In aviation, stagger is the relative horizontal fore-aft positioning of stacked wings in a biplane, triplane, or multiplane. An aircraft is said to have positive stagger, or stagger, when the upper wing is positioned forward of the lower wing, Examples include the de Havilland Tiger Moth or Stearman. Conversely, an aeroplane is said to have negative stagger in unusual cases where the upper wing is positioned behind the lower wing, as in the Sopwith Dolphin or Beech Model 17 Staggerwing. An aircraft with the wings positioned directly above each other is said to have unstaggered wings, as in the Sopwith Cuckoo or Vickers Vildebeest; the value sometimes expressed as a distance, s say, but it may be written as a fraction or percentage of the'gap', i.e. s/g. It may be presented as an angle equal to tan−1; the Gloster TSR.38 had a stagger of 0.91 m and a gap of 2.0 m, so the stagger might be written as 0.91 m, 0.455, 45.5% or 24.5°. S is the distance from the leading edge of the upper wing along its chord to the point of intersection of the chord with a line drawn perpendicularly to the chord of the upper wing at the leading edge of the lower wing, all lines being drawn in a plane parallel to the plane of symmetry.
As a general rule, there is a tendency for the upper wing to contribute a greater proportion of the total lift than the lower with positive stagger, less with negative stagger. Increase in positive stagger tends to move the center of pressure forward on the upper wing and backward on the lower wing; when unstaggered, the centers of pressure for upper and lower wings are coincidental. Positive stagger is by far the most common, as this positioning of the upper wing allows better visibility for the crew as well as increased aircraft longitudinal stability, aerodynamic efficiency and maximum lift. Decalage
The Rotax 582 is a 48 kW two-stroke, two-cylinder, rotary intake valve, oil-in-fuel or oil injection pump, liquid-cooled, gear reduction-drive aircraft engine manufactured by BRP-Rotax GmbH & Co. KG, it is for use in non-certified aircraft operating in day visual flight rules. The Rotax 582 is based upon the earlier Rotax 532 engine design and was designed for ultralight aircraft; the 582 increased the bore from the 532 engine's 72 to 76 mm. This increased the displacement from 521.2 cc to 580.7 cc, an increase of 11%. The increased displacement had the effect of flattening out the 532's torque curve and allowed the 582 to produce useful power over a wider rpm range. Reliability over the 532 was improved; the 582 features liquid-cooled cylinder cylinders with a rotary intake valve. Cooling is via an externally mounted radiator. Lubrication is either by use of pre-mixed fuel and oil or oil injection from an externally mounted oil tank; the 582 has dual independent breakerless, magneto capacitor discharge ignition systems and is equipped with two piston-type carburetors.
It uses. An optional High Altitude Compensation kit is available; the engine's propeller drive is via C or E style gearbox. The standard engine includes; the standard starter is a recoil start type, with an electric starter optional. An integral alternating current generator producing 170 watts at 12 volts with external rectifier-regulator is optional; the engine can be fitted with an intake silencer system. The manufacturer acknowledges the design limitations of this engine, warning pilots: "This engine, by its design, is subject to sudden stoppage. Engine stoppage can result in forced landings or no power landings; such crash landings can lead to serious bodily injury or death... This is not a certificated aircraft engine, it has not received any safety or durability testing, conforms to no aircraft standards. It is for use in experimental, uncertificated aircraft and vehicles only in which an engine failure will not compromise safety. User assumes all risk of use, acknowledges by his use that he knows this engine is subject to sudden stoppage...
