Edmondson Village is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of Baltimore, encompassing most of the Edmondson Avenue corridor in 21229. The Edmondson Village area is made up of several smaller communities, its communities include Hunting Ridge, Rognel Heights, West Mulberry, Allendale and Lower Edmondson Village. It is located north of Frederick Avenue, south of the Gwynns Falls Parkway and Gwynns Falls Parks. Communities in the area range from middle class to lower income. A notable shopping center opened in the neighborhood in 1947. Racial succession and white flight occurred in Edmondson Village as a result of the real estate sales process of blockbusting between 1955 and 1965. According to The Corner: A Year in the Life of an Inner-City Neighborhood, it was not uncommon at this time for communities within the Edmondson Village area to shift from 100% White to 100% Black in a span less than one year; the neighborhood is home to Edmondson High School. Other schools in Edmondson Village include Lyndhurst Elementary, Mary E. Rodman Elementary, Rognel Heights Elementary/Middle, And THOMAS Jefferson Elementary/Middle.
The Edmondson Village area is served by Baltimore Link, provided by the Maryland Transit Administration. Bunk Moreland and Omar Little, both fictional characters from HBO's The Wire, grew up in the Edmondson Village area. Bubbles' sister lived in Edmondson Village in The Wire, Bubbles lived in her basement for a period of time. Dead link Edmondson Village Neighborhoods
Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system. In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as a core subject within their curriculum. Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe; the Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across North America, United Kingdom and Australia. The establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63. Anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions; the Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 increased the possibility to practice Catholicism in England and to create charitable institutions by the Church.
This led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, orphanages and workhouses. Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools. Catholic schools were required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off causing fees to rise; this prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay. Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith; the leaders and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, action and social justice. Like other Christian-affiliated institutions, Catholic schools are nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, or nationality, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful school life.
However, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness; the religious education as a core subject is a vital element of the curriculum where individuals are to develop themselves: “intellectually, physically emotionally and of course, spiritually.” The education involves: “the distinct but complementary aspect of the school's religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.” In Catholic schools, teachers teach a Religious Education Program provided by the Bishop. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons. Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor. Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have undergone many changes since independence in the late early 60s; the education policy in Malaysia is centralized.
In 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the teaching profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service and share the same status as lay teachers. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other larger government funded programmes. With Islam being the state religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith; the missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework. Today, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country; the Catholic Church in Pakistan is active in education, managing leading schools in addition to its spiritual work. The Catholic Church runs 534 schools, 53 hostels, 8 colleges, 7 technical institutes, according to 2008 statistics; the Catholic Board of Education is the arm of the Catholic Church in Pakistan, responsible for education.
Each diocese has its own board. The Government of Pakistan nationalised most church schools and colleges in Punjab and Sindh in 1972. Leading schools such as St Patrick's High School, Karachi, St Joseph's Convent School and St Michael's Convent School were never nationalised; the Government of Sindh oversaw a denationalization program from 1985 to 1995, the Government of Punjab began a similar program in 1996. In 2001, the Federal Government and the courts ordered the provincial governments to complete the denationalization process. In the Philippines, private schools have been operated by the Catholic Church since the time of Spanish colonization; the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor, with a 2004 study by UNESCO indicating that 83% of the population as identifying themselves as Catholics. The oldest existing university in Asia, University of Santo Tomas, is located in the Philippines, it is the largest single Catholic university in the world.
The university was established by the Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, on
Religious sister (Catholic)
A religious sister in the Catholic Church is a woman who has taken public vows in a religious institute dedicated to apostolic works, as distinguished from a nun who lives a cloistered monastic life dedicated to prayer. Both nuns and sisters use the term "sister" as a form of address; the HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism defines as "congregations of sisters institutes of women who profess the simple vows of poverty and obedience, live a common life, are engaged in ministering to the needs of society." As William Saunders writes: "When bound by simple vows, a woman is a sister, not a nun, thereby called'sister'. Nuns recite the Liturgy of the Hours or Divine Office in common... live a contemplative, cloistered life in a monastery... behind the'papal enclosure'. Nuns are permitted to leave the cloister only under special circumstances and with the proper permission." Until the 16th century, religious orders in the Western world made vows that were perpetual and solemn. In 1521, Pope Leo X allowed tertiaries of religious orders to take simple vows and live a more active life dedicated to charitable works.
