On the evening of 8 December 1980, English musician John Lennon of the Beatles, was fatally shot in the archway of the Dakota, his residence in New York City. The perpetrator was Mark David Chapman, a unemployed resident of Hawaii. Chapman stated that he was incensed by Lennon's lifestyle and public statements his much-publicized remark about the Beatles being "more popular than Jesus" and the lyrics of his songs "God" and "Imagine". Chapman said he was inspired by the fictional character Holden Caulfield from J. D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye. Chapman planned the killing over the course of several months and waited for Lennon at the Dakota on the morning of 8 December. During the evening, he met Lennon. Lennon left with Yoko Ono, for a recording session at Record Plant Studio; that night and Ono returned to the Dakota. As they walked towards the archway entrance of the building, Chapman fired five hollow-point bullets from a.38 special revolver, four of which hit Lennon in the back.
Chapman remained at the scene reading The Catcher in the Rye. Lennon was rushed in a police cruiser to Roosevelt Hospital, where he was pronounced dead on arrival. A worldwide outpouring of grief ensued on an unprecedented scale. Crowds gathered at Roosevelt Hospital and in front of the Dakota, at least three Beatles fans committed suicide. Lennon was cremated at the Ferncliff Cemetery in New York, on 12 December. Chapman pleaded guilty of murdering Lennon and was given a sentence of 20-years-to-life imprisonment, he has been denied parole ten times after he became eligible in 2000. Portrait photographer Annie Leibovitz went to the Lennons' apartment to do a photo shoot for Rolling Stone magazine. Leibovitz promised them that a photo of the two of them together would make the front cover of the magazine. Leibovitz had taken several photos of John Lennon alone and one was set to be on the cover. Leibovitz said, "Nobody wanted on the cover". Lennon insisted that both he and his wife be on the cover, after taking the pictures, Leibovitz left their apartment at 3:30.
After the photo shoot, Lennon gave what would be his last interview, to San Francisco DJ Dave Sholin, for a music show to be broadcast on the RKO Radio Network. At 5:40, Lennon and Ono, delayed by a late limousine, left their apartment to mix the song "Walking on Thin Ice" at the Record Plant Studio. Mark David Chapman, a 25-year-old former security guard from Honolulu, had been a fan of the Beatles. In 1992 Chapman claimed he became enraged by Lennon's much-publicized 1966 remark about the group being "more popular than Jesus", by the lyrics of Lennon's songs. J. D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye took on great personal significance for Chapman, to the extent that he wished to model his life after the novel's protagonist, Holden Caulfield. At the time of the murder, he had no prior criminal convictions. Chapman had travelled to New York to murder Lennon in October, but had changed his mind and returned home. Chapman flew back to New York on December 6, 1980. On the morning of December 8, Chapman left his room at the Sheraton Hotel, leaving personal items behind that the police would find.
He bought a copy of The Catcher in the Rye in which he wrote "This is my statement", signing it "Holden Caulfield." Chapman waited for Lennon outside the Dakota in early-morning and spent most of the day near the entrance to the Dakota, talking to fans and the doorman. During that morning, a distracted Chapman missed seeing Lennon step out of a cab and enter the Dakota. In the morning, Chapman met Lennon's family nanny, Helen Seaman, returning from a walk with Lennon's five-year-old son Sean. Chapman reached in front of the housekeeper to shake Sean's hand and said that he was a beautiful boy, quoting Lennon's song "Beautiful Boy". At 5:00 p.m. Lennon and Ono left the Dakota for a recording session at Record Plant Studios; as they were walking to a limousine, they were approached by Chapman, seeking an autograph. It was common for fans to wait outside the Dakota to ask for his autograph. Chapman asked Lennon to sign a copy of his album, Double Fantasy. According to Chapman himself, “He was kind to me.