Never fly the aircraft equipped with this engine at locations, altitudes, or other circumstances from which a successful no-power landing cannot be made, after sudden engine stoppage. Aircraft equipped with this engine must only fly in DAYLIGHT VFR conditions." Type: two-cylinder, two-stroke, rotary valve, oil-in-fuel or oil-injected lubrication, dual carburetors, electronic dual ignition Bore: 76 mm Stroke: 64 mm Displacement: 580.7 cm³ Dry weight: 50 kg with electric starter, fuel pump, air filters and reduction gear Fuel type: premium unleaded: RON 90 octane or higher leaded or unleaded or AVGAS 100 LL Oil system: oil-in-fuel or oil injection Cooling system: liquid cooled Power output: 48 kW at 6,500 RPM Compression ratio: 11.5 - 5.75 effective Rotax aircraft engines Arrow 500 Hirth 3202 Company website
The Air Zoo, founded as the Kalamazoo Aviation History Museum, is an aviation museum and indoor amusement park next to the Kalamazoo-Battle Creek International Airport in Portage, Michigan. The Air Zoo holds many historical and rare aircraft, including the world's fastest air-breathing aircraft, the SR-71B Blackbird. Many of its antique planes are airworthy. Among its other attractions are a 180-degree theater that projects a 4-D simulation of a B-17 bombing mission during World War II. S. Navy F/A-18 Hornets, a stunt biplane, a hot air balloon, more. Air Zoo is a Smithsonian Affiliate; the Kalamazoo Aviation History Museum was founded in 1977 by former Women Airforce Service Pilots, Sue Parish and WWII pilot Pete Parish. The museum was dedicated to "preserving and displaying historical and military artifacts and to serving as a research and educational facility for this country and abroad." The doors opened on November 18, 1979, to great local acclaim, the museum developed into one of the 10 largest nongovernmental aviation museums in the United States.
In early 1999, the name "Air Zoo" was adopted. The name comes from the fact that so many of the planes in its collection have animal nicknames like Warhawk and various cats like the Wildcat, the Bearcat, the Hellcat. In early 1999, plans began for a major renovation. On April 25, 2003, construction began on a new 120,000-square-foot facility that doubled the museum's size and added flight simulators, amusement rides, Smithsonian Institution exhibitions, character actors, a 4-D theater that combines 3-D films with special effects such as rocking chairs and plumes of smoke to simulate anti-aircraft fire; the new facility opened in April 2004. It holds the world's largest hand-painted indoor mural: "Century of Flight", by aviation artist Rick Herter, a 25,000-square-foot tribute to the history of flight in the main entrance. Across the hall is the 168-foot "Night to Day" mural by Miriel Williams. There is a computer-generated background on an adjacent wall. In June 2007, the Michigan Space & Science Center opened in the old building.
The building featured World War II aircraft, several artifacts from the defunct Jackson Space Center, more. On October 1, 2011, the Air Zoo expanded its Main Campus again, moving everything from the East Campus into the new 50,000-square-foot addition. Half of this new expansion is devoted to the Space Theme, while the other half of the add-on includes World War II aircraft; the East Campus is now being used as the Restoration Center, noted for its work on aircraft including a Douglas Dauntless, a Sopwith Camel, the newest project: An FM-2 Wildcat, lying at the bottom of Lake Michigan for 68 years. The Air Zoo contains different archival collections. Since September 23, 1995, the Air Zoo is home to the Michigan Aviation Hall of Fame, it holds the Guadalcanal Memorial Museum, sponsored and maintained by the Guadalcanal Campaign Veterans Association featuring information about the fighting on Guadalcanal during World War II. History of aviation Women Airforce Service Pilots Suzanne Parish National Air and Space Museum National Museum of Naval Aviation National Museum of the Marine Corps National Museum of the U.
S. Air Force Official website
The Fisher FP-404 is a Canadian single-seat, conventional landing gear, single-engined biplane kit aircraft designed for construction by amateur builders. Fisher Flying Products was based in Edgeley, North Dakota, USA but the company is now located in Woodbridge, Canada; the FP-404 was designed by Fisher Aircraft in the United States in 1984 and was the company's first design, too heavy for the US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles category, with the category's maximum 254 lb empty weight. The 404's standard empty weight is 275 lb when equipped with a two-stroke 50 hp Rotax 503 engine, putting it into the US experimental-amateur-built category, although it qualifies as an ultralight in other countries, such as Canada; the design goal was to provide a nostalgic aircraft reminiscent of the biplanes of the 1930s, as the company explains "The FP-404 represents a reborn era in airborne adventure. This bi-plane aircraft is a throw-back to seat-of-the-pants flying, complete with minimal instruments and bare-necessity controls."The construction of the FP-404 is similar to the Fisher FP-202 Koala.
