Pinus peuce is a species of pine native to the mountains of North Macedonia, Albania, Kosovo, the extreme southwest of Serbia, the extreme north of Greece, growing at 1,000-2,200 m altitude. It reaches the alpine tree line in this area; the mature size is up to 35–40 m height, 1.5 m trunk diameter. However, the height of the tree diminishes near the upper forest limit and may obtain shrub sizes, it is a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, like all members of that group, the leaves are in fascicles of five, with a deciduous sheath. They are 6–11 cm long, its pine cones are 8–16 cm long up to 20 cm long, green at first, becoming yellow-brown when mature, with broad, flat to downcurved scales. The 6–7 mm long seeds have a 2 cm wing and can be wind-dispersed, but are very dispersed by spotted nutcrackers. Macedonian pine is one of the most valuable conifer species in the Balkan Peninsula, its durable wood is valued in construction, furniture production, wood-carving and cooperage.
The tree is exceptionally good at adapting to severe mountain climate conditions, which makes it a valuable species for afforestation on high terrain for protection against erosion. The local population use P. peuce resin to cure wounds, pectoral and stomach diseases, varicose veins and other illnesses. Macedonian pine is a popular ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, giving reliable steady though not fast growth on a wide range of sites, it is tolerant of severe winter cold, hardy down to at least -45 °C, of wind exposure. It is locally naturalised Punkaharju in eastern Finland. Like other European and Asian white pines, Macedonian pine is resistant to white pine blister rust; this fungal disease was accidentally introduced from Europe into North America, where it has caused severe mortality in the American native white pines in many areas. Macedonian pine is of great value for research into hybridisation and genetic modification to develop rust resistance in these species. Synonyms include Pinus cembra var. fruticosa Griseb.
Pinus excelsa var. peuce Beissn. Pinus peuce var. vermiculata Christ, Balkan pine. Pinus peuce - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Borovets, known as Chamkoria until the middle of the 20th century, is a popular Bulgarian mountain resort situated in Sofia Province, on the northern slopes of Rila, at an altitude of 1350 m. Borovets is 73 km from Sofia and 125 km from Plovdiv. Borovets is the oldest Bulgarian winter resort with a history that dates back to 1896. Borovets was established at the end of the 19th Century as a hunting place for the Bulgarian Kings. Borovets developed into a modern ski resort with hotels, bars and a network of ski runs and lifts along the slopes of the Rila Mountains, providing for a whole range of winter sports; the resort has twice hosted World Cup Alpine Skiing rounds, while the Biathlon track is one of the best in the world. The Super Borovets project is one of the largest and most expensive investment and development projects in Bulgarian history; the plan is to enlarge Borovets town to encompass the nearby towns of Beli Iskar. The resort will be divided into three levels: Level 1 or Low Borovets: A brand new development just outside Samokov, this area will cater for the less economically well off tourists, but will have good connections and transport with Borovets and the main ski area.
This project will provide around 5,000 hotel rooms. Level 2 or Borovets: Consists of the existing Borovets with extensive investment and development; this will remain as the main accommodation area. Level 3 or Super Borovets: This will cater for those looking for 5 star hotels and a luxury experience, however it will provide no more than 2,500 hotel rooms; the current plan from the architects is to expand the number of pistes by constructing 19 new pistes bringing the total ski-able area to around 90 km. To cope with the higher demand for ski-lifts and gondolas, 12 new ski-lifts will be built. One of these lifts will be a multi-station gondola which connects Borovets to Samokov allowing skiers easy access to the slopes from the Lower Borovets development site; the project was launched in 2004 and was to be completed by 2009, however several setbacks have delayed it. The project was given the go-ahead in October 2007, amidst opposition from environmentalists. However, by February 2010, still nothing had happened with the whole project mired in financial problems as a result of the late-2000s financial crisis, the project's backers denying that work had restarted.
The ski resort is at an altitude of 1350 m. 58 km of marked pistes cover the north facing slopes up to an altitude of 2560 m, with many runs terminating near the village centre allowing skiers to ski to their hotel door. The longest run is a gentle 12 km return to the resort along the maintenance road. Borovets Ski Slopes All ski lifts are open 9.00 am to 4.30 pm. Each lift closes for technical checks and maintenance for half a day each week and for 1 full day each month, see local signs for dates and times for each lift. Borovets Lifts The lift infrastructure of the resort is well developed by drag lifts, baby tows, seat chain lifts, plus a gondola lift. 1 six-seat Gondola lift, 2 High Speed Quad Chair lifts, 1 Fixed Grip Quad Chair lift, 10 Surface ski lifts and 9 tow lifts. As for the 6 persons gondola lift, it takes you to the Yastrebets peak on 2363 m above sea level; the difference in altitude is approx. 1046 m and length of route is 4827 m. The gondola lift has a capacity of 1200 persons per hour.
The journey takes around 20 minutes. The total capacity of all tow lifts of Borovets is 8150 persons per hour. A completed 200-meter carpet lift takes the skiers from ski center Markudjik to the upper station of the gondola lift "Yastrebetz". For night skiing there is a special lift pass that has to be bought separately at the kiosks on the pistes, it is valid from 6 pm till 9.30 pm. The resort offers biathlon facilities for training and competitions. 35 km of cross country trails are designed according to the requirements of FIS, although they cancelled the last two cross-country events to be held in Borovets, in 2009 and 2010. 2 person ski-doos are available for local rent in the resort. Tourists can be guided through the local forests by an instructor.. One of the major attractions of Bulgaria and Borovets is the high standard of instruction available at a much lower cost than is common in the ski resorts of Western Europe; the instruction is divided into 5 different levels according to the skill level of the individual.
The lessons may be group or individual and the duration of the course is from anything from 3 to 12 days. There is a ski kindergarten for the children aged 4 to 8 years which runs for the entire day. Like most ski resorts, Borovets is quieter during the summer, but there is always horse riding, by the hour or 1 to 7-day holidays, on the wonderful mountain and forest tracks and paths, more mountain biking has become popular and there are many dedicated routes which include purpose-made jumps; the lifts are working in the summer and bikers can take their bikes up on them. Different lifts work on different days. Hiking is popular as is fishing at the local trout fishery; the Kings Palace is open from 10 till 5 Friday to cost 3 leva entry. Borovets travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Borovets at Wikimedia Commons
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros is, with a length of 480 km, the longest river that runs in the interior of the Balkans. Its drainage area is about 53,000 km2, of which 66.2% in Bulgaria, 27.5% in Turkey and 6.3% in Greece. It has its origin in the Rila Mountains in Western Bulgaria, flowing southeast between the Balkan and Rhodope Mountains, past Plovdiv and Parvomay to Edirne, Turkey. East of Svilengrad, the river flows eastwards, forming the border between Bulgaria and Greece, between Turkey and Greece. At Edirne, the river flows through Turkish territory on both banks turns towards the south and forms the border between Greece on the west bank and Turkey on the east bank to the Aegean Sea. Turkey was given a small sector on the west bank opposite the city of Edirne; the river enters the Aegean Sea near Enez. The Tundzha is its chief tributary; the lower course of the Maritsa/Evros forms part of the Bulgarian-Greek border and most of the Greek–Turkish border. The upper Maritsa valley is a principal east-west route in Bulgaria.
The unnavigable river is used for power irrigation. The places that the river flows through include Pazardzhik, Parvomay and Svilengrad in Bulgaria, Edirne in Turkey and Kastanies, Pythio and Lavara in Greece. There are a number of bridges over the river, including the one at Svilengrad, the one west of Edirne in Turkey and GR-2 with the D110/E90 further south and as its border crossings; the earliest known name of the river is Euros. Indo-European *ewru and Ancient Greek εύρύs meant "wide"; the Indo-European "wr" sound shifted in Thracian to "br". Thereafter, the river began to be known as Hebros in Greek and Latin. Rather than an origin as "wide river", an alternative hypothesis is that Hebros meant "goat" in Thracian. Since, when first attested, Europe referred only to Thrace proper, the name of the continent is derived from this river. While the name Έβρος was used in Ancient Greek, the name Μαρίτσα had become standard before the ancient form Έβρος was artificially restituted in Modern Greek.
The name Maritsa may derive from a mountain near the mouth of the river known in antiquity as Μηρισός or Μήριζος, Latinized as Meritus. In 1371, the river was the site of the Battle of Maritsa known as the battle of Chernomen, an Ottoman victory over the Serbs. Vukašin Mrnjavčević and Jovan Uglješa died in the battle; the Maritsa/Evros river has become one route for illegal migrants arriving into the EU. Many people, from Asia and Africa have used the Maritsa route after agreements sometimes seem to temporarily block other routes e.g. across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and Spain. Starting from the river's source, significant tributaries of Maritsa include: Left tributaries: Topolnitsa Luda Yana Stryama Sazliyka Tundzha/Tunca Ergene Right tributaries: Chepinska reka Vacha Chepelarska reka Harmanliyska reka Arda/Ardas Erythropotamos/Luda reka The lower course of the river Maritsa/Evros, where it forms the border of Greece and Turkey, is vulnerable to flooding. For about 4 months every year, the low lands around the river are flooded.
This causes significant economic damage, estimated at several hundreds million Euro. Recent large floods took place in 2006 and 2007. Several causes have been proposed: more rainfall due to climate change, deforestation in the Bulgarian part of the catchment area, increased land use in the flood plains and difficult communication between the three countries. Maritsa Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Maritsa River. La Maritza is a 1968 song written by Jean Renard and Pierre Delanoë and interpreted by Sylvie Vartan. Hebrus Valles on Mars is named after this river; the Bulgarian Maritsa motorway, which follows the course of the river from Chirpan to the Turkish border at Kapitan Andreevo, is named in honour of the river. "МАРИЦА". Българска енциклопедия А-Я. БАН, Труд, Сирма. 2002. ISBN 954-8104-08-3. OCLC 163361648
The Balkan mountain range is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Balkan range runs 560 km from the Vrashka Chuka Peak on the border between Bulgaria and Serbia eastward through central Bulgaria to Cape Emine on the Black Sea; the highest peaks of the Balkan Mountains are in central Bulgaria. The highest peak is Botev at 2,376 m, which makes the mountain range the third highest in the country, after Rila and Pirin; the mountains are the source of the name of the Balkan Peninsula. The mountain range forms the watershed between the Black Sea and Aegean Sea catchment areas, with the exception of an area in west, where it is crossed by the spectacular Iskar Gorge; the karst relief determines the large number of caves, including Magura, featuring the most important and extended European post-Palaeolithic cave painting, Saeva dupka, Bacho Kiro, etc. The most notable rock formation are the Belogradchik Rocks in the west. There are several important protected areas: Central Balkan National Park, Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park, Bulgarka Nature Park and Sinite Kamani Nature Park, as well as a number of nature reserves.
The Balkan Mountains are remarkable for their fauna. Edelweiss grows there in the region of Kozyata stena; some of the most striking landscapes are included in the Central Balkan National Park with steep cliffs, the highest waterfalls in the Balkan Peninsula and lush vegetation. There are a number of important nature reserves such as Kozyata stena and others. Most of Europe's large mammals inhabit the area including the brown bear, boar and deer; the Balkan Mountains played an enormous role in the history of Bulgaria since its foundation in 681 AD, in the development of the Bulgarian nation and people. It is believed the name was brought to the region in the 7th century by Bulgars who applied it to the area, as a part of the First Bulgarian Empire. In Bulgarian, the word balkan means "mountain", it may have derived from the Persian bālkāneh or bālākhāna, meaning "high, above, or proud house." The name is still preserved in Central Asia with the Balkan Daglary and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan.
In Turkish balkan means "a chain of wooded mountains"In Antiquity and the Middle Ages the mountains were known by their Thracian name: the Haemus Mons. Scholars consider that the name Haemus is derived from a Thracian word *saimon,'mountain ridge'; the name of the place where the range meets the Black Sea, Cape Emine, is derived from Aemon. A folk etymology holds that'Haemus' derives from the Greek word "haima" meaning'blood', is based on Greek mythology. During a fight between Zeus and the monster/titan Typhon, Zeus injured Typhon with thunder. Other names used to refer to the mountains in different time periods include Aemon, Hem, the Slavonic Matorni gori and the Turkish Kodzhabalkan. Geologically, the Balkan Mountains are a "young" part of the Alp-Himalayan chain that stretches across most of Europe and Asia, it can be divided into two parts: the main Balkan Chain and the Pre-Balkans to the north, which intrude into the Danubian Plain. To the south, the mountains border the Sub-Balkan valleys - a row of 11 valleys running from the Bulgarian border with Serbia east to the Black Sea, separating the Balkan mountains from a chain of other mountains known as Srednogorie which includes Vitosha and Sredna Gora.
The range consists of around 30 distinct mountains. Within Bulgaria the Balkan Mountains can be divided into three sections: The Western Balkan Mountains extend from Vrashka Chuka at the border with Serbia to the Pass of Arabakonak with a total length of 190 kilometres; the highest peak is Midžor at 2,169 metres. The Central Balkan Mountains run from Arabakonak to the Vratnik Pass with a length of 207 kilometres. Botev Peak, the highest mountain in the Balkan range at 2,376 metres, is located in this section; the Eastern Balkan Mountains extend from the Vratnik Pass to Cape Emine with a length of 160 kilometres. The highest peak is Balgarka at 1,181 metres; the eastern Balkan Mountains form the lowest part of the range. The Balkan Mountains form a water divide between the rivers flowing to the Danube in the north and those flowing to the Aegean Sea in the south. However, they are crossed by Bulgaria's widest river, the Iskar, which forms the spectacular Iskar Gorge. Rivers that take their source from the Balkan Mountains and flow northwards to the Danube include the Timok, Lom, Ogosta, Vit, Osam and Rusenski Lom.
The mountains are the source of the Kamchiya, which flows directly into the Black Sea. Although not so abundant in mineral waters as other parts of Bulgaria, there are several spas such as Varshets and Voneshta Voda. There are a number of waterfalls in the western and central parts of the range, such as Raysko Praskalo, the highest waterfall in the Balkan Peninsula, Borov Kamak, Babsko Praskalo, Etropole Waterfall, Karlovsko Praskalo and others. Developments in the recent two decades changed the geography of Serbia, when it comes to waterfalls. Area of the Stara Planina has always been sparsely populated and inaccessible because of the rugged and forested terrain, but as a location of the Serbian-Bulgarian border; as armies relinquished the borders keeping to the police, civilians were allowed to explore the area. As a result and higher waterfalls have been discovered on the Serbian side of the Stara Planina since the
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland; the temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the third quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, plants and certain animals, such as mites, penguins and tardigrades.
Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf; the continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of accessible resources, isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, thirty-eight have signed it since then; the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations; the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north".
Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC Marinus of Tyre used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus, from which derived the Old French pole antartike attested in 1270, from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for other locations that could be defined as "opposite to the north". For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called "France Antarctique"; the first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. The long-imagined south polar continent was called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.
Although the longer Latin phrase was better known, the shortened name Australia was used in Europe's scholarly circles. In the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. During that period, geographers had to make do with clumsy phrases such as "the Antarctic Continent", they searched for a more poetic replacement, suggesting various names such as Antipodea. Antarctica was adopted in the 1890s. Antarctica has no indigenous population, there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, in February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote:" believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it". However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD.
In the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of Antarctica's name is that it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, because of the misconception that no significant landmass could exist further south. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia, he justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will be found in a more southern latitude.
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List