bin Ali answered the summons. However, Abdullah ibn Zubayr did not, when Husayn bin Ali met Waleed and Marwan in a semi-private meeting at night, he was informed of the late Caliph Muawiyahs passing and Yazids accession to the Caliphate. When asked for his pledge of allegiance to Yazid, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient, Waleed agreed to this, but Marwan interrupted demanding that Waleed imprison Husayn and not let him leave until he gives the pledge of allegiance to Yazid.
At this interruption, Marwan was soundly upbraided by Husayn who exited unharmed, Husayn bin Ali had his own retainer of armed supporters waiting nearby just in case a forcible attempt was made to apprehend him. As for Abdullah ibn Zubayr, he had left Medina at night heading for Mecca, in the morning Waleed sent men after him, a party of eighty horsemen under the command of a retainer of the Banu Umayyah. They pursued Ibn al-Zubayr but did not catch up with him, as for Husayn ibn Ali, Tabari records that he too left for Mecca shortly after, having not given an oath of allegiance to Yazid. Hussein-ibn-Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, along many other prominent Muslims, not only disapproved of Yazids nomination for caliph. However, before any significant work could be done, Muawiyah died, Kufa, a garrison town in Iraq, had been Alis capital, and many of his supporters lived there
Abd al-Rahman I
Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Muawiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. At the time it was known by the Arabs as al-Andalus and he was known by the surnames al-Dakhil, Saqr Quraish and the Falcon of Andalus. Variations of the spelling of his name include Abd ar-Rahman I, Abdul Rahman I, Abdar Rahman I, and Abderraman I. Born near Damascus in Syria, Abd al-Rahman was the son of the Umayyad prince Muawiya ibn Hisham and a Berber mother and he was twenty when his family, the ruling Umayyads, were overthrown by the Abbasid Revolution in 748–750. The family fled from Damascus to the River Euphrates, all along the way the path was filled with danger, as the Abbasids had dispatched horsemen across the region to try to find the Umayyad prince and kill him. The Abbasids were merciless with all Umayyads that they found, Abbasid agents closed in on Abd al-Rahman and his family while they were hiding in a small village.
He left his son with his sisters and fled with Yahya. Accounts vary, but Bedr likely initially escaped with Abd ar-Rahman, some histories indicate that Bedr met up with Abd al-Rahman at a date. Abd al-Rahman and Bedr quit the village narrowly escaping the Abbasid assassins, later, on the way south, Abbasid horsemen again caught up with the trio, Abd al-Rahman and his companions threw themselves into the River Euphrates. The horsemen begged the escapers to return, promising that no harm would come to them, the 17th-century historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari poignantly described Abd al-Rahmans reaction as he implored Yahya to keep going, O brother. Yahya returned to the shore, and was quickly dispatched by the horsemen. They cut the head off their prize, leaving Yahyas body to rot, al-Maqqari quotes prior Muslim historians as having recorded that Abd al-Rahman said he was so overcome with fear at that moment, that once he made the far shore he ran until exhaustion overcame him. Only he and Bedr were left to face the unknown, after barely escaping with their lives, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr continued south through Palestine, the Sinai, and into Egypt.
Abd al-Rahman had to keep a low profile as he traveled and it may be assumed that he intended to go at least as far as northwestern Africa, the land of his mother, which had been partly conquered by his Umayyad predecessors. The journey across Egypt would prove perilous, at the time, Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri was the semi-autonomous governor of Ifriqiya and a former Umayyad client. The ambitious Ibn Habib, a member of the illustrious Fihrid family, had sought to carve out Ifriqiya as a private dominion for himself. Abd al-Rahman was only one of several surviving Umayyad family members to make their way to Ifriqiya at this time, but Ibn Habib soon changed his mind. He feared the presence of prominent Umayyad exiles in Ifriqiya, a more illustrious than his own
The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjᵿlə/, known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the second largest European peninsula, at that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabos Iberia was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with. According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country side of the Ἶβηρος as far north as the river Rhône in France. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, elsewhere he says that Saguntum is on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia.
Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people of the Iberian stock living in the Pyrenees, according to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in political, the Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to land of the Hiberians. This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus, hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro. The first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics, the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Lusitania, Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces.
Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, the Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so known it was hardly necessary to state, for example. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called the whole of Spain Hiberia because of the Hiberus River, the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus, with reference to this border, Polybius states that the native name is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination
Umar ibn Hafsun
Umar ibn Hafsun ibn Jafar ibn Salim, known in Spanish history as Omar ben Hafsun, was a 9th-century Christian leader of anti-Ummayad forces in southern Iberia. The background of Umar ibn Hafsun has been the subject of conflicting claims and his contemporary, the poet Ibn Abd Rabbih referred to him as a Sawada, a descendant of black Africans. The pedigree traces back several generations to one Count Marcellus, son of Alfonso. However, Wasserstein recently concluded that the portion of this pedigree was probably invented by Umar himself. Conde in 1820 indicated that Umar ibn Hafsun was a man of pagan origin, of obscure, his family owned lands in Iznate, Málaga where ibn Hafsun grew up. Ibn Hafsun was born around 850 in the mountains near Parauta, a wild youth, he had a very violent temper and was involved in a number of disputes, even a homicide around the year 879. He joined a group of brigands, was captured by the wali of Málaga, the governor subsequently lost his post. Ibn Hafsun fled the jurisdiction to Morocco where he worked briefly as a tailor or stonemason.