The aircraft's structure is made from wood, with the wooden fuselage built from wood strips arranged in a geodesic form, resulting in a strong and light aircraft with redundant load paths. Both the wings and fuselage are covered with doped aircraft fabric; the wings are strut-braced with cabane struts. The aircraft has no flaps; the company claims it takes an amateur builder 500 hours to build the FP-404, "using normal household tools". Early versions of the FP-404 were equipped with the 28 hp Rotax 277 in an attempt to keep the aircraft under the US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles weight limit but the aircraft was found to be under-powered due to its short wing span and high-drag configuration. Heavier engines, like the 40 hp Rotax 447 and 50 hp Rotax 503 engines provided adequate power but put the 404 over the category weight limit; these models were designated as the Fisher 404 EXP to show that they would not qualify for the FAR 103 weight limit. By late 2004 over 350 FP-404s were flying. Reviewer Andre Cliche said about the design: FP-404 Single-seat, single-engined biplane, initial version equipped with a 28 hp Rotax 277 powerplant for the FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles category FP-404 EXP Single-seat, single-engined biplane version equipped with a 40 hp Rotax 447 or 50 hp Rotax 503 powerplant for the US experimental-amateur-built category Data from Company website and ClicheGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: no passengers Length: 14 ft 6 in Wingspan: 18 ft 0 in Height: 5 ft 5 in Wing area: 120 sq ft Empty weight: 275 lb Useful load: 265 lb Max.
Takeoff weight: 540 lb Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 503 Twin cylinder, two-stroke piston engine, 50 hp Performance Never exceed speed: 90 mph Cruise speed: 72 mph Stall speed: 30 mph Rate of climb: 800 ft/min Wing loading: 4.5 lb/ft2 Power/mass: 10.8 lb/hp Aircraft of comparable role and era Murphy Renegade RagWing RW2 Special I Sorrell Hiperlight Stolp Starduster Too Official website Photo of FP-404
A fly-in is a pre-arranged gathering of aircraft and passengers for recreational and social purposes. Fly-ins may be formally or informally organised, members of the public may or may not be invited, the gathering may be at an airport or in a farmer's field. Fly-ins can be aimed at specific aircraft classes, such as taildraggers, experimental aircraft or specific aircraft models, they may be organized by a national organization, such as the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association or the Experimental Aircraft Association, the airport owner or authority, a flying club, an aircraft type club or by a group of friends meeting for a barbecue and to socialize. The term "fly-in" is not formally defined in the aviation legislation of many countries and it may refer to a range of events, while in others it has a specific legal meaning. For example, in Canada fly-ins may not include air displays or competitive flying. Both fly-ins and airshows evolved out of the first aviation meets held in the pioneering days of flying, early in the twentieth century, before the First World War.
Although there were some minor aviation meets in France earlier in 1909, at Port-Aviation south of Paris, in Douai and in Vichy, the first major international aviation meet was the Grande Semaine d'Aviation held in Reims, France between 22–29 August 1909. The event attracted some of the world's foremost pilots of the day, including Louis Blériot, Henry Farman, Léon Delagrange, Hubert Latham, Charles de Lambert, Louis Paulhan, Roger Sommer, Claude Grahame-White and one American, Glenn Curtiss; the event was a competition for record setting. Curtis set a speed record of 80 km/h flying a biplane he had designed, winning the first race for Gordon Bennett Coupe Internationale d'Aviation. Henry Farman set a distance record of 180 km in just over three hours. Hubert Latham won the altitude contest by attaining 155 m; the event attracted large crowds of spectators including 3,000 from the United Kingdom and 2,000 from the United States. None of the aircraft were flown-in, but arrived via ground transport and assembled in place.
