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Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was a religious leader and theologian from Najd in central Arabia who founded the movement now called Wahhabism. Born to a family of jurists, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab's early education consisted of learning a standard curriculum of orthodox jurisprudence according to the Hanbali school of law, the school of law most prevalent in his area of birth. Despite his initial rudimentary training in classical Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab became opposed to many of the most popular Sunni practices such as the visitation to and the veneration of the tombs of saints, which he felt amounted to heretical religious innovation or idolatry. Despite his teachings being rejected and opposed by many of the most notable Sunni Muslim scholars of the period, including his own father and brother, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab charted a religio-political pact with Muhammad bin Saud to help him to establish the Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state, began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The Al ash-Sheikh, Saudi Arabia's leading religious family, are the descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, have led the ulama in the Saudi state, dominating the state's clerical institutions. Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab is acknowledged to have been born in 1703 into the sedentary and impoverished Arab clan of Banu Tamim in'Uyayna, a village in the Najd region of central Arabia. Before the emergence of Wahhabism there was a limited history of Islamic education in the area. For this reason, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab had modest access to Islamic education during his youth. Despite this, the area had produced several notable jurists of the Hanbali school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence, the school of law most prominently practiced in the area. In fact, Ibn'Abd-al-Wahhab's own family "had produced several doctors of the school," with his father, Sulaymān b. Muḥammad, having been the Hanbali jurisconsult of the Najd and his grandfather, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, having been a judge of Hanbali law. Ibn'Abd-al-Wahhab's early education consisted of learning the Quran by heart and studying a rudimentary level of Hanbali jurisprudence and theology as outlined in the works of Ibn Qudamah, one of the most influential medieval representatives of the Hanbali school whose works were regarded "as having great authority" in the Najd.

As the veneration of saints and the belief in their ability to perform miracles by the grace of God had become one of the most omnipresent and established aspects of Sunni Muslim practice throughout the Islamic world, being an agreed upon tenet of the faith by the vast majority of the classical scholars, it was not long before Ibn'Abd-al-Wahhab began to encounter the omnipresence of saint-veneration in his area as well. After leaving'Uyayna, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab performed the Greater Pilgrimage in Mecca, where the scholars appear to have held opinions and espoused teachings that were unpalatable to him. After this, he went to Medina, the stay at which seems to have been "decisive in shaping the direction of his thought." In Medina, he met a Hanbali theologian from Najd named ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm al-Najdī, a supporter of the neo-Hanbali works of Ibn Taymiyyah, the controversial medieval scholar whose teachings had been considered heterodox and misguided on a number of important points by the vast majority of Sunni Muslim scholars up to that point in history.

Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab's teacher Abdallah ibn Ibrahim ibn Sayf introduced the young man to Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi in Medina who belonged to the Naqshbandi order of Sufism and recommended him as a student. Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and al-Sindhi became close and Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab stayed with him for some time. Muhammad Hayya taught Mohammad Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab to reject popular religious practices associated with walis and their tombs that resembles Wahhabi teachings. Following his early education in Medina, Ibn Abdul Wahhab traveled outside of the peninsula, venturing first to Basra. After his return home, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to attract followers, including the ruler of'Uyayna, Uthman ibn Mu'ammar. With Ibn Mu'ammar, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab came to an agreement to support Ibn Mu'ammar's political ambitions to expand his rule "over Najd and beyond", in exchange for the ruler's support for Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's religious teachings. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to implement some of his ideas for reform.