He soon returned to Andalucia, albeit as an outlaw, and joined the bandits who were in rebellion against the caliphate, originally he settled in the ruins of the old Bobastro castle. He rebuilt the castle, and fortified the town of Ardales. He acquired castles and lands in an area, not only in Malaga, but including portions of the provinces of Cádiz, Granada known as Elvira, Jaén. By 883 he had become the leader of the rebels in the provinces to the south, the year before, in 882, he is said to have fought the Emir in a battle in which ally García Íñiguez of Pamplona was killed. About 885, in order to be centrally located and quicker to respond to external threats, ibn Hafsun moved his headquarters to the town of Poley. After ibn Hafsun’s defeat by the forces of Abdallah ibn Muhammad at the battle of Poley in 891, he moved his headquarters back to Bobastro. In 898, Lubb ibn Muhammad, of the Banu Qasi, was marching an army to support Umar when the death of his father at Zaragoza forced Lubb to abandon the campaign, in 899, Ibn Hafsun renounced Islam and became a Christian, being christened as Samuel.
His motivations seems to have been opportunistic, hoping to obtain support from Alfonso III of Leon. His conversion proved a major political mistake which although helping to attract significant Mozarab support and he built at Bobastro the Iglesia Mozarabe. In 913 they captured the city of Seville, and by the end of 914 had captured 70 of ibn Hafsun’s castles, for a while, even taxes were paid to the Umayyads
Kingdom of Navarre
The medieval Kingdom of Pamplona was formed when the native chieftain Íñigo Arista was elected or declared King in Pamplona, and led a revolt against the regional Frankish authority. The southern part of the kingdom was conquered by the Crown of Castile in 1512, the monarchs of this unified state took the title King of France and Navarre until its fall in 1792, and again during the Bourbon Restoration from 1814 until 1830. There are similar earlier toponyms but the first documentation of Latin navarros appears in Eginhards chronicle of the feats of Charles the Great, other Royal Frankish Annals give nabarros. Basque naba/Castilian nava + Basque herri, the linguist Joan Coromines consider naba as not clearly Basque in origin but as part of a wider pre-Roman substrate. The area was conquered by the Romans by 74 BC. It was first part of the Roman province of Citerior, of the Tarraconensis province, after that it was part of the conventus Caesaraugustanus. The Roman empire influenced the area in urbanization, infrastructure, after the decline of the Western Roman Empire, neither the Visigoths nor the Arabs succeeded in permanently occupying the western Pyrenees.
The western Pyrenees passages were the only ones allowing good transit through the mountains and that made the region strategically important from early in its history. The Franks under Charlemagne extended their influence and control towards the south, occupying several regions of the north and it is not clear how solid the Frankish control over Pamplona was. In response, the Cordoban Emirate launched a campaign to place the region under their firm control and it placed a muwallad governor, Mutarrif ibn Musa, in Pamplona. The same year the Basque leader, Jimeno the Strong, submitted to the Emir, in 799, Mutarrif ibn Musa was killed by a pro-Frankish faction whose leader Velasco gained control of the region. In 806 and 812 Pamplona fell into the Franks hands, due to difficulties at home, the Frankish rulers could not give full attention to the outlying borderlands, and the country gradually withdrew entirely from their allegiance. In 816, Louis the Pious removed Seguin as Duke of Vasconia, the rebel Garcia Jiménez arose in his place, and was killed in turn in 818.
Louis son Pepin, King of Aquitaine, stamped out the Vasconic revolt in Gascony and he next hunted the chieftains who had taken refuge in southern Vasconia, i. e. Pamplona and Navarre, no longer controlled by the Franks. He sent an army led by the counts Aeblus and Aznar-Sanchez, on the way back, they were ambushed and defeated in Roncesvaux by a probable joint Vasconic-Banu Qasi force. Out of this pattern of resistance against both Frankish and Cordoban interests, the Basque chieftain Íñigo Arista took power, tradition tells he was elected as king of Pamplona in 824, giving rise to a dynasty of kings in Pamplona that would last for eighty years. Pamplona and Navarre are cited as separate entities in a Frankish Carolingian chronicle, Pamplona is cited in 778 by another Frankish account as a Navarrese stronghold, while this may be put down to their vague knowledge of the Basque territory. They distinguished Navarre and its main town in 806 though, while the Chronicle of Fontenelle quotes Induonis et Mitionis, Arab chroniclers make no such distinctions, and just talk of the Baskunisi, a transliteration of Vascones, since a big majority of the population was Basque