Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Among other things, they contain the worlds earliest known system of flush toilets. With a number of houses having both a washing platform and a dedicated toilet / waste disposal hole. The toilet holes would be flushed by emptying a jar of water, drawn from the central well, through a clay brick pipe and into a shared brick drain. The soakpits would be emptied of their solid matter, possibly to be used as fertiliser. Most houses had private wells, city walls functioned as a barrier against floods. In the drainage systems, drains from houses were connected to wider public drains, Mohenjo-daro, located in Sindh, Pakistan is one of the best excavated and studied settlements from this civilization. The Great Bath might be the first of its kind in the pre-historic period and this ancient town had more than 700 wells, and most houses in Mohenjo-Daro had at least one private well. Dholavira, located in Gujarat, had a series of water storing tanks and step wells, dholavira had at least five baths, the size of one is comparable with the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro.
Harappa Harappan architecture History of water supply and sanitation Sanitation in Ancient Rome
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khiljis, Hotaks, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.
The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians.
These tribes migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as Ariana
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
National Museum of Afghanistan
The National Museum of Afghanistan, known as the Afghan National Museum or sometimes the Kabul Museum, is a two-story building located 9 km southwest of the center of Kabul City in Afghanistan. As of 2014, the museum is under major expansion according to standards, with a larger size adjoining garden for visitors to relax. The museums collection had earlier been one of the most important in Central Asia, with the start of the civil war in 1992, the museum was looted numerous times resulting in a loss of 70% of the 100,000 objects on display. Since 2007, a number of organizations have helped to recover over 8,000 artifacts. Approximately 843 artifacts were returned by the United Kingdom in 2012, the Afghan National Museum was built in 1919 during the reign of King Amanullah Khan. The collection inside the museum was transferred from another location in the city, in 1973, a Danish architect was hired to design a new building for the museum, but the plans were never carried out due to political instability.
The museums collection had been one of the most important in Central Asia, in 1989, the Bactrian Gold had been moved to an underground vault at the Central Bank of Afghanistan. In March 1994, the museum, which had used as a military base, was struck by rocket fire. In September 1996, staff at the completed the cataloging of the remaining materials. Between 2003 and 2006, about $350,000 was spent to refurbish the building, many of the most precious objects had been sealed in metal boxes and removed for safety and were recovered and inventoried in 2004. Some archeological objects were found in vaults in Kabul, while a collection was discovered in Switzerland. In 2012, a firm from Spain won a competition for the new design of the Afghan National Museum. Work began in 2013 to expand the museum according to standards, with a large adjoining garden for visitors to relax. Many treasures of ivory are stored there, as are antiquities from Kushan, early Buddhism, one of the most famous pieces in the museum, and known to have survived the turbulent period in the 1990s is the Rabatak Inscription of King Kanishka.
As the National Museum Kabul has been the repository for many of the most spectacular finds in the country. The National Museum has a collection of coins, the Austrian numismatist Robert Göbl reported it contained 30,000 objects during a UNESCO sponsored audit of the collection. It is unknown how much the collection has grown since or what was lost during the wars since. The collection contains the bulk of material recovered in Afghanistan
Mohenjo-daro is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. The site is threatened by erosion and improper restoration. Mohenjo-daro, the name for the site, has been variously interpreted as Mound of the Dead Men in Sindhi. The citys original name is unknown, based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the citys ancient name could have been Kukkutarma. Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, Mohenjo-daro may have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens. Mohenjo-daro is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Pakistan and it is sited on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres from the town of Larkana.
The Indus still flows east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed on the side is now dry. Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE and it was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture. Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering, when the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE, Mohenjo-daro was abandoned. The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R. D and this led to large-scale excavations of Mohenjo-daro led by Kashinath Narayan Dikshit in 1924–25, and John Marshall in 1925–26. In the 1930s, major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar, further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler. The last major series of excavations were conducted in 1964 and 1965 by Dr.
George F. Dales, a dry core drilling conducted in 2015 by Pakistans National Fund for Mohenjo-daro revealed that the site is larger than the unearthed area. Mohenjo-daro has a layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most were built of fired and mortared brick, some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick, the covered area of Mohenjo-daro is estimated at 300 hectares. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers an estimate of a peak population of around 40,000. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of buildings and facilities. The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City
A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic, solid material comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science, the crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline and often completely amorphous. Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware, varying crystallinity and electron consumption in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators. With such a range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic, the breadth of the subject is vast. Many composites, such as fiberglass and carbon fiber, while containing ceramic materials, are not considered to be part of the ceramic family. The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with materials like silica, sintered.
Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, ceramics now include domestic and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering. The word ceramic comes from the Greek word κεραμικός, of pottery or for pottery, from κέραμος, potters clay, the earliest known mention of the root ceram- is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, workers of ceramics, written in Linear B syllabic script. The word ceramic may be used as an adjective to describe a material, product or process, or it may be used as a noun, either singular, or, more commonly, as the plural noun ceramics. A ceramic material is an inorganic, non-metallic, often crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material, some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong in compression, weak in shearing and they withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments.
Ceramics generally can withstand high temperatures, such as temperatures that range from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C. Glass is often not considered a ceramic because of its amorphous character. However, glassmaking involves several steps of the process and its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include minerals such as kaolinite, whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide. The modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide, both are valued for their abrasion resistance, and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations. Advanced ceramics are used in the medicine, electronics industries. Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a range of processing
Kandahar / is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan. It is surrounded by Helmand in the west, Uruzgan in the north and its capital is the city of Kandahar, which is located on the Arghandab River. The province contains about 18 districts, over 1,000 villages, and approximately 1,151,100 people, which is mostly tribal and a rural society. The main inhabitants of Kandahar province are the native ethnic Pashtuns, although smaller communities of Tajiks, Uzbeks, the current governor of the province is Humayoon Azizi. There is speculation about the origin of the name Kandahar and it is believed that Kandahar bears Alexanders name, and derives from the Pashto rendering of Iskandariya or Alexandria. A temple to the deified Alexander as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic by the emperor Ashoka, deh Morasi Ghundai, the first prehistoric site to be excavated in Afghanistan, lies 27 km southwest of Kandahar. Another Bronze Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala, Bronze Age pottery and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar.
In the Seistan, southwest of these Kandahar sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B. C. The area was called Arachosia and was a frequent target for conquest because of its location in Asia. It was part of the Medes territory before falling to the Achaemenids, in 330 BC it was invaded by Alexander the Great and became part of the Seleucid Empire following his death. Later it came under the influence of the Indian emperor Ashoka, the territory was ruled by the Zunbils before Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate arrived in the 7th century. The Arabs advanced through Sistan and conquered Sindh early in the eighth century, even a Hindu dynasty the Hindushahis, held Gandhara and eastern borders. The greatest of the Ghaznavids was Mahmud, who ruled between 998 and 1030 and he expelled the Hindus from Ghandhara. Mahmud of Ghazni made the part of the Ghaznavids in the 10th century. After the destructions caused by Genghis Khan in the 13th century, from about 1383 until his death in 1407, Kandahar was governed by Pir Muhammad, a grandson of Timur.
By the early 16th century, it fell to Babur briefly and he rebelled against the Safavids and established the Hotaki dynasty which became a powerful Afghan empire until 1729 when Nader Shah declared war on the Ghilzai rulers. By 1738 the last Hotaki ruler Shah Hussain was defeated in what is now Old Kandahar, ahmad Shah Durrani, the founding father of Afghanistan, gained control of the province in 1747 and made the city of Kandahar the capital of his new Afghan Empire. In the 1770s, the capital of the empire was transferred to Kabul, ahmad Shah Durranis mausoleum is located in the center of the city
The ancient site at Kot Diji was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization. The occupation of this site is attested already at 3300 BCE, the remains consist of two parts, the citadel area on high ground, and outer area. The Pakistan Department of Archaeology excavated at Kot Diji in 1955 and 1957, located about 24 kilometers south of Khairpur in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is on the east bank of the Indus opposite Mohenjo-daro, the site is situated at the foot of the Rohri Hills where a fort was built around 1790 by Talpur dynasty ruler of Upper Sindh, Mir Suhrab who reigned from 1783 to 1830 AD. This fort built on the ridge of a narrow hill is well preserved. The development of farming communities in different parts of Baluchistan and Lower Sind. The earliest fortified town to date is found at Rehman Dheri, other fortified towns found to date are at Amri and Kot Diji in Sind and at Kalibangan, India at the Hakra River. The earliest occupation of this site is termed Kot Dijian, which is pre-Harappan, at the earliest layer, Kot Diji I, copper and bronze were not used.
The houses and fortifications were made from unbaked mud-bricks, lithic material, such as leaf-shaped chert arrowheads, shows parallels with Mundigak layers II-IV. The pottery seems to anticipate Harappan Ware, bronze was used, but only for personal ornaments. Also, potters wheel was already used, the Early Harappan phase consists of two clearly defined areas. Citadel on high ground for the elites separated by a wall with bastions at regular intervals. This area measures about 500 ft x 350 ft. Outer area, pottery found from this site have design with horizontal and wavy lines, or loops and simple triangular patterns. Other objects found are pots, storage jars, toy carts, bangles, terracotta figurines of mother goddess and animals, well fashioned stone implements were discovered. The interesting find at Kot Diji is a toy cart, which shows that potter’s wheel lead to wheels for bullock carts, there was a clear transition from the earlier Ravi pottery to what is commonly referred to as Kot Diji pottery.
Red slip and black painted designs replaced polychrome decorations of the Ravi Phase, there was a gradual transformation into what is commonly referred to as Harappa Phase pottery. Early Indus script may have appeared at Kot Diji on pottery, the use of inscribed seals and the standardization of weights may have occurred during the Kot Diji period. Late Kot-Diji type pots were found as far as Burzahom in Jammu, signs of cleavage were observed at Early Harappan phase Period I at Kalibangan
Shahr-e Sūkhté, spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture. It is located in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, the part of Iran, on the bank of the Helmand River. In July 2014 it was placed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO, the reasons for the unexpected rise and fall of the Burnt City are still wrapped in mystery. Covering an area of 151 hectares, Shahr-e Sukhteh was one of the world’s largest cities at the dawn of the urban era, in the western part of the site is a vast graveyard, measuring 25 ha. It contains between 25,000 and 40,000 ancient graves, the settlement appeared around 3200 BCE. The city had four stages of civilization and was burnt down three times before being abandoned in 1800 BCE, the site was discovered and investigated by Aurel Stein in the early 1900s. Beginning in 1967, the site was excavated by the Istituto italiano per lAfrica e lOriente team led by Maurizio Tosi, after a gap, work at the site was resumed by the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization team led by SMS Sajjadi.
New discoveries are reported from time to time, most of the material discovered is dated to the period of c. The discoveries indicate that the city was a hub of trading routes that connected Mesopotamia and Iran with the Central Asian and Indian civilizations, shahdad is another related big site that is being excavated. Some 900 Bronze Age sites have been documented in the Sistan Basin, Helmand culture of western Afghanistan was a Bronze Age culture of the 3rd millennium BCE. Scholars link it with Shahr-i Sokhta and Bampur sites and this civilization flourished between 2500 and 1900 BCE, and may have coincided with the great flourishing of the Indus Valley Civilization. This was the phase of Periods III and IV of Shahr-i Sokhta. Thus and Helmand cultures are closely related, Jiroft culture flourished in the eastern Iran, and the Helmand culture in western Afghanistan at the same time. In fact, they may represent the cultural area. Mehrgarh culture, on the hand, is far earlier. A recent discovery is a unique marble cup, which was found in 29, in January 2015, a Bronze Age piece of leather adorned with drawings was discovered In December 2006, archaeologists discovered the worlds earliest known artificial eyeball.
It has a form and a diameter of just over 2.5 cm. It consists of light material, probably bitumen paste