This provision was rejected by Pope Pius V in 1566 and 1568. Early efforts by women such as Angela Merici, founder of the Ursulines, Jane Frances de Chantal, founder with Francis de Sales of the Visitation Sisters, were halted as the cloister was imposed by Church authorities. Into the 17th century, Church custom did not allow women to leave the cloister if they had taken religious vows. Female members of the mendicant orders continued to observe the same enclosed life as members of the monastic orders; the work of religious women was confined to what could be carried on within the walls of a monastery, either teaching boarding students within the cloister or nursing the sick in hospitals attached to the monastery. Mary Ward was an early proponent of women with religious vows living an active life outside the cloister, based on the apostolic life of the Jesuits. There was to be no enclosure, no common recitation of the Liturgy of the Hours, no religious habit. In 1609 she opened schools for girls.
Her efforts led to the founding of Sisters of Loreto. Her congregation continued to exist in some countries in various forms. Other women's congregations with simple vows continued to be founded, at times with the approval of local bishops. Vincent de Paul insisted that the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, which he founded, would have no convent but the hospital, no chapel but the parish church, no cloister but the streets, they renew their vows annually. The 19th century saw the proliferation of women's congregations engaged in education, religious instruction, medical and social works, along with missionary work in Africa and Asia. After nearly three centuries, in 1900 Pope Leo XIII by his constitution Conditae a Christo gave his approval to these congregations with simple vows; the 1917 Code of Canon Law reserved the term "nun" for women religious who took solemn vows or who, while being allowed in some places to take simple vows, belonged to institutes whose vows were solemn.
They lived under cloister, "papal enclosure", recited the Liturgy of the Hours in common. The Code used the word "sister" for members of institutes for women that it classified as "congregations"; the bishops at Vatican II, in their document Perfectae Caritatis on the religious life, asked all religious to examine their charism as defined by their rule and founder, in light of the needs of the modern world. Some religious who had led a more contemplative life responded to modern needs of the apostolate outside the monastic walls. Throughout the post-Vatican II document Ecclesiae Sanctae, Pope Paul VI used the word "nun" to refer to women with solemn vows; the 1983 Code of Canon Law uses the expression "monastery of nuns". The new code did not force traditional orders that were taking on works outside the monastery into uniformity. In response to Vatican II there has been "vigorous discussion among monastics as regards what kinds of work and life-styles are genuinely compatible with monastic life".
Catholic sisters and nuns in the United States This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
The Keepers is a seven-episode American documentary web series that explores the unsolved murder of nun Sister Cathy Cesnik, who taught English and drama at Baltimore's Archbishop Keough High School, her former students' belief that there was a cover-up by authorities after Cesnik suspected that a priest at the school, A. Joseph Maskell, was guilty of sexual abuse of students; the series was directed by Ryan White. Gemma Hoskins – former student and investigator Abbie Fitzgerald Schaub – former student and investigator Jean Hargadon Wehner – former student Teresa Lancaster – former student Randy Lancaster – Teresa Lancaster's husband Donna Von Den Bosch – former student Juliana Farrell – former student Deb Silcox – former student Lil Hughes – former student Chris Centofanti – former student Mary Spence – former student Marilyn Cesnik Radakovic – Sister Catherine's sister Gerry Koob – former priest and sister Catherine's former boyfriend Tom Nugent – journalist and writer for the Baltimore City Paper Bob Erlandson – journalist Beverly Wallace – attorney for former students Alan Horn – investigator John Barnold – former captain, Baltimore City Police Department James Scannell – former captain, Baltimore County Police Department Brian Schwaab – former detective, Baltimore City Police Department Det.