Kind and was patient with me,” he said. “The limousine was waiting … and he took his time with me and he got the pen going and he signed my album. He asked me. I said, ‘No. No sir.’ And he walked away. Cordial and decent man.” In a 1992 interview with Larry King, Chapman would say that he felt Lennon knew that there was something suspicious about him. Photographer and Lennon fan Paul Goresh took a photo of Lennon signing Chapman's album. In a interview, Chapman said that he tried to get Goresh to stay and that he asked another Lennon fan, lingering at the building's entrance to go out with him that night, he suggested that if the girl had accepted his invitation or Goresh had stayed, he would not have murdered Lennon that evening, but he would have tried another day. The Lennons spent several hours at the Record Plant studio before returning to the Dakota at 10:50 p.m. Lennon had decided against dining out so he could be home in time to say goodnight to his son, before going on to the Stage Deli restaurant with Ono.
Lennon liked to oblige, with autographs or pictures, any fans, waiting for long periods of time to meet him, once said during a 6
The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how Israel's Messiah and executed in Israel, pronounces judgement on Israel and its leaders and becomes the salvation of the gentiles. Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110, although early Christian tradition attributes it to the apostle Matthew, this is rejected by modern scholars; the anonymous author was a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on the Gospel of Mark as a source, plus the hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source and material unique to his own community, called the M source or "Special Matthew"; the divine nature of Jesus was a major issue for the Matthaean community, the crucial element separating the early Christians from their Jewish neighbors.
The title Son of David identifies Jesus as the healing and miracle-working Messiah of Israel, sent to Israel alone. As Son of Man he will return to judge the world, an expectation which his disciples recognise but of which his enemies are unaware; as Son of God, God is revealing himself through his son, Jesus proving his sonship through his obedience and example. The gospel reflects the struggles and conflicts between the evangelist's community and the other Jews with its sharp criticism of the scribes and Pharisees. Prior to the Crucifixion the Jews are referred to as Israelites, the honorific title of God's chosen people; the oldest complete manuscripts of the Bible are the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus, which date from the 4th century. Besides these, there exist manuscript fragments ranging from a few verses to whole chapters. P 104 and P 67 are notable fragments of Matthew; these are copies of copies. In the process of recopying, variations slipped in, different regional manuscript traditions emerged, corrections and adjustments were made.
Modern textual scholars collate all major surviving manuscripts, as well as citations in the works of the Church Fathers, in order to produce a text which most approximates to the lost autographs. The gospel itself does not specify an author, but he was a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Early Christian tradition attributes the gospel to the apostle Matthew, but this is rejected by modern scholars; the majority of modern scholars believe that Mark was the first gospel to be composed and that Matthew and Luke both drew upon it as a major source for their works. The author of Matthew did not, however copy Mark, but used it as a base, emphasising Jesus' place in the Jewish tradition and including other details not covered in Mark, he took an additional 220 verses, shared by Matthew and Luke but not found in Mark, from a second source, a hypothetical collection of sayings to which scholars give the name "Quelle", or the Q source.
This view, known as the two-source hypothesis, allows for a further body of tradition known as "Special Matthew", or the M source, meaning material unique to Matthew. The author had the Greek scriptures at his disposal, both as book-scrolls and in the form of "testimony collections", and, if Papias is correct oral stories of his community; these sources were predominantly in Greek, but not from any known version of the Septuagint. The majority view among scholars is that Matthew was a product of the last quarter of the 1st century; this makes it a work of the second generation of Christians, for whom the defining event was the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Romans in AD 70 in the course of the First Jewish–Roman War. The Christian community to which Matthew belonged, like many 1st-century Christians, was still part of the larger Jewish community: hence the designation Jewish Christian to describe them; the relationship of Matthew to this wider world of Judaism remains a subject of study and contention, the principal question being to what extent, if any, Matthew's community had cut itself off from its Jewish roots.