First, he persuaded Ibn Mu'ammar to help him level the grave of Zayd ibn al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad, whose grave was revered by locals. Secondly, he ordered the cutting down of trees considered sacred by locals, cutting down "the most glorified of all of the trees" himself. Third, he organised the stoning of a woman; these actions gained the attention of Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr of the tribe of Bani Khalid, the chief of Al-Hasa and Qatif, who held substantial influence in Najd. Ibn Ghurayr threatened Ibn Mu'ammar with denying him the ability to collect a land tax for some properties that Ibn Mu'ammar owned in Al-Hasa if he did not kill or drive away Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab. Ibn Mu'ammar forced Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to leave. Upon his expulsion from'Uyayna, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was invited to settle in neighboring Diriyah by its ruler Muhammad bin Saud. After some time in Diriyah, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab concluded his second and more successful agreement with a ruler. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and Muh

Bellowhead

Bellowhead was an English contemporary folk band, active from 2004 to 2016. The eleven-piece act played traditional dance tunes, folk songs and shanties, with arrangements drawing inspiration from a wide diversity of musical styles and influences; the band included a four-piece brass section. Bellowhead's bandmembers played more than 20 instruments between them, their third album, Hedonism, is the highest selling independently released folk album of all time, having sold over 60,000 copies and earning the band a silver disk. The band parted after their final gig at Oxford Town Hall in May 2016; the idea for the band came to Boden while the duo were in a traffic jam on tour. The longer they sat in traffic, the more friends they thought to invite to join; this led to the formation of a ten-piece band, with Benji Kirkpatrick, Rachael McShane, Paul Sartin, Pete Flood, Brendan Kelly, Justin Thurgur, Andy Mellon and Giles Lewin completing the initial line-up. Before they had time to rehearse, the fledgling band were invited to play the first Oxford Folk Festival in April 2004, earning critical approval.

In 2004, the band independently released a five-track EP, publicised as "English World Music", called E. P. Onymous, which generated positive reviews. In 2006 Gideon Juckes joined the band playing the tuba, they released their first full-length album, featuring material from the Napoleonic Wars, the American minstrel movement and sea-shanties from Brazil. Towards the end of 2007 they became Artists in Residence at the Southbank Centre, making their inaugural appearance with a Christmas Revels event. In 2008 Bellowhead released their second album Matachin, a live performance at the Proms followed, broadcast live on BBC Four and BBC Radio 3. Sam Sweeney joined the band on bagpipes following the departure of Giles Lewin; the following year in August the band were approached about recording music for a 20th anniversary episode of The Simpsons. In 2010, Ed Neuhauser replaced Gideon Juckes on sousaphone. In October 2010, Bellowhead released their third studio album, recorded in Abbey Road Studios; the album was produced by John Leckie.

In honour of the new album, the band developed a new ale named "Hedonism," with several band members being involved in the brewing process. Broadcast from April 2011, The Archers spin-off Ambridge Extra featured a revised version of Archers theme tune "Barwick Green," arranged and performed by Bellowhead. In May 2011, at the 02 Academy in Bournemouth, the band recorded a DVD, Hedonism Live, released in late November; the band recorded a new album, Broadside, in March 2012 at Rockfield Studios with John Leckie, released mid-October 2012. The album generated positive reviews and went straight to number 16 in the UK official album charts and number 1 in the UK independent album charts. In early 2012 the band undertook a European tour and in November 2012 toured the UK. In early 2013 the band toured the Netherlands and Belgium. In October 2013 they recorded a jingle for the flagship BBC Radio 2 folk music show The Folk Show with Mark Radcliffe. During 2013 they recorded a double A-sided single, Christmas Bells / Jingle Bells, released on 1 December in digital-only format.

In 2014 the band celebrated ten years performing together with two'Bel10whead' performances in April: Bridgewater Hall and the Royal Albert Hall. A new studio album, followed, released on 30 June 2014 by Island Records. Bellowhead headlined the concert in July 2015 to celebrate the opening of the refurbished Cardigan Castle; the band announced their intention to go their separate ways following a decision by Jon Boden to step down as frontman. Bellowhead played their final gig at Oxford Town Hall the venue for their first concert twelve years earlier, on 1 May 2016. Jon Boden - lead vocals, tambourine, shaky egg, thunder tube, whistle John Spiers - melodeons, Anglo concertina, kazoo, tambourine Benji Kirkpatrick - guitar, mandolin, tenor banjo, kazoo Rachael McShane - cello, kazoo, vocals Paul Sartin - fiddle, slide whistle, vocals Giles Lewin - fiddle, bagpipes Sam Sweeney - fiddle, English bagpipes, vocals, whistle Pete Flood - percussion, vocals Gideon Juckes - sousaphone, tuba Ed Neuhauser - sousaphone, tuba, vocals Brendan Kelly - saxophone, bass clarinet, vocals Justin Thurgur - trombone, vocals Andy Mellon - trumpet, vocals Bellowhead Live: The Farewell Tour New York Girls Cold Blows The Wind 10,000 Miles Away Roll The Woodpile Down Betsy Baker Christmas Bells / Jingle Bells Gosport Nancy Let Her Run / I Want To See The Bright Lights Tonight Roll Alabama E.