Gary Childs – Baltimore County Police Sharon A. H. May – former State's Attorney for Baltimore City Edgar Davidson – possible suspect in the murder of sister Catherine Deborah Yohn – Davidson's niece, who suspects her uncle's involvement in the murders based on anecdotes from her aunt, referred to as "Margaret" in the series. Sharon Schmidt – daughter of Ronnie Schmidt and niece of Billy Schmidt who suspects the involvement of both men in the murders. Barbara Schmidt – mother of Sharon Schmidt, former wife of Ronnie Schmidt and sister in law to Billy Schmidt, who suspects the involvement of her husband and brother in law in the murders. C. T. Wilson – Maryland state delegate Charles Franz – former student at St. Clement's Church Werner Spitz, MD – forensic pathologist The Keepers was met with critical acclaim upon its release; the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives the series an approval rating of 96% based on 27 reviews, with an average rating of 8.43/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "The Keepers draws on riveting, real-life terror to expose long-buried secrets—and tells an inspiring, brilliantly assembled story along the way."
Pilot Viruet of Vice wrote of the series, "It's harrowing and upsetting, it will haunt you for a long time, part of what makes it necessary viewing."In Time magazine, Daniel D'Addario compared The Keepers with another Netflix true-crime series, Making a Murderer, stating that The Keepers does not lead its viewers to a definite conclusion about what happened. "While Sister Cathy Cesnik's death remains a mystery, its aftereffects include both crushing heartbreak and, for the amateur sleuths who seek to crack her case, a sense of making a difference... This isn't just more respectful to the victim than other true-crime stories, with their breathless delight at new clues. It's more effective." According to Jack Seale in The Guardian, "Where other true crime hits have followed a linear chronology, The Keepers hops between 1969, the 1990s and today, striking a fine balance between narrative structure – a wow moment at the end of every episode – and respect for a subject that doesn’t need or deserve sensationalism."
The Archdiocese of Baltimore declined when asked by Netflix producers to comment on sexual misconduct allegations within the church. The Archdiocese responded to the series by adding a FAQ page to its website, in which it stated allegations that the archdiocese knew of Maskell's sexual abuse prior to 1992 were false speculation. Murder of Catherine Cesnik The Keepers on Netflix The Keepers on IMDb The Keepers at Rotten Tomatoes The Keepers at Metacritic
Baltimore County Police Department
The Baltimore County Police Department is the primary law enforcement agency for Baltimore County, Maryland. They have been accredited by Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies since 1984; the current Chief of the county police department is James Johnson. Chief Johnson took over as Chief on May 31, 2007, Chief James Johnson's formal ceremony was held that July when Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley named Chief Terrence B. Sheridan as the new Superintendent of the Maryland State Police. Baltimore County Executive, James T. Smith, Jr. nominated Johnson for the position of Police Chief upon the exit of Sheridan. Johnson was subsequently approved by the County Council. Chief James Johnson has held every sworn rank in the Baltimore County Police Department, started his career as a cadet at the age of 18. In March 2017, James Johnson retired. Terrence B. Sheridan returned to take over control of the police department. 1874: The Baltimore County Police Department was established by the General Assembly of Maryland on April 11, 1874.
The Maryland state legislature approved. This authorized the Board of County Commissioners for Baltimore County "to appoint such number of policemen as they may deem necessary, for the better protection of persons and property. A second provision stated that "the pay of each policeman shall be two dollars per day, except such police as may be mounted. On June 17, 1874, the County Commissioners divided the two mile portion of the county bordering the Baltimore City boundary into five districts and appointed the first police force. Officers were appointed to one year terms. 1878: County Commissioners were authorized to build a station house at Waverly. The Canton Station was added a year later. Both communities were absorbed into the adjacent City of Baltimore, the first at the second major annexation of 1888 and the second in the third annexation of 1919 1883: a new position was created, "Marshal of Police". Charles O. Kemp was appointed to this office. Kemp, a loyal Democrat, had been the Superintendent of the Baltimore County Almshouse.
He had served as a trustee for one of the schools in the Fifth District. The new position consolidated the responsibility and control of the police force under one person instead of individual chiefs for each police district. 1885: The first call boxes were installed in the area around Huntington Avenue in the Harwood neighborhood, south of Waverly, North Avenue, near Jones Falls, 28th Street. 1886: A new station was built in Mount Winans. 1888: A 17-square-mile portion of Baltimore County was annexed by Baltimore City. The number of officers in the Baltimore County Police Department was cut from 33 to 10 as officers and station houses were absorbed into the Baltimore City Police Department on the western and northern "precincts" adjacent to the City; the industrial and residential communities on the east such as Highlandtown and Canton voted against annexation in the referendum and stayed in the County until 1919. 1891: B. Co. P. D. Stations were built at Arlington. 1892: The Mount Washington Station opened.
1894: Terrence Doyle became the first county police officer to be shot when he attempted to arrest two men for breaking into a barn. Doyle was shot six times; the two suspects were apprehended. 1902: The Maryland General Assembly passed an act aimed at improving the background of those appointed to the Baltimore County police force. The act stated: "all appointments hereafter made to the police force of Baltimore County shall be made from the qualified voters thereof, all applications for such appointments shall be made upon printed blanks to be furnished free of charge by the County Commissioners, wherein the applicant shall set forth in his own handwriting his full name and age, the place and State of his birth, his occupation for two years preceding his application, such other information as the Commissioners may require touching the merit and fitness of the applicant for the position for which he applies. All appointments shall be hereafter made from applications filed not less than one month or more than two years previous to such appointments.
1903: Invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell and installation began in the Ci
Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign; the kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929. Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April 1941. In 1943, a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In 1944 King Peter II living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government; the monarchy was subsequently abolished in November 1945. Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946, when a communist government was established.
It acquired the territories of Istria and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in 1980. In 1963, the country was renamed again, as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the six constituent republics that made up the SFRY were the SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, SR Slovenia. Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces and Kosovo, which after 1974 were equal to the other members of the federation. After an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars. From 1993 to 2017, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia tried political and military leaders from the former Yugoslavia for war crimes and other crimes. After the breakup, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed a reduced federation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which aspired to the status of sole legal successor to the SFRY, but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.
Serbia and Montenegro accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. In 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed to State Union of Montenegro; the union peacefully broke up when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in 2006, while Kosovo proclaimed its independence from Serbia in 2008. The concept of Yugoslavia, as a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the Illyrian Movement of the 19th century; the name was created by the combination of the Slavic words "jug" and "slaveni". Yugoslavia was the result of the Corfu Declaration, as a project of the Serbian Parliament in exile and the Serbian royal Karađorđević dynasty, who became the Yugoslav royal dynasty; the country was formed in 1918 after World War I as the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by union of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia. It was referred to at the time as the "Versailles state"; the government renamed the country leading to the first official use of Yugoslavia in 1929.
On 20 June 1928, Serb deputy Puniša Račić shot at five members of the opposition Croatian Peasant Party in the National Assembly resulting in the death of two deputies on the spot and that of leader Stjepan Radić a few weeks later. On 6 January 1929 King Alexander I suspended the constitution, banned national political parties, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia, he hoped to mitigate nationalist passions. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in 1931. However, Alexander's policies encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin became absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy.
Alexander attempted to create a centralised Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas; the banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were kept under police surveillance; the effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity. During his reign the flags of Yugoslav nations were banned. Communist ideas were banned also; the king was assassinated in Marseille during an official visit to France in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, an experienced marksman from Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization with the cooperation of the Ustaše, a Croatian fascist revolutionary organisation. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin, Prince Paul; the international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was losing its strongholds and its sponsors were
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of