There was conflict between Matthew's group and other Jewish groups, it is agreed that the root of the conflict was the Matthew community's belief in Jesus as the Messi
Student Development Theory refers to a body of scholarship that seeks to understand and explain the developmental processes of how students learn and develop in post-secondary education. Student development theory has been defined as a “collection of theories related to college students that explain how they grow and develop holistically, with increased complexity, while enrolled in a postsecondary educational environment”. Early ideas about student development were informed by the larger disciplines of psychology and sociology; some student development theories are informed by educational psychology that theorizes how students gain knowledge in post-secondary educational environments. There are many theorists that make up early student development theories, such as Arthur Chickering’s 7 vectors of identity development, William Perry’s theory of intellectual development, Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, David A. Kolb’s theory of experiential learning, Nevitt Sanford’s theory of challenge and support.
Student developmental theories are understood within theoretical categories of psychosocial, cognitive-structural, person-environment, maturity, social identity, integrative theories, critical theory frameworks. Student development theories can be understood as evolving across 3 generational waves. First wave developmental theories cited as foundational, tended to view student development as universal for all students. First wave theories focus on students’ psychosocial and cognitive-structural development, as well as examining the impact of the campus environment. Second wave theories advanced the developmental focus of the first wave to examine more the diversity of student populations and students experiences of social identities across gender, sexuality and ethnicity. Second wave theories brought attention to the constructed nature of social identities as well as to the historical exclusion of diverse groups of students from student development theories. Second wave theories may include, Marcia Baxter Magolda’s theory of self-authorship, Carol Gilligan’s theory of women’s moral development, in addition to other social identity and multidimensional identity theories.
Third wave theories re-examine student development theory through critical theory and post-structural perspectives. Critical frameworks are used to analyze structures of power and oppression in order to call attention to systemic inequality, transformative practices, social justice. Critical theoretical perspectives that have been used to re-examine student development theory have included, intersectionality, critical race theory, black feminist thought, feminist theory, queer theory and poststructuralism. Critical perspectives in the third wave contribute to the ongoing growth and expansion of the body of student development theories themselves. Student development theories may be used by post-secondary educators and student affairs professionals to better understand and address student needs as well as to guide student affairs practices and policies that impact student development; the earliest manifestation of student development theory—or tradition—in Europe was in loco parentis. Loosely translated, this concept refers to the manner in which children's schools acted on behalf of and in partnership with parents for the moral and ethical development and improvement of students' character development.
Ostensibly this instruction emphasized traditional Christian values through strict rules, enforced by rigid discipline. As such, the primary objective of in loco parentis was on the conditioning of social and individual behavior, rather than intellectual cultivation; the second distinct shift toward a unified student development theory emerged in the late nineteenth century, through the first quarter of the twentieth century, marked by the growth of colleges and universities throughout Europe and the United States, simultaneous with the development of social science disciplines like psychology. By mid-twentieth century, behavioral psychologists such as B. F. Skinner and Carl Rogers influenced educational theory and policy, a new paradigm emerged known as the Student Services paradigm; as the name indicates, the "student services" perspective said that students ought to be provided with the services that benefit knowledge acquisition. By the mid-twentieth century, the service paradigm started to be replaced with the student development paradigm.
This paradigm was influenced by the growing body of psychological and sociological theories, reflecting the idea that students learn both in-class and out-of-class, are influenced both by their genetics and social environment. Basic assumptions guiding the student development movement: Each student is a different individual with unique needs; the entire environment of the student should be used for education. Student has a personal responsibility for getting educated. Student development theories can be divided into five categories: Psychosocial. Psychosocial theories focus on long-term issues that tend to occur in sequence and are correlated with chronological age, concentrating on individuals progress through various'life stages' by accomplishing certain deeds. Cognitive-structural. Cognitive-structural theories rationalize their experiences. Person–environment. Person–environment theories address interaction between conceptualizations of the college student and the college environment, looking at behavior as a social function of the person and the environment.
The National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena was an unidentified flying object research group most active in the United States from the 1950s to the 1980s. It remains active as an informational depository on the UFO phenomenon. Though NICAP was a non-profit organization, the group faced financial collapse many times in its existence, due in no small part to business ineptitude among the group's directors. Following a wave of nationally publicized UFO incidents in the mid-1960s, NICAP's membership spiked and only did the organization become financially stable. However, following publication of the Condon Report in 1968, NICAP's membership declined and the organization again fell into long-term financial decline and disarray. Despite these internal troubles, NICAP had the most visibility of any civilian American UFO group, arguably had the most mainstream respectability. NICAP advocated transparent scientific investigation of UFO sightings and was skeptical of "contactee" tales involving meetings with space visitors, the alien abduction phenomenon, the like.
The presence of several prominent military officials as members of NICAP brought a further measure of respectability for many observers. Throughout its existence, NICAP argued that there was an organized governmental cover-up of UFO evidence. NICAP pushed for governmental hearings regarding UFOs, with occasional success. Though any UFO-related group attracts a number of uncritical enthusiasts along with a small percentage of cranks, astronomer J. Allen Hynek cited NICAP and Aerial Phenomena Research Organization as the two best civilian UFO groups of their time, consisting of sober, serious-minded people capable of valuable contributions to the subject; until the mid-1960s, NICAP gave little attention to close encounters of the third kind. However, longtime NICAP member Richard H. Hall related that this position was "tactical and not doctrinaire." In other words, NICAP did not dismiss occupant reports out of hand, but elected to focus on other aspects of the UFO phenomenon which would be perceived by mainstream observers as less outlandish.
The attention given to the contactees of the 1950s was certainly a factor in NICAP's reluctance to study UFO occupant reports too closely. But with the 1964 Lonnie Zamora UFO encounter — regarded by researchers as one of the most reliable UFO occupant reports — NICAP loosened its restrictions on studying UFO occupant reports. NICAP was founded on October 1956, by inventor Thomas Townsend Brown; the board of governors included several prominent men, including Donald Keyhoe, Maj USMC, former chief of the Navy's guided missile program RADM Delmer S. Fahrney USN By early January 1957, Brown had proved so financially inept that the board asked him to step down. Fahrney replaced him convened a press conference on January 16, 1957, where he announced that UFOs were under intelligent control, but that they were of neither American or Soviet origin; the press conference received major attention, doubtless aided by Fahrney's stature. In April 1957, Fahrney resigned from NICAP, it was disclosed that his wife was ill.
Fahrney was bothered by the whispers and ridicule his UFO interests generated among many of his peers in the military. Keyhoe became NICAP's director, he established a monthly newsletter, The U. F. O. Investigator. Another prominent figure joined NICAP's board of governors: Keyhoe's Naval Academy classmate VADM Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, USN He had been Director of Central Intelligence and first head of the Central Intelligence Agency. Another important name on the letterhead was that of Gen. Albert Coady Wedemeyer USA The organization had chapters and local associates scattered throughout the United States. Many of their members were amateurs, but a considerable percentage were professionals, including journalists, military personnel and physicians. One of NICAP's prime goals was thorough field investigations of UFO reports, they would compile a significant number of case files and field investigations which Clark characterises as "often first rate". By 1958, NICAP had grown to over 5000 members. Keyhoe's financial management and business skills were only better than Brown's, NICAP hobbled along throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, facing collapse on several occasions.
For most of his tenure as director, Keyhoe sent irregular letters to NICAP's members, warning of the organization's imminent collapse, soliciting funds to keep NICAP going. According to Jerome Clark, Keyhoe paid for much of NICAP's operating expenses himself; the 1960s found much of the American public keenly interested in UFOs, NICAP's membership crested at 14,000. This influx of members improved the group's finances. Hillenkoetter left the board in 1962. In 1964, NICAP published The UFO Evidence, edited by Richard H. Hall, a summary of hundreds of unexplained reports studied by NICAP investigators through 1963. Sightings were systematically broken down by special types of evidence. For example, individual chapters were devoted to sightings by military personnel and aviation experts, scientists and engineers. Another chapter was devoted to evidence of intelligent control and yet another to physical evidence or interactions, such as electromagnetic e
The Wind and The Wave is an American band composed of Dwight A. Baker and Patricia Lynn. Dwight Baker and Patricia Lynn played their first show on July 4, 2013 in Austin, opening for Bob Schneider. Lynn had been the lead singer of the Soldier Thread and Baker worked both in front of the microphone as well as in the recording studio for Alpha Rev, Brandi Carlile, Blue October, Bob Schneider. In addition, Baker has written music for Kelly Clarkson, is the owner/operator of Matchbox Studios in Austin. Signed to RCA Records in 2013, their debut album, From the Wreckage, was released on August 5, 2014; the band's cover of "Chasing Cars" by Snow Patrol was featured on the episode, "She's Leaving Home", in season eleven of Grey's Anatomy. The placement propelled the cover song to the number one spot on Shazam's USA future hits chart; the band has had other limited success on television, having various songs featured on Nashville, Hart of Dixie, The Vampire Diaries. The band signed with Island Records in March 2016 and released their first single, "Grand Canyon", from their second album, Happiness is Not a Place on May 13, 2016.
The band premiered their official music video for "Grand Canyon" on American Songwriter on June 24, 2016. On October 28, 2016, the band released their first album under Island Records titled Happiness is Not a Place; the album was produced by Butch Walker and features a more raw, less polished sound than the band's freshman album. The band's third album Human Beings Let You Down was released in October 2018, the band supported the album with a national tour. 2014: From the Wreckage 2015: Covers One 2016: Happiness Is Not a Place 2018: Human Beings Let You Down
Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa is a Christian megachurch located near the boundary between the cities of Costa Mesa and Santa Ana in Orange County. Although the church takes its name from its original facilities on the Costa Mesa side of the boundary, it is now in Santa Ana, it is the original Calvary Chapel, having grown since 1965 from a handful of people led by the original senior pastor Chuck Smith to become the "mother church" of over one thousand congregations worldwide. Outreach Magazine's list of the 100 Largest Churches in America lists attendance as 9,500, making it the thirty-ninth largest in America. Chuck Smith started pastoring at Calvary Chapel in 1965 with a congregation of only twenty-five. Smith's style was to preach straight from the Bible without deviation. In 1968 Smith, looking for a way to bring Christ to the current generation of hippies and surfers, invited Lonnie and Connie Frisbee to work alongside John Nicholson and John Higgins to work with the hippies in the area at "The House of Miracles".
Within a week it had 35 new converts. Lonnie's charismatic, Pentecostal style caused some disagreement within the church, since he seemed more intent on gaining converts and experiencing the presence of the Holy Spirit than on teaching newer converts Biblical doctrine. Lonnie Frisbee's experiential charismatic approach was a key element in the foundation in Southern California of what was termed the Jesus movement in the early part of the 1970s. Subsequent to Frisbee's arrival, Calvary Chapel claimed thousands of converts and newly baptized joined the movement which spread throughout the United States and the rest of the world; as of 2009, there are more than 1500 Calvary Chapel congregations worldwide. Smith has started other ministries including Maranatha! Music, a record label, The Word for Today, a publishing/radio broadcasting ministry. On October 3, 2013, Smith died after a long battle with lung cancer. Smith remained as the senior pastor at Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa during his battle with cancer - including preaching at three services the Sunday before his death.
Brian Brodersen, Smith's son-in-law, became senior pastor following his death. Mainline Christian media have detailed a variety of allegations involving Smith and the leadership of Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa; these include financial lax standards for sexual improprieties. A lawsuit was filed alleging that Smith and others at Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa knew or should have known that a minister named Anthony Iglesias was prone to committing sexual abuse when they moved him from ministry positions in Diamond Bar, California, to Thailand, to Post Falls, Idaho. Iglesias was convicted of lewd conduct with two 14-year-old boys in California in 2004, the lawsuit stemmed from events in Idaho, but all alleged abuse occurred in or before 2003; the Costa Mesa congregation is involved due to its leadership role among Calvary Chapels. The case was dismissed with prejudice as of September 18, 2012. Official website