P. Onymous Live at Shepherds Bush Empire Hedonism Live Bellowhead Live: The Farewell Tour Umbrellowhead Pandemonium - The Essential Bellowhead The BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards are an annual awards ceremony held to celebrate achievement among folk artists that year. During their 12 years together, Bellowhead won eight of these awards, including Best Live Act on five occasions. Bellowhead website Bellowhead forum Bellowhead Interview - Folk Radio UK Official YouTube Channel

Jana Stump

Jana A. Shelfer is an American Paralympic wheelchair basketball player, she has won a bronze medal at the 1996 Summer Paralympics and a gold medal at the 2004 Summer Paralympics. Stump was raised in Belleville, Kansas to parents Jerry and Kathleen. In 1990, on the last day of her freshman year, she became paralyzed after a seat belt broke and threw her into the backseat. After returning to high school in a wheelchair, she was crowned Young Woman of the Year at 18 years old. After graduating from Belleville High School, she accepted a basketball scholarship at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, she was a member of Delta Gamma. During the 1995–96 season, she was named to the United States women's national wheelchair basketball team to compete at the 1996 Summer Paralympics; as the youngest player on the roster, she helped. Upon her return, Stump was named to the NCAA First All–Tournament Team and awarded the Most Improved Player Award, she was awarded the Pamela Borelli and Family Leadership Achievement Award.

The next year, she received the Fourth Year Award before graduating. In 2004, she was named to the United States women's national wheelchair basketball team that won a gold medal at the 2004 Summer Paralympics. With her broadcasting degree, Stump moved to Orlando to work in media relations for Walt Disney World and at WMFE-FM. Paralympic profile

When Love Calls Your Name

"When Love Calls Your Name" is a song written by Richard Cocciante and Roxanne Seeman. It was recorded and released by Elhaida Dani as a single, in connection with The Voice of Italy television show. Dani was a contestant on the team of Coach; the song was part of the voting process. Dani performed "When Love Calls Your Name" during the finale episode of The Voice of Italy, May 30, 2013. Upon being announced that Dani won the contest, she performed the song again, along with Cocciante. On July 2, 2013, Universal Music Italia released Dani's 7-song EP, including both the studio single recording and the live performance version of "When Love Calls Your Name". Zendee Rose Tenerefe, aka Zendee, a Filipina singer who rose to prominence after a video of her singing a karaoke version of Whitney Houston's "I Will Always Love You" was put on YouTube. Recorded "When Love Calls Your Name". "When Love Calls Your Name" is included on Zendee's album "Z", released on August 7, 2015 by MCA Music Universal Philippines

Oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy

Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys consist of a metal matrix with small oxide particles dispersed within it. They are used for heat exchanger tubing. Alloys of nickel are the most common but work is being done on iron aluminum alloys. ODS steels are used in nuclear applications. ODS materials are used on space crafts as a layer designed to protect the vehicle during re-entry into the atmosphere. Noble metal alloy ODS materials, for example, platinum-based alloys, are used in glass production; when it comes to re-entry at hypersonic speeds, the properties of gases change dramatically. Shock waves that can cause serious damage on any structure are created. At these speeds and temperatures, oxygen becomes aggressive. Oxide dispersion strengthening is based on incoherency of the oxide particles within the lattice of the material; the oxide particles decrease movement of dislocations within the material and in turn prevent creep. Since the oxide particles are incoherent, dislocations can only overcome the particles by climb.

Whereas, if the particles were semi-coherent or coherent with the lattice, the dislocations can shear the particles. Climb is less energetically favourable than shearing and therefore stops dislocation movement more effectively. Climb can occur either at the particle-dislocation interface or by overcoming multiple particles at once. General climb requires less energy and therefore is the common climb mechanism; the presence of incoherent particles introduces a threshold stress, since an additional stress will have to be applied for the dislocations to move past the oxides by climb. Moreover, dislocation after overcoming particle by climb can still remain pinned at the particle-matrix interface with an attractive phenomenon called interfacial pinning which further requires additional threshold stress to detach a dislocation out of this pinning, which must be overcome for the plastic deformation to occur; the following equations represent the strain rate and stress as a result of the introduction of oxides in the material.

Strain Rate: ϵ. = A ′ n Threshold Shear Stress: τ t h = α 2 G b l The creep properties of ODS steels are dependent on the characteristics of the nano-oxides particles which exist in the metal matrix the ability of these particles to prevent dislocation motion as well as the size and distribution of the particles. Hoelzer and coworkers have shown that an alloy containing a homogeneous dispersion of 1-5 nm Y2Ti2O7 nanoclusters has superior creep properties to an alloy with a heterogeneous dispersion of 5-20 nm nanoclusters of the same composition. In the pursuit of new ODS steels it is important to focus on processes that allow for the formation of a dense homogeneous dispersion of small nanoclusters. ODS steels are produced through ball-milling an oxide of interest with pre-alloyed metal powders followed by compression and sintering of the material, it is believed that the nano-oxides enter into solid solution with the metal during ball-milling and subsequently precipitate during the thermal treatment to yield the ODS steel.

This process seems simple but many parameters need to be controlled to produce a well made alloy. Work by Leseigneur and coworkers has been done to control some of these parameters in order to get more consistent and better microstructures in ODS steels. In this two step method the oxide is ball-milled for longer periods of time to ensure a homogeneous solid solution of the oxide in the metal matrix; the powder is annealed at higher temperatures to begin a controlled nucleation of the nano-oxide clusters. The powder is again compressed and sintered to yield the final material. Advantages: Can be machined, formed, cut with available processes. Develops a protective oxide layer, self-healing; this oxide layer has a high emission coefficient. Allows the design of thin-walled structures. Resistant to harsh weather conditions in the troposphere. Low maintenance cost. Low material cost. Disadvantages: It has a higher expansion coefficient than other materials, causing higher thermal stresses. Higher density.

Lower maximum allowable temperature. Superalloy

Gu Xiong (artist)

Gu Xiong is a Canadian contemporary artist. Gu Xiong was born 1953 in Chongqing, China. At the age of 18, during the Chinese cultural revolution, Xiong was sent to live in the countryside where he sketched scenes of rural life, he received a Bachelor of Fine Arts and a Master of Fine Arts degree from the Sichuan Fine Arts Institute. In 1986, he attended an artist residency at the Banff Centre for the Arts in Alberta Canada, becoming the first artist from the People's Republic of China to do so. After returning to China, he was a part of the 1989 China Avant-Garde exhibition, shut down by the Chinese police a few hours after it opened, four months before Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Xiong immigrated from China to Vancouver Canada in 1989. Xiong lives in Vancouver. Xiong is a multidisciplinary artist who works in media as diverse as painting, photography, performance and bronze sculpture, he is known for his paintings and installation works. In Interior View-- Fenced Wall, performed in 1989 at the China Avant-garde exhibition in Beijing, he painted images of a fence on paper and onto his clothing and performed with his face painted in pantomime-style.

He has done numerous titled works on paper. Xiong's work is included in the permanent collection of the National Gallery of Canada, the Vancouver Art Gallery, the Surrey Art Gallery and the Burnaby Art Gallery