The first person to fly into an aviation meeting was Hubert Latham, who flew to the 1909 Konkurrenz-Fliegen Berlin at Johannisthal Air Field from the Tempelhof field on 27 September 1909, a distance of 10.5 km. This was one of the several meetings inspired by the Reims meeting. Latham's flight was the first cross-country flight in Germany. Flying to aviation meetings was sometimes discouraged. For example, Robert Martinet wanted to fly his plane to the June 1910 Angers aviation meeting, but was refused by the organizers, on the grounds that this dangerous flight would put his appearance at the meeting at risk; the expression in English most used for similar events in the pre-World War I era was "aviation meeting" or "aviation meet". The first aviation meet located in the United Kingdom was held at Doncaster between 15–23 October 1909, it preceded the second UK event held at Blackpool by only three days. Both events competed for the honour of being the first of their type in the country and as a result neither drew the expected public interest.
The Doncaster event attracted a dozen aircraft and pilots, but bad weather prevented much of the planned flying and many of the trophies were not awarded. The event lost a considerable amount of money; the first major competitive aviation meet held in the United States was the Los Angeles Aviation Meet, held 10–20 January 1910 at Dominguez Field. Again this was a competition-style meet with all the aircraft from France. Louis Paulhan set a height record of just under one mile and took the prize for endurance with a flight of 1:49:40 that covered 61 mi; the first African aviation meet was the Grande Semaine d'Aviation d'Egypt held at Heliopolis, east of Cairo, 6–13 February 1910. The event took advantage of the good winter weather found in that country and attracted fliers from all over Europe; the event was organized by the Aero Club of Egypt assisted by the Aero Club de France and was sponsored by Prince Pasha, uncle of the Khedive of Egypt. Pilots flew from an aerodrome, staked out in the desert that had a landing and take-off surface, 5 km by 3 km wide.
Competitions were flown between the twelve pilots participating and 173,000 Francs in prize money was disbursed. One participant was "Baroness" Raymonde de Laroche, the first woman in the world to earn a pilot's licence, who won a 10,000 Franc prize for her flight of 10 km; the People's Republic of China has been a difficult environment for general aviation, having had severe limits placed on it in the communist era, but by 2011 the government agreed to lift restrictions and to promote the use of business and personal aviation. China's first fly-in was to be held 20–24 September 2011 in Beijing as part of a five-day conference on general aviation, but the fly-in was "postponed indefinitely" due to a Beijing Police Department helicopter crash that raised safety concerns. Switzerland's fly-ins include the one from La Côte, near Prangins, held each every 2 years since 2007, organized by the local air-club "Club Aéronautique Swissair Genève"
Tandem, or in tandem, is an arrangement in which a team of machines, animals or people are lined up one behind another, all facing in the same direction. The original use of the term in English was in tandem harness, used for two or more draft horses, or other draft animals, harnessed in a single line one behind another, as opposed to a pair, harnessed side by side, or a team of several pairs; the tandem harness allows additional animals to provide pulling power for a vehicle designed for a single animal. The English word tandem derives with a word play from the Latin adverb tandem, meaning at length or finally. Tandem seating may be used on a tandem bicycle. Tandem can be used more to refer to any group of persons or objects working together, not in line; the Messerschmitt KR200 was an example of a small automobile that used tandem seating. A tandem arrangement may be used for cars parked in a residential garage. In heavy trucks tandem refers to two spaced axles. Defined by the distance between the axles, mechanically there are many configurations.
Either or both axles may be powered, interact with each other. In the United States both axles are powered and equalized, in the European Union one axle is unpowered, can be adjusted to load, raised off the ground, turning a tandem into a single-axle; the two seating configurations for trainer and all-weather interceptor or attack aircraft are pilot and instructor side by side or in tandem. The pilot is in front and the instructor behind. In attack helicopters, sometimes the pilot sits in back with the weapons operator in front for better view to aim weapons, as the Bell AH-1 Cobra was a tandem cockpit redesign which produced a much slimmer profile than the Bell UH-1 Iroquois on which it was based. Attack aircraft and all-weather interceptors use a second crew member to operate avionics such as radar, or as a second pilot. Bombers such as the Convair B-58 Hustler seated three crew members in tandem. A common engineering adaptation is to lengthen the cockpit or fuselage to create a trainer with tandem seating from a single-seater aircraft.
An alternative configuration is side-by-side seating, common in civil aircraft of all sizes and large military aircraft, but less so in high performance jets and gliders where drag reduction is paramount. The Boeing B-47 Stratojet and Boeing XB-52 bombers used fighter-style tandem seating, but the final B-52 bomber series used a conventional side-by-side cockpit; the Grumman A-6 Intruder, General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, Sukhoi Su-24 or the Sukhoi Su-34 are examples of combat aircraft that use this configuration. For training aircraft, it has the advantage that pilot and instructor can see each other's actions, allowing the pilot to learn from the instructor and the instructor to correct the student pilot; the tandem configuration has the advantage of being closer to the normal working environment that a fast jet pilot is to encounter. In some cases, such as the Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler, a two-place aircraft can be lengthened into a four-place aircraft. A single seat cockpit can be redesigned into a side-by-side arrangement in the case of the Douglas A-1 Skyraider, TF-102 trainer or the Hawker Hunter training versions.
Tandem language learning Class-4 telephone switch or tandem switch Semi-trailer, where multiple axles on a trailer are called "tandem axles" In series, an arrangement of electrical circuit elements one after another Tandem-charge, an arrangement of two explosive charges one behind another in a projectile Tandem skydiving, two people skydive using one parachute Tandem repeat, in molecular biology Tandem bicycle Clipart.com Closeup | Royalty-Free Image of tandem carriage horses harness coach driver whip Illustration. Three Men In a Carriage Drawn by a Tandem Horse Team. Tandem Horse Teams Museum Victoria official site.
The Fisher Classic is a Canadian two-seat, conventional landing gear, single-engined, biplane kit aircraft designed for construction by amateur builders. The aircraft is a two-seat derivation of the Fisher FP-404. Fisher Flying Products was based in Edgeley, North Dakota, USA but the company is now located in Woodbridge, Canada; the Classic was designed by Fisher Aircraft in the United States in 1987 and was intended to comply with the US Experimental - Amateur-built category, although it qualifies as an ultralight aircraft in some countries, such as Canada. It qualifies as a US Experimental Light Sport Aircraft; the Classic's standard empty weight is 400 lb when equipped with a 64 hp Rotax 582 engine and it has a gross weight of 850 lb. The construction of the Classic is of wood, with the wings and fuselage covered with doped aircraft fabric; the aircraft features interplane struts, inverted "V" cabane struts, four ailerons and a semi-symmetrical airfoil. Like the original FP-404 upon which it is based, the Classic has no flaps.
The Classic's main landing gear is bungee suspended. Cockpit access is via the lower wing; the company claims. The specified engine for the Classic is the 64 hp Rotax 582 two-stroke engine; the estimated time to build the aircraft from the kit is 400–500 hours, or 250 hours from the quick-build kit. By late 2011 more than 155 Classics were flying. Data from Company website, AeroCrafter & KitplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 16 ft 9 in Wingspan: 22 ft 0 in Height: 5 ft 11 in Wing area: 154 sq ft Empty weight: 400 lbs Useful load: 450 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 850 lbs Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 582 Two stroke, two cylinder aircraft engine, 64 hp Performance Never exceed speed: 100 mph Maximum speed: 90 mph Cruise speed: 80 mph Stall speed: 39 mph Rate of climb: 600 fpm Wing loading: 5.2 lb/sq ft Power/mass: 13.3 lb/hp Aircraft of comparable role and era Fisher Celebrity Fisher FP-404 Fisher R-80 Tiger Moth Murphy Renegade Sorrell Hiperlight Official website Photo of a Classic