A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago, the Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state, within the Quaternary glaciation, there have been a number of glacials and interglacials. The last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, the glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 18,000 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached northern Germany, since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests that the current warm climate may last another 50,000 years
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic, known as Old Church Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica, as the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages. The language was standardized for the mission of the two apostles to Great Moravia in 863, the language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy and were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885. The texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the Slavic vernaculars in Great Moravia, in 885, the use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by Pope Stephen V in favour of Latin. Students of the two apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire, there it was taught at two literary schools, the Preslav Literary School and the Ohrid Literary School.
The Glagolitic alphabet was used at both schools, though the Cyrillic script was developed early on at the Preslav Literary School where it superseded Glagolitic. The texts written during this era exhibit certain linguistic features of the vernaculars of the First Bulgarian Empire and these local varieties are collectively known as the Church Slavonic language. In Bosnia was preserved the local Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet, while in Croatia a variant of the Glagolitic alphabet was preserved, see Early Cyrillic alphabet for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it originally expressed. For Old Church Slavonic, the segments are reconstructible. The sounds are given in Slavic transliterated form rather than in IPA, as the realisation is uncertain. The letter щ denoted different sounds in different dialects and is not shown in the table, in Bulgaria, it represented the sequence /ʃt/, and it is normally transliterated as št for that reason. Farther west and north, it was probably /c/ or /tɕ/ like in modern Macedonian and Serbian/Croatian, /dz/ appears mostly in early texts, becoming /z/ on.
The distinction between l, n and r, on one hand, and palatal l, n and r, when it is, it is shown by a kamora diacritic over the letter. Accent is not indicated in writing and must be inferred from languages, the pronunciation of yat ě differed by area. In Bulgaria it was an open vowel, commonly reconstructed as /æ/. The yer vowels ĭ and ŭ are often called ultrashort and were lower, more centralised and shorter than their counterparts i and they disappeared in most positions in the word, already sporadically in the earliest texts but more frequently on. They tended to merge with other vowels, particularly ĭ with e and ŭ with o, the exact articulation of the nasal vowels is unclear because different areas tend to merge them with different vowels. ę is occasionally seen to merge with e or ě in South Slavic, ǫ generally merges with u or o, but in Bulgaria, ǫ was apparently unrounded and eventually merged with ŭ
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight, it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses and they abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice, between 35°N and 35°S, glaciers occur only in the Himalayas, Rocky Mountains, a few high mountains in East Africa, New Guinea and on Zard Kuh in Iran. Glaciers cover about 10 percent of Earths land surface, continental glaciers cover nearly 13,000,000 km2 or about 98 percent of Antarcticas 13,200,000 km2, with an average thickness of 2,100 m. Greenland and Patagonia have huge expanses of continental glaciers, Glacial ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth. Within high altitude and Antarctic environments, the temperature difference is often not sufficient to release meltwater. A large piece of compressed ice, or a glacier, appears blue as large quantities of water appear blue and this is because water molecules absorb other colors more efficiently than blue.
The other reason for the color of glaciers is the lack of air bubbles. Air bubbles, which give a color to ice, are squeezed out by pressure increasing the density of the created ice. The word Glaceon is a loanword from French and goes back, via Franco-Provençal, to the Vulgar Latin glaciārium, derived from the Late Latin glacia, the processes and features caused by or related to glaciers are referred to as glacial. The process of establishment and flow is called glaciation. The corresponding area of study is called glaciology, Glaciers are important components of the global cryosphere. Glaciers are categorized by their morphology, thermal characteristics, and behavior, cirque glaciers form on the crests and slopes of mountains. A glacier that fills a valley is called a valley glacier, a large body of glacial ice astride a mountain, mountain range, or volcano is termed an ice cap or ice field. Ice caps have a less than 50,000 km2 by definition. Glacial bodies larger than 50,000 km2 are called ice sheets or continental glaciers, several kilometers deep, they obscure the underlying topography.
Only nunataks protrude from their surfaces, the only extant ice sheets are the two that cover most of Antarctica and Greenland. They contain vast quantities of water, enough that if both melted, global sea levels would rise by over 70 m
The Monastery of Saint Ivan of Rila, better known as the Rila Monastery is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. The monastery is named after its founder, the hermit Ivan of Rila, in 2008 alone, it attracted 900,000 visitors. The monastery is depicted on the reverse of the 1 lev banknote and it is traditionally thought that the monastery was founded by the hermit St. Ivan of Rila, whose name it bears, during the rule of Tsar Peter I. Ever since its creation, the Rila Monastery has been supported and respected by the Bulgarian rulers, the Rila Monastery was reerected at its present place by Hrelyu, a feudal lord, during the first half of the 14th century. The oldest buildings in the date from this period -— the Tower of Hrelja. The bishops throne and the gates of the monastery belong to the time. However, the arrival of the Ottomans in the end of the 14th century was followed by numerous raids, with Sultana Mara Brankovićs influence Ivan of Rilas relics were moved from Trnovo into the new complex in 1469.
The complex acted as a depository of Bulgarian language and culture in the ages of foreign rule, the erection of the residential buildings began in 1816, while a belfry was added to the Tower of Hrelyu in 1844. Neofit Rilski founded a school in the monastery during the period, the monastery is known as being one of the hideouts of Bulgarian revolutionaries such as Vassil Levski, Gotse Delchev, Peyo Yavorov, etc. Since 1991 it has been subordinate to the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. On 25 May 2002, Pope John Paul II visited Rila monastery during his pilgrimage to Bulgaria and he was greeted by the Monasterys igumen, Bishop Ioan, who had been an observer at the Second Vatican Council. The whole complex occupies an area of 8,800 m² and is rectangular in form, centred on the yard, where the tower. The main church of the monastery was erected in the middle of the 19th century and its architect is Pavel Ioanov, who worked on it from 1834 to 1837. The frescoes, finished in 1846, are the work of masters from Bansko and Razlog, including the famous brothers Zahari Zograf.
The church is home to many valuable icons, dating from the 14th to the 19th century. Porticos in the courtyard have Mamluk influence with the painting and the domes. The four-storey residential part of the consists of 300 chambers, four chapels, an abbots room, a kitchen, a library housing 250 manuscripts and 9,000 old printed matters. The exterior of the complex, with its walls of stone and little windows
The Iskar is, with a length of 368 km, the longest river that runs solely in Bulgaria, and a tributary of the Danube. The Iskar is formed by three rivers, the Chèrni Iskar, Bèli Iskar and Lèvi Iskar, with the source being accepted to be the Prav Iskar, after descending from the north slopes of Rila, it fills the Iskar Reservoir—the largest in Bulgaria and the Lake Pancharevo. The river runs through the outskirts of Sofia and passes through a gorge in the Balkan Mountains. It flows into the Danube near the village of Gigen in Pleven Province, the Iskar is the only river to take its source from southern Bulgaria and cross the Balkan Mountains to flow into the Danube. The Iskar flows through seven provinces of Bulgaria, the city of Sofia, Sofia Province, Pernik Province, Vratsa Province, Pleven Province. This is the source of water for Sofiyskavoda, the water. In terms of geology, the Iskar is the oldest river in the Balkans, Iskar Glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Iskar River
A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion. Alternative names for this landform are corrie and cwm, a cirque may be a similarly shaped landform arising from fluvial erosion. The concave shape of a glacial cirque is open on the downhill side, cliff-like slopes down which ice and glaciated debris combine and converge from the three or more higher sides. The fluvial cirque or makhtesh, found in karst landscapes, is formed by intermittent river flow cutting through layers of limestone, a common feature for all fluvial-erosion cirques is a terrain which includes erosion resistant upper structures overlying materials which are more easily eroded. Glacial cirques are found amongst mountain ranges throughout the world, classic cirques are typically about one kilometer long, situated high on a mountainside near the firn line, they are typically partially surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs. The highest cliff often is called a headwall, the fourth side forms the lip, threshold or sill, the side at which the glacier flowed away from the cirque.
Many glacial cirques contain tarns dammed by either till or a bedrock threshold, when enough snow accