Mark Blundell is a British racing driver who competed in Formula One for 4 seasons, sports cars, CART. Most notably, he won the 1992 24 Hours of Le Mans, he was a Formula One presenter for the British broadcaster ITV until the end of the 2008 season when the TV broadcasting rights switched to the BBC. Blundell will return to the track in 2019, driving in the Kwik Fit British Touring Car Championship for the Trade Price Cars team. Blundell was born in London, he first dabbled in motor racing at the age of 14. At the age of 17 he made the switch to four wheels in Britain's Formula Ford. In his first season he placed second in both British Junior Formula Ford Championships; the following year, Mark won both Snetterton FF1600 crowns. The next year, he began racing in the more powerful FF2000 category, won the BBC Grandstand series, he returned to FF1600 for the European Championship racing, taking pole, finishing fourth overall. In 1986 he won another championship in this time the European title. At this point in his career, Blundell moved on to international racing and started racing in Formula 3000.
In this time, he started a few races at Formula Three for TOM'S-Toyota. 1988 meant a switch to the works Lola team in F3000. Blundell completed the season in sixth place; the following year, he made a deal with the sports car team at Nissan. He managed a test drive with one of the top teams in Formula One – Williams. By 1990, Blundell had abandoned F3000 to concentrate on sports cars; that same year, he earned pole position at the prestigious Le Mans 24 Hours race driving a Nissan R90CK. Blundell became the youngest driver to achieve pole position at the Le Mans 24 Hours, with a 6.040-second margin ahead of second place. The year 1991 marked Blundell's transition into Formula One, his debut season saw a sixth place in Belgium with the Brabham Yamaha team. He maintained his testing deal with Williams; the following season however, he was not retained by the cash-strapped Brabham team, was left without a race seat in Formula One. He did, sign a testing deal with McLaren. Whilst being a full-time tester for McLaren, he continued to race sports cars.
That year, with the factory Peugeot outfit, he won the Le Mans 24 Hours. 1993 saw the return of Mark Blundell to the pinnacle of motorsport. A drive with Ligier netted him his first two podium finishes in South Germany, he finished tenth in the final World Championship standings. It was a one-year deal with Ligier, in 1994 he signed with Tyrrell, it was not as successful a year as'93, Blundell managed only one podium finish in the 1994 Spanish Grand Prix, the last Formula One podium finish for Tyrrell. At the end of the season, owing to lack of sponsorship, Tyrrell released him; this would prove to be a blessing in disguise, as the retirement of Nigel Mansell meant a return to McLaren for Blundell, this time, in a race seat. Teamed with future two-time world champion Mika Häkkinen, Blundell recorded five points finishes and once again took tenth in the final standings. 1995 saw continued success in sports cars with a fourth place showing in Le Mans, but was Mark Blundell's final year in Formula One, as the signing of David Coulthard by McLaren meant that Mark would have to find a job somewhere else.
Blundell achieved 3 podiums, scored a total of 32 championship points. Out of Formula One, Blundell moved to the U. S. and joined the CART racing team PacWest Racing, with fellow former Formula One driver Maurício Gugelmin of Brazil alongside. A crash in the early stages of the season in Rio resulting in a broken foot and ankle forced Blundell to miss several races. Despite this, Mark was third in the rookie standings with three top six finishes in the U. S. 500, Detroit Grand Prix, Michigan International Speedway races. 1997 was a breakout year. Blundell came within one corner of winning the Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix before running out of fuel, an event he described at the time as the worst disappointment of his career. In the next race, he powered past Gil de Ferran on the final straight to win the Grand Prix of Portland by 0.027 seconds. Blundell recorded further race victories in Toronto and Fontana en route to sixth in the championship; that year he was named British Driver of the Year by Autosport magazine.
1998 was not a year for the books, a massive crash early in 1999 left him to languish at the bottom of the table. He returned to PacWest for a final season in 2000. However, another disappointing season – 18 pts, 21st overall – lead to a mutual split with PacWest racing. Blundell again crossed the Atlantic to focus on his sports car racing, he failed to finish Le Mans with the MG Lola team, though his teammates impressed. Off-track, Blundell joined ITV television in Britain as an analyst for the 2002 Formula One season; this position lasted until the end of the 2008 Formula One season when ITV lost coverage to the BBC. Since 2001, Blundell's racing involvement has declined, with only the occasional event, he did test a Dale Coyne Champ Car to help prepare Darren Manning for a one-off in the first CART race in Britain at Rockingham, raced in the British round of the World Rally Championship. 2003 saw great success in sports cars. Along with Johnny Herbert and David Brabham, he finished second at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, completing a 1–2 sweep by Bentley.
He finished third at the 12 Hours of Sebring, finishing top among the Bentleys. Blundell spends time running a management company, MB Partners, who handle the contracts of such people as McLaren test driver Gary Paffett and British Formula 3 champion and Indycar driver Mike Conway; the name refers to the fact
1929 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1929 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 7th Grand Prix of Endurance that took place at the Circuit de la Sarthe on 15 and 16 June 1929. In the most dominant display in the race to date, Bentley achieved a comprehensive victory taking the first four places on distance. Bentley director Woolf Barnato repeated his victory of the previous year, co-driven this time by fellow Bentley Boy Sir Henry “Tim” Birkin, they had led from start to finish, setting a new distance lap record. The race was quiet, without serious incident, aside from a fuel fire burning Stutz driver Édouard Brisson. Half of the reduced field had retired by dawn on the Sunday and the Bentley team was able to stage a formation finish for its four finishers; the international regulations remained unchanged. However, for its part, the Automobile Club de l'Ouest decreed that 2-seater cars could now be no bigger than 1000cc and the 3-seat dispensation for 1500cc cars was removed after two years; this year Shell petrol was the official fuel for all cars.
Residents of southern Le Mans city were successful in petitioning the council. A new by-pass road, the Rue de Circuit, was built 600 metres ahead of the Pontlieue hairpin at the edge of the city, it reduced the track length by 922 metres from 10.73 km to 10.15 km. The road surface experiments continued on the track; the left-hand turn approaching Arnage was re-surfaced with bricks and named Indianapolis, after the famous American “Brickyard”. A new spectator area was opened between the two corners. Many roadside trees had their trunks painted white for visibility and all the corners were signposted; the media centre was enlarged to include six phone booths and a telegraph table. The global recession was hitting the auto-industry hard and only 26 cars made it to the start-line. For the first time French cars were in the minority with none in line for outright distance honours, it became a three-nation entry list with cars only from Great Britain and the United States. In lieu of a lack of direct manufacturer support, more privateer entries arrived.
Supercharged engines were popular with ten cars having ‘blown’ engines. Dunlop Tyres now shod all the cars in the field. Of the sixteen places open in the Biennial Cup final, thirteen were taken up. Note: The first number is the number of entries, the second the number who started. Belying its precarious financial position, defending winners Bentley arrived with a strong five-car entry, led by the new Speed Six sport version of its 6½-litre tourer; the engine was developed by Harry Weslake using a magnesium-alloy crankcase to reduce weight. It get to 185 kp/h; the previous year’s winner, company director, Woolf Barnato would drive it with Henry “Tim” Birkin. Another Le Mans winner, Dudley Benjafield, was slated to drive the car, but he gave his place to Birkin believing he would have a better chance of winning; the remaining four cars were the reliable 4½-litre tourers, the chassis strengthened after the issues from the previous year. They were assigned to more of the “Bentley Boys”: Frank Clement / Jean Chassagne, Benjafield with Baron André d’Erlanger and Glen Kidston/Jack Dunfee.
The fourth car, of Earl Howe/Bernard Rubin, had only a week earlier been used in a 24-hour record-breaking attempt at Montlhéry by Mary Petre and her husband Victor Bruce. The experienced driving squad was supported by Bertie Kensington-Moir, back from Lagonda as team manager, Walter Hassan as lead mechanic. After the close-fought duel the previous year, Stutz returned with three cars; the new Model M Blackhawk had a 5.3-litre engine capable of 155 bhp through a four-speed gearbox. The cars were entered by their European dealerships. British agent Warwick Wright had George Eyston/Dick Watney as drivers. Automobiles Elite, of Paris, hired Guy Philippe de Rothschild, their car was fitted with an optional Roots-supercharger. Like Stutz, Du Pont was in the American luxury car market; the new Model G had a big 5.3-litre Continental sidevalve engine. However this was a two-seater tourer, refused entry by the ACO under its new maximum engine-size rule. So, the company fashioned four four-seater speedster models, however only one of the two entries was ready in time for the race.
It would be driven by the first Americans at Le Mans -- Alfredo Luis Miranda. Once again, the Grand Garage St Didier entered two of their Chryslers; the ‘75’ was the 1929 model, driven by team regular Henri Stoffel, this time along with French GP racer Robert Benoist. The ` 77' manned by Cyril de Vere and Marcel Mongin. Invicta was an English firm founded in 1919. Offering a standard design in three wheelbase lengths, the 1928 LC version featured the current 4.5-litre Meadows engine that put out 100 bhp. Cecil Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes, a major in the Royal Marines, put in a privateer entry for the race. Lea-Francis was an English firm manufacturing since 1920; the S-Type had arrived in 1927, with the Meadows 1.5-litre engine used in several English sports cars. Once fitted with a supercharger it could reach 145 kp/h and became popular with privateer drivers and Kaye Don won the RAC Tourist Trophy handicap. Enthused by this, gentleman racer Ken Peacock entered a car with Lea-Francis distributor Sammy Newsome as his co-pilot.
The Lagonda works team had had a disappointing season in 1928, with only one finish from seven entries in three races. However, a new
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA. The family business that preceded the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Émile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. Armand Peugeot built the company's first car, an unreliable steam tricycle, in collaboration with Léon Serpollet in 1889. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot, in 1896; the Peugeot company and family are from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot museum there. In February 2014, the shareholders agreed to a recapitalisation plan for Groupe PSA, in which Dongfeng Motors and the French government each bought a 14% stake in the company. Peugeot has received many international awards for its vehicles, including five European Car of the Year awards. In 2013 and 2014, Peugeot ranked the second lowest for average CO2 emissions among generalist brands in Europe, the Renault car maker group being ranked first, with 114.9g CO2/km.
Peugeot is known as a reliable brand, citing how its 1950s and 1960s models are still running in Africa and Cuba in the 2010s, where Peugeot is called "the lion". Peugeot has been involved in motor sport for more than a century. Peugeot Sport won the World Rally Championship five times, the Dakar Rally seven times, the 24 Hours of Le Mans three times, the World Endurance Championship twice, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup twice surpassing Toyota and Audi and the Intercontinental Rally Challenge Championship three times. During the last year, Peugeot Sport has surpassed the record set in the ascent to Pikes Peak with the Peugeot 208 T16 driven by Sébastien Loeb; the Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, began in the manufacturing business in the 19th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee and salt grinders; the company's entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire wheels, bicycles.
Armand Peugeot introduced his "Le Grand Bi" penny-farthing in 1882, along with a range of other bicycles. The company's logo a lion walking on an arrow, symbolized the speed and flexibility of the Peugeot saw blades; the car company and bike company parted ways in 1926 but Peugeot bicycles continued to be built until recently. Armand Peugeot became interested in the automobile early on and, after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler and others, was convinced of its viability; the first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889. Steam power required lengthy warmup times. In 1890, after meeting Daimler and Émile Levassor, steam was abandoned in favour of a four-wheeled car with a petrol-fuelled internal combustion engine built by Panhard under Daimler licence; the car was more sophisticated than many of its contemporaries, with a three-point suspension and a sliding-gear transmission. An example was sold to the young Alberto Santos-Dumont. More cars followed, 29 being built in 1892, 40 in 1894, 72 in 1895, 156 in 1898, 300 in 1899.
These early models were given "type" numbers. Peugeot became the first manufacturer to fit rubber tyres to a petrol-powered car. Peugeot was an early pioneer in motor racing, with Albert Lemaître winning the world's first motor race, the Paris–Rouen, in a 3 hp Peugeot. Five Peugeots qualified for the main event, all finished. Lemaître finished 3 min 30 sec behind the Comte de Dion whose steam-powered car was ineligible for the official competition. Three Peugeots were entered in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris, where they were beaten by Panhard's car (despite an average speed of 20.8 km/h and taking the 31,500 franc prize. This marked the debut of Michelin pneumatic tyres in racing on a Peugeot; the vehicles were still much horseless carriages in appearance and were steered by a tiller. In 1896, the first Peugeot engines were built. Designed by Rigoulot, the first engine was an 8 hp horizontal twin fitted to the back of the Type 15, it served as the basis of a nearly exact copy produced by Rochet-Schneider.
Further improvements followed: the engine moved to the front on the Type 48 and was soon under a bonnet at the front of the car, instead of hidden underneath. In 1896, Armand Peugeot broke away from Les Fils de Peugeot Frères to form his own company, Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot, building a new factory at Audincourt to focus on cars. In 1899, sales hit 300; the same year, Lemaître won the Nice-Castellane-Nice Rally in a special 5,850 cc 20 hp racer. At the 1901 Paris Salon, Peugeot debuted a tiny shaft-driven 652 cc 5 hp one-cylinder, dubbed "Bébé", shed its conservative image, becoming a style leader. After placing 19th in the 1902 Paris-Vienna Rally with a 50 hp 11,322 cc racer, failing to finish with two similar cars, Peugeot quit racing. In 1898, Peugeot Motocycles presents at the Paris Motorshow the first motorcycle equipped with a Dion-Bouton motor. Peugeot Motocycles remains the oldest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Peugeot added motorcycles to it
1932 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1932 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 10th Grand Prix of Endurance, took place on 18 and 19 June 1932. This race saw the shortening of the circuit to nearly 13.5 km following the creation of a new permanent race track between the pit stretch and Mulsanne, creating the famed Dunlop Curve and Tetre Rouge. This change was made to keep the race out of the suburbs of Le Mans; the two Dunlop Bridges were first seen at this race. Fastest Lap – #10 Soc. Anon. Alfa Romeo – 5:41 Distance – 2954.038 km Average Speed – 123.084 km/h 8th Bienniel Cup – #21 Aston Martin Ltd. Index of Performance – #8 Raymond Sommer
1933 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1933 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 11th Grand Prix of Endurance, took place on 17 and 18 June 1933. The margin of victory for this race was estimated at being 9.5 seconds difference, or 400 meters in terms of overall distance. Car was refuelled too soon. Failed to cover sufficient distance Fastest Lap – #11 Soc. Anon. Alfa Romeo – 5:31.4 Distance – 3144.038 km Average Speed – 131.001 km/h 9th Biennial Cup – #11 Soc. Anon. Alfa Romeo Index of Performance – #30 Riley
V6 PRV engine
The V6 PRV engine is an automobile petrol V6 engine, developed jointly by Peugeot and Volvo Cars – and sold from 1974 to 1998. It was replaced after 1994 by another joint PSA-Renault design, known as the ES engine at PSA and the L engine at Renault, it is manufactured by the company "Française de Mécanique" for PSA, Renault and Volvo. In 1966, Peugeot and Renault entered a cooperative agreement to manufacture common components; the first joint subsidiary, La Française de Mécanique was launched in 1969. The FM factory was built in Douvrin near Lens in northern France; the PRV engines are sometimes referred to as "Douvrin" engines, though that name is more applied to a family of straight-fours produced at the same time. In 1971, Volvo joined Peugeot and Renault in the creation of the PRV company, a public limited company in which each of the three manufacturers owned an equal portion; the company planned to build V8 engines, although these were scrapped in favor of a smaller and more fuel-efficient V6.
The PRV engine could be seen as a V8 with two missing cylinders, having a 90 degree angle between cylinder banks, rather than the customary 60, but with crankpins being 120 degrees apart. The Maserati V6 of the Citroën SM followed a remarkably similar pattern of development; the 1973 energy crisis, taxes levied against engine displacement greater than 2.8 litres made large V8 engines somewhat undesirable, expanded the market for smaller displacement engines. Additionally, Renault needed a V6 engine to fit in its new model, the Renault 30. Renault's internal designation for the PRV was Z-Type. Machinery for assembling the engines arrived at Douvrin in early June 1973, buildings for producing the engines were finished in January 1974; the first PRV engines were introduced on 3 October 1974 in the Volvo 264. Adoption was swift, the PRV V6 had been sold in at least five different models by the end of 1975. In 1984, the first commercially available turbocharged; this was the first to be even-fire with split crankpins, was the first of the second generation, indeed EFI engine of any sort.
Turbocharged versions went on to be used in the Renault Alpine GTA V6 Turbo, Renault Alpine A610, Renault Safrane Bi-turbo – both with 2,963 cubic centimetres low compression. Aspirated 2,963 cubic centimetres and 2,975 cubic centimetres versions of both low- and high-compression 3-litre engines appeared in a number of Peugeot, Citroën and Renault cars until 1997. While Renault were working forced induction into the PRV, Peugeot and Citroën developed their own 24-valve engines as an option in the 605 and XM respectively; the compression remained the same as the Renault 12v, but the pistons differed, as did some of the timing gear, the heads were re-engineered to allow easier maintenance. This engine was however expensive, suffered cam wear problems; this was due to the exhaust valves sharing a single lobe. This was at least solved by the use of ceramic followers as one of a succession of recalls. Meanwhile, French supercar manufacturer Venturi had been developing their own versions of the PRV.
The most powerful versions they built were in the Atlantique 300 at 207 kilowatts from a single turbocharged 3.0 L 12v, they raced at the 24 Hours of Le Mans with the 600LM with a twin turbocharged 24v 3.0-litre, pushing out over 450 kilowatts in race spec, the road-going spin-off, the 400GT managed 300 kilowatts. This used the low compression bottom end common to the Renault turbo engines, coupled to 24-valve cylinder heads with bespoke rockers and tappets. Peugeot too allowed a small group of engineers to create a team for endurance racing, after a few years the team grew to be called WM Peugeot; the ultimate version of the car used a low compression 3.0-litre bottom end coupled to bespoke twin-cam heads. It is the only DOHC PRV; this car still holds the top speed record at 24 Hours of Le Mans set in 1988. By taping over the engine cooling intakes to improve aerodynamics, the team managed to push the car to 407 kilometres per hour on the 5 kilometres straight before the engine was destroyed.
Volvo began to withdraw from the PRV consortium in the late 1980s, shifting its powerplant reliance onto in-house inline engines. Peugeot and Citroën continued using the PRV until 1997. After producing 970,315 units, production of the PRV V6 was stopped on 15 June 1998; the original engineering work done on the V8 engine can still be seen in the resulting V6 engine: its cylinder banks are arranged at 90°, instead of the much more common 60°. V8 engines nearly universally feature 90° configurations, because this allows for a natural firing order. V6 engines, on the other hand, produce firing intervals between cylinders when their two banks of cylinders are arranged at 60°. 90-degree V6 engines, like the PRV, experience uneven firing, which can be addressed using split crankshaft journals. 90° V6 engines are shorter and wider than 60° engines, allowing lower engine bay hood/bonnet profiles. First-generation PRV engines featured uneven firing order. Second generation PRV engines featured split crankshaft journals to create evenly spaced ignition events.
Other similar design examples are the odd-fire and even-fire Buick V6 and the Maserati V6 seen in the Citroën SM. Z6W-A 700: 2849 cc carbur
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is considered one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world and has been called the "Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency"; the event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport. The race is organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest and is held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, which contains a mix of closed public roads and dedicated sections of racing track, in which racing teams must balance the demands of speed with the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without mechanical failure. Of the 60 cars which qualified for the 2018 race, 41 cars ran the full duration. Since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship; because of the decision to run a World Endurance Championship super-season in the period May 2018 to June 2019, the 24 Hours of Le Mans will be run twice in the same season: it will be both the second and the last round of the season.
In 2011 it was a part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, it formed a part of the World Sportscar Championship from 1953 until that series' final season in 1992. Over time, Le Mans has influenced events that have sprung up all around the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at locations such as Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Bathurst; the American Le Mans Series and Europe's Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. Other races include the Le Mans Classic, a race for historic Le Mans race cars from years' past held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a motorcycle version of the race, held on the shortened Bugatti version of the same circuit, a kart race, a truck race, a parody race 24 Hours of LeMons; the 2019 24 Hours of Le Mans will be held on June 15–16 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test.
Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines, the 24 Hours of Le Mans would instead concentrate on the ability of manufacturers to build sporty yet reliable cars. This encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible. At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics and stability at high speeds. While this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability; the oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of fuel each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduce time spent during pit stops.
Such technological innovations have had a trickle-down effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop faster road cars in order to develop them into faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have been changed to their benefit and to further push efficiency; the race is held in June, leading at times to hot conditions for drivers in closed vehicles with poor ventilation. The race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors cover distances well over 5,000 km; the record is 2010's 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding mechanical damage, as well as managing the cars' consumables fuel and braking materials, it tests endurance, with drivers racing for over two hours before a relief driver can take over during a pit stop while they eat and rest.
Current regulations mandate. Competing teams race in groups called "classes", or cars of similar specification, while competing for outright placing amongst all classes; the race showcased cars as they were sold to the general public called "Sports Cars", in contrast with the specialised racing cars used in Grand Prix motor racing. Over time, the competing vehicles evolved away from their publicly available road car roots, today the race is made of two overall classes: prototypes, Grand Touring cars; these are further broken down into 2 sub-classes each, constructors' prototypes, privateer prototypes and 2 subclasses of GT cars. Competing teams have had a wide variety of organization, ranging from competition departments of road car manufacturers to professional motor racing teams to amateur teams; the race has spent long periods as a round of the World S