Galway is a city in the West of Ireland in the province of Connacht. Galway City Council is the authority for the city. Galway lies on the River Corrib between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay and is surrounded by County Galway and it is the fourth most populous urban area in the Republic of Ireland and the sixth most populous city in the island of Ireland. According to the 2016 Irish Census, Galway city has a population of 79,504, Galway will be European Capital of Culture in 2020, alongside Rijeka, Croatia. The citys name is from the Irish name for Abhainn na Gaillimhe, the name was Anglicised as Galliv, which is closer to the Irish pronunciation as is the citys name in Latin, Galvia. The city bears the nickname The City of the Tribes because of the fourteen merchant families called the tribes of Galway led the city in its Hiberno-Norman period. The term tribes was a one, because the merchants saw themselves as Anglo-Irish and were loyal to the King during the English Civil War. They adopted the term as a badge of honour and pride in defiance of the towns Cromwellian occupier, residents of the city refer to themselves as Galwegians.
Dún Bhun na Gaillimhe was constructed in 1124, by the King of Connacht, eventually, a small settlement grew up around this fort. During the Norman invasion of Connacht in the 1230s, Galway fort was captured by Richard Mor de Burgh, as the de Burghs eventually became Gaelicised, the merchants of the town, the Tribes of Galway, pushed for greater control over the walled city. This led to their complete control over the city and to the granting of mayoral status by the English crown in December 1484. Galway endured difficult relations with its Irish neighbours, a notice over the west gate of the city, completed in 1562 by Mayor Thomas Óge Martyn, stated From the Ferocious OFlahertys may God protect us. A by-law forbade the native Irish unrestricted access into Galway, saying neither O’ nor Mac shall strutte nor swagger through the streets of Galway without permission, during the Middle Ages, Galway was ruled by an oligarchy of fourteen merchant families. These were the The Tribes of Galway, the city thrived on international trade, and in the Middle Ages, it was the principal Irish port for trade with Spain and France.
The most famous reminder of days is ceann an bhalla, now known as the Spanish Arch. In 1477 Christopher Columbus visited Galway, possibly stopping off on a voyage to Iceland or the Faroe Islands, seven or eight years later, he noted in the margin of his copy of Imago Mundi, Men of Cathay have come from the west. During the 16th and 17th centuries Galway remained loyal to the English crown for the most part, even during the Gaelic resurgence, however, by 1642 the city had allied itself with the Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. During the resulting Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Cromwellian forces captured the city after a nine-month siege, the great families of Galway were ruined
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. The word entered the English language from the Old French charte and it has come to be synonymous with the document that lays out the granting of rights or privileges. The term is used for a case to an institutional charter. A charter school, for example, is one that has different rules, charter is sometimes used as a synonym for tool or lease, as in the charter of a bus or boat or plane by an organization, intended for a similar group destination. A charter member of an organization is a member, that is. Anglo-Saxon Charters are documents from the medieval period in Britain which typically make a grant of land or record a privilege. They are usually written on parchment, in Latin but often with sections in the vernacular, describing the bounds of estates, the British Empire used three main types of colonies as it sought to expand its territory to distant parts of the earth.
These three types were royal colonies, proprietary colonies, and corporate colonies, a charter colony by definition is a colony…chartered to an individual, trading company, etc. by the British crown. Although charter colonies were not the most prevalent of the three types of colonies in the British Empire, they were by no means insignificant, a congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code, a municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. Charters for chivalric orders and other orders, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, in project management, a project charter or project definition is a statement of the scope and participants in a project.
It provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the objectives, identifies the main stakeholders. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project, in medieval Europe, royal charters were used to create cities. The date that such a charter was granted is considered to be when a city was founded, at one time a royal charter was the only way in which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means are generally now used instead
Victoria University of Wellington
Victoria University of Wellington is a university in Wellington, New Zealand. It was established in 1897 by Act of Parliament, and was a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, the university is well known for its programmes in law, the humanities, and some scientific disciplines, and offers a broad range of other courses. Entry to all courses at first year is open, and entry to second year in some programmes is restricted, Victoria had the highest average research grade in the New Zealand Governments Performance-Based Research Fund exercise in 2012, having been ranked 4th in 2006 and 3rd in 2003. Victoria has been ranked 229th in the Worlds Top 500 universities by the QS World University Rankings, in 2017s QS World University Rankings Victoria was ranked in the top 2% of universities in the world, and in the top 1% for 14 subjects. Victoria is named after Queen Victoria, as 1897 was the 60th anniversary of her coronation, there was a dispute initially as to where to site it, and it opened in temporary facilities in Thorndon.
It was eventually decided to place it in Kelburn, where it still has its primary campus. This decision was influenced by the Cable Car companys offer of a donation of £1,000 if it were located in Kelburn so that students would patronise the Cable Car from the city, the foundation stone of the historic Hunter Building was laid in 1904. An extramural branch was founded at Palmerston North in 1960 and it merged with Massey College on 1 January 1963. Having become a branch of Victoria upon the University of New Zealands 1961 demise, in 2004, Victoria celebrated the 100th birthday of its first home, the Hunter Building. In 2015, Victoria opened a new campus in Auckland to service the growing demand for its courses and its main campus is in Kelburn, a suburb on a hill overlooking the Wellington central business district, where its administration and humanities & social science and science faculties are based. A smaller campus in Te Aro is the base for the architecture, the Faculty of Education is in the Karori campus.
The newest facility, the Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory supports research programmes in marine biology, the Court of Convocation is composed of all graduates who choose to participate. Charles Wilson, at the time the librarian of the parliamentary library, was a member of the original council. For New Zealand residents entry to most courses is open, with a few exceptions, there is selection for entry into the second year in degrees such as the LLB, BArch and BDes. BA in criminology and creative writing is based on selection. It is one of three institutions to offer a degree in architecture in New Zealand. In conjunction with Massey University it owns the New Zealand School of Music, the blazon for the arms is, Vert on a fesse engrailed between three Crowns Or, a Canton Azure charged with four Estoilles Argent. What this means, The colour of the shield is first described, Vert is green so the shield is green
Sligo is a coastal seaport and the county town of County Sligo, within the western province of Connacht. With a population of approximately 20,000 in 2014, it is the second largest urban centre in the West of Ireland, the Sligo Borough District constitutes 61% of the countys population of 63,000. Sligo is a historic, commercial, retail, served by rail and road links, Sligo exerts a significant influence on its hinterland. Sligo is a popular tourist destination, being situated in an area of outstanding beauty, with many literary. Sligo is the anglicisation of the Irish name Sligeach, meaning abounding in shells or shelly place and it refers to the abundance of shellfish found in the river and its estuary, and from the extensive shell middens in the vicinity. The river now known as the Garavogue meaning little one was originally called the Sligeach. It is listed as one of the seven rivers of Ireland in the 9th century AD tale The Destruction of Da Dergas Hostel. The river Slicech is referenced in the Annals of Ulster in 1188, the Ordnance Survey letters of 1836 state that cart loads of shells were found underground in many places within the town where houses now stand.
The whole area, from the estuary at Sligo, around the coast to the river at Ballysadare Bay, is rich in marine resources which were utilised as far back as the Mesolithic period. The importance of Sligos location in prehistory is demonstrated by the abundance of ancient sites close by, for example, Sligo towns first roundabout was constructed around a megalithic passage tomb at Abbeyquarter North in Garavogue Villas. This is an outlier of the group of monuments at Carrowmore on the Cuil Irra peninsula on the western outskirts of the town. The area around Sligo town has one of the highest densities of archaeological sites in Ireland. It is the place in which all classes of Irish megalithic monuments are to be found together. Knocknarea mountain, capped by the cairn of Miosgan Maeve. Cairns Hill on the edge of the town has two very large stone cairns. This is the oldest causewayed enclosure so far discovered in Britain or Ireland and it consists of a large area enclosed by a segmented ditch and palisade, and was perhaps an area of commerce and ritual.
These monuments are associated with the coming of agriculture and hence the first farmers in Ireland, during the early medieval period the site of Sligo was eclipsed by the importance of the great Columban monastery 5 miles to the north at Drumcliff. By the 12th century there was a bridge and small settlement in existence at the site of the present town, the annalists refer to this Sligo as a sraidbhaile which seems to have consisted of the castle and an attached defensive bawn
New Zealand Constitution Act 1852
The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that granted self-government to the Colony of New Zealand. It was the second such Act, the previous 1846 Act not having been fully implemented, the Act remained in force as part of New Zealands constitution until it was repealed by the Constitution Act 1986. The long title of the Act was An Act to Grant a Representative Constitution to the Colony of New Zealand, the Act received the Royal Assent on 30 June 1852. The first settlement of the company, briefly had its own elected council during 1840, the first New Zealand Constitution Act was passed in 1846, though Governor George Grey was opposed to its proposed division of the country into European and Māori districts. In the meantime, Grey drafted his own Act which established both provincial and central representative assemblies, allowed for Māori districts and an elected Governor, only the latter proposal was rejected by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when it adopted Greys constitution.
The Act established, The bicameral General Assembly, consisting of the Governor, a Legislative Council and this issue was to dominate the first session of Parliament in 1854, The Provinces of New Zealand, which divided New Zealand into six provinces. Parliament was granted the power to make laws for the peace, the first provincial elections were held during 1853. The first Parliament under the Act met in Auckland, at the time the capital and this session was concerned primarily with the issue of responsible government, or the ability of the Colonial parliament instead of the Governor to appoint its own ministers. Prior to the Act, the Executive Council consisted of Crown servants who were responsible to the Governor, a motion was passed almost unanimously affirming the ability of Parliament to appoint its own Executive Council members. Three members of the Assembly were added to the Executive Council as ministers without portfolio under the leadership of James FitzGerald, after fresh elections the 2nd Parliament met, and the new Governor, Sir Thomas Gore Browne, asked Henry Sewell to form the first responsible ministry.
However, the General Assembly did not have control of the executive. The Governor retained reserve powers to disallow legislation and there was the authority of the Crown to disallow legislation even after the Governor had given his assent and these powers of reservation and disallowance were prerogative powers included in the Act. This power was limited by the Balfour Declaration of 1926, in that they were to be exercised only on the advice of New Zealand ministers, the powers were not continued by the 1986 Constitution Act. Section 71 of the Act allowed for Māori districts where Māori law and custom were to be preserved and it was, used by the Kingitanga to justify claims of Māori self-governance during the 1870s and 1880s. The first amendment to the Act was made by the British Parliament during 1857, the New Zealand Parliament did not gain total ability to amend the Act until 1947, when New Zealand adopted the Statute of Westminster 1931 with the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947.
The only remaining provision relating to the Parliament of the United Kingdom was the ability of the former imperial legislature to legislate for New Zealand at the New Zealand Parliaments consent. This occurred only once, for the New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947 which adopted the New Zealand Parliaments New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947, the Act was repealed by section 28 of the Constitution Act 1986 in New Zealand. By the time of its repeal, only 18 of the Acts original 82 sections remained, in the UK it was repealed by the Statute Law Act 1989
Kilkenny is a city in south-east part of Ireland and the county town of County Kilkenny. It is on banks of the River Nore in the province of Leinster. The boroughs population is 8,711, but the majority live outside the borough boundary, Kilkenny is a popular tourist destination. In 2009 the City of Kilkenny celebrated its 400th year since the granting of city status in 1609, though referred to as a city, Kilkenny is the size of a large town relative to Irish urban population centres. Kilkenny is well known for its culture with craft and design workshops, annual events include Kilkenny Arts Festival, the Cat Laughs comedy festival and music at the Rhythm and Roots festival and the Source concert. It is a base for exploring the surrounding towns, villages. Controversy exists at the moment around the Kilkenny Central Access Scheme which is a proposed to be built through the town centre. Kilkenny began with a sixth century ecclesiastical foundation within the kingdom of Ossory. Following Norman invasion of Ireland, Kilkenny Castle and a series of walls were built to protect the burghers of what became a Norman merchant town, William Marshall, Lord of Leinster, gave Kilkenny a charter as a town in 1207.
By the late thirteenth century Kilkenny was under Norman-Irish control, the Statutes of Kilkenny passed at Kilkenny in 1367, aimed to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland. In 1609 King James I of England granted Kilkenny a Royal Charter giving it the status of a city. Following the Rebellion of 1641, the Irish Catholic Confederation, known as the Confederation of Kilkenny, was based in Kilkenny, Kilkenny was a famous brewing centre from the late seventeenth century, and houses multiple breweries still. In the late twentieth century Kilkenny is a tourist and creative centre, the Heritage Council offices are at Church Lane. The seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Ossory is at St. Marys Cathedral, nearby larger cities include Waterford 45 kilometres south-southeast, Limerick 93 kilometres west and Dublin 101 kilometres northeast. Kilkenny is the version of the Irish Cill Chainnigh, meaning Cell/Church of Cainneach or Canice. This relates to a built in honour of St. Canice on the hill now containing St.
Canices Cathedral. This seems to be the first major settlement, the early Christian origin of the round tower suggests an early ecclesiastical foundation at Kilkenny. The Annals of the Four Masters recorded Kilkenny in 1085, prior to this time the early 6th century territory was known as Osraighe, referring to the whole district or the capital
Greater Chennai Corporation
The administration of Chennai can refer to either the administration of the City of Chennai or the administration of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The city is administered by the Chennai Corporation, consisting of 200 councillors, the suburbs, which comprise the metropolitan region, are administered by local municipalities, town panchayats, or panchayat unions. The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority plans development for the city as well as its suburbs, Chennai city is governed by the Corporation of Chennai, consisting of 200 councillors who represent 200 wards and are directly elected by the citys residents. From among themselves, the councillors elect a mayor and a deputy mayor who preside over about 10 standing committees, the first native Indian to govern the Madras Presidency as well as serve as the first Mayor post-independence of erstwhile Madras was L. Sriramulu Naidu. The Madras High Court, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu, the district of Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies—Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South—and elects 18 Members of the Legislative Assembly to the state legislature.
The metropolitan region of Chennai covers many suburbs that are part of Kanchipuram, the larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities, and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called panchayats. While the city covers an area of 174 km², the area is spread over 1,189 km². The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority has drafted a Second Master Plan that aims to develop satellite townships around the city, contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram to the south and Maraimalai Nagar to the southwest, and Kanchipuram town, Sriperumpudur and Arakkonam to the west. The Greater Chennai Police department, a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, is the law enforcement agency in the city, the city police force is headed by a commissioner of police, and administrative control rests with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry. The department consists of 36 subdivisions with a total of 121 police stations, the citys traffic is managed by the Chennai City Traffic Police. The Metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police, and outer areas are policed by the Kanchipuram.
The Corporation of Chennai and municipalities of the suburbs provide civic services, garbage in most zones was previously handled by JBM Fanalca Environment Management, a private company, and by the Chennai Corporation in the other zones. As of 2011,8 transfer stations exist within the city for treating the waste, garbage is dumped in two dump-yards in the city—One in Kodungaiyur and another in Perungudi, with a major portion of the latter covering the Pallikaranai marshland. In market areas, the work is done during the night. Water supply and sewage treatment are handled by the Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewage Board, Electricity is supplied by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board. Fire services are handled by the Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service, the city, along with the suburbs, has 33 operating fire stations. The citys telephone service is provided by four companies, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Tata Indicom, Reliance Communications. Broadband Internet access is provided by Sify, BSNL, Reliance Communications, Bharti Airtel, Chennai has relied on annual monsoon rains to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area
The word township is used to refer to various kinds of settlements in different countries. While a township may be associated with an area, there are many exceptions to this rule. In Australia and the United States, they may be too small to be considered urban. In Australia, the designation of township traditionally refers to a town or a small community in a rural district. The term refers purely to the settlement, it does not refer to a unit of government, in Canada, two kinds of township occur in common use. In eastern Canada, a township is one form of the subdivision of a county, in Canadian French, this is a canton. Townships are referred to as lots in Prince Edward Island, they merely form census subdivisions and are not administrative units. In Canada, a municipality is a city, township, county and it is a specific designation for certain municipalities in Quebec, Nova Scotia and Ontario. In western Canada, townships exist only for the purpose of land division by the Dominion Land Survey and these townships are nominally six miles by six miles.
Townships are designated by their number and range number. Township 1 is the first north of the First Base Line, in China, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, together with ethnic townships and subdistricts. In local government in New Zealand, there are no towns or townships. All land is part of either a city or a district, the term municipality has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. The term township is, still in usage in New Zealand. The expression would generally equate to that of village in England, in the Philippines, townships referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these divisions were originally established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime. The term was replaced with municipal district. Most municipal districts would be converted into municipalities by executive orders from the Philippine President
Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. In some countries, such as in Brazil, France or the United Kingdom, unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government immediately beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area often contains several towns and even entire cities, aside from very sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases, almost all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are often in locations, cover vast areas or have very small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in parts of Australia. Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory has no municipalities and is in some sense an unincorporated area, the territorial government is directly responsible for matters normally carried out by local government.
The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, a civil servant in the state capital manages such matters as are necessary. The second unincorporated area of state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory,1. 45% of the area and 4. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive services provided by a state agency. Firstly, the remote area that is unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands. Secondly, the unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to. In Canada, depending on the province, a settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs solely over the settlement. It is usually, but not always, part of a municipal government. This can range from hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries entirely, Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data.
In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction
It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets. The term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality, a municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis, a municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, or a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York. The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state, municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento, called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente, in Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality.
Here, the LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia, incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility. In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities, nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Nagar Palika or Municipality is a local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it directly with the state government. Generally, smaller cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are a form of local self-government entrusted with duties and responsibilities. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area.
A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title, in Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of government in this jurisdiction. In the United States, municipality is usually understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, in the Peoples Republic of China, a direct-controlled municipality is a city with equal status to a province, Tianjin and Chongqing. In Taiwan, a municipality is a city with equal status to a province, New Taipei, Tainan, Taipei. In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ, when referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used
The Hindu is an English-language Indian daily newspaper. Headquartered at Chennai, The Hindu was published weekly when it was launched in 1878 and it is the second most circulated English-language newspaper in India, with average qualifying sales of 1.45 million copies as of Jan−Jun 2016. The Hindu has its largest base of circulation in southern India, the newspaper and other publications in The Hindu Group are owned by a family-held company and Sons Ltd. In 2010, The newspaper employs over 1,600 workers, most of the revenue comes from advertising and subscription. The Hindu became, in 1995, the first Indian newspaper to offer an online edition, started in order to support the campaign of Sir T. About 80 copies of the issue were printed at Srinidhi Press, Georgetown on one rupee. Subramania Iyer became the first editor and Veera Raghavacharya, the first managing director of the newspaper, the paper initially printed from Srinidhi Press but moved on Scottish Press, The Hindu Press and finally to the National Press on Mount Road.
Started as a newspaper, the paper became a tri-weekly in 1883. A single copy of the newspaper was priced at four annas, the offices moved to rented premises at 100 Mount Road on 3 December 1883. The newspaper started printing at its own press there, named The National Press, the Hindu was initially liberal in its outlook and is now considered left leaning. Its editorial stances have earned it the nickname, the Maha Vishnu of Mount Road, in between, there were more views than news. The partnership between Veeraraghavachariar and Subramania Iyer was dissolved in October 1898, Iyer quit the paper and Veeraraghavachariar became the sole owner and appointed C. However, The Hindus adventurousness began to decline in the 1900s and so did its circulation, Kasturi Ranga Iyengars ancestors had served the courts of Vijayanagar and Mahratta Tanjore. Since the newspaper has been owned entirely by the members of the Kasturi Ranga Iyengar family, in the late 1980s, when its ownership passed into the hands of the familys younger members, a change in political leaning was observed.
Worldpress. org lists The Hindu as an independent newspaper. Joint managing director N. Murali said in July 2003, It is true that our readers have been complaining that some of our reports are partial, but it depends on reader beliefs. On 3 and 23 September 2003, the letters column carried responses from readers saying the editorial was biased. In 1987–88, The Hindus coverage of the Bofors arms deal scandal, the investigation was led by a part-time correspondent of The Hindu, Chitra Subramaniam, reporting from Geneva, and was supported by Ram in Chennai