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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by 87–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor, most notably at Ghadir Khumm. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; the adherents of Sunni Islam are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah or ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah.

Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam", though some scholars view this translation as inappropriate. The Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus, form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunni Islam is not a coherent line of tradition, but a consolidation of doctrines and positions worked out over time in discussions and writings. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from the word sunnah, meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition". In Arabic, the word is an adjective meaning "pertaining to the Sunnah".

The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.

The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."

Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger br

Camille Roqueplan

Camille Joseph Etienne Roqueplan was a French Romantic painter of landscapes and historical scenes. From an early age, he displayed an aptitude for drawing, would correct his classmates. Around the age of eighteen, he began to take painting lessons. Oddly enough, when his father encouraged him to take up art as a profession, Camille hesitated because he wanted it to remain a pleasant pastime, not become a job. Soon, the lessons he felt forced to take caused he took up the study of medicine, he got as far as the anatomy classes, which he found unappealing, failed the examination. He became a clerk in the Ministry of Finance, where his father worked, but this was short-lived, he decided studying landscape and figure drawing with some local artists. Following their advice, he found a position in the studios of Abel de Pujol at the École des Beaux-arts. One day, Pujol showed him a painting that he admired so much he despaired of being able to do as well and became discouraged enough to quit, it was only with great difficulty.

After leaving Pujol, he studied with Antoine Gros, who gave him little encouragement, or attention, but he remained with Gros for three years because he was under less stress there. After competing for the Prix de Rome, he decided to strike out on his own. At that time, he concentrated on landscape painting, which inspired him to take a trip to the Dauphiné. Many of his works are set there. Upon his return to Paris, he held his first exhibit at the Salon in 1822 winning a gold medal there. Despite his bad experiences as a student, he became a teacher at the École himself. Among his best-known students were Charles-Théodore Frère, Prosper Marilhat, Marie-Alexandre Alophe, Eugène Lami, Constant Troyon and Marie-Élisabeth Blavot. In the 1830s, he produced historical paintings inspired by the novels of Walter Scott and painted battle-scenes at Versailles. In 1841, he created decorations for the ceiling of the library at the Palais du Luxembourg. From 1843, he returned to landscape painting and lived in the Pyrenees for several years for health reasons, where he produced scenes of peasant life.

His brother Nestor was theatrical director. Germain Hédiard, Camille Roqueplan, L'Artiste My Daily Art Display: Detailed biographical information which may include original research. ArtNet: more works by Roqueplan. Camille Roqueplan @ the Base Joconde Théophile Gautier: Camille Roqueplan. In: Histoire du romantisme. G. Charpentier et Cie, libraires-editeures, 1874 Online

Charles Rabou

Charles Félix Henri Rabou was a 19th-century French writer and journalist. The son of a military sub-intendant, he studied at the collège Henri IV before attending law classes at the Faculty of Dijon. Back in Paris with his degree in law, he turned away from the bar in favor of literature. First a journalist for La Quotidienne, Le Messager des Chambres, Le Nouvelliste, le Journal de Paris, La Charte de 1830, he held political and literary chronicles in 1832 launched La Cour d'Assise, to be published until 1834. Director of the prestigious Revue de Paris which he helped establish, he befriended Honoré de Balzac whose novels he published in the pages of his paper. Mutual trust was such that Balzac entrusted him with the task to complete some unfinished novels after his death: Le Député d'Arcis, Le Comte de Sallenauve, La Famille Beauvisage, Les Petits Bourgeois, a task Rabou performed but, coldly greeted by the critics, he was falsely accused of being Balzac's ghostwriter. Charles Rabou continued to produce great works of literature.

1832: Contes bruns: Sara la danseuse Tobias Guarnerius Les Regrets Le Ministère public 1831: Le Mannequin 1839: Les Tribulations et métamorphoses posthumes de maître Fabricius, peintre liégeois 1840: Louison d'Arquien 1842: Le Capitaine Lambert 1845: La Reine d'un jour 1846: Madame de Chaumergis, digest online 1845: L'Allée des veuves 1849: Le Cabinet noir. Les Frères de la mort 1857: La Fille sanglante 1858: Le Marquis de Vulpiano 1860: Les Grands danseurs du Roi 1854: Scènes de la vie politique. Le Député d'Arcis 1854: Le Comte de Sallenauve 1855: La Famille Beauvisage 1855: Les Petits bourgeois, scènes de la vie parisienne 1860: La Grande Armée Charles Rabou on wikisource Jacques Goimard et Roland Stragliati, Histoires de fantômes, éd. Presses Pocket, 1977 Jacques Goimard et Roland Stragliati, La Grande Anthologie du fantastique, t.2, éd. Omnibus, 1996 Florian Balduc,Fantaisies Hoffmaniennes, Editions Otrante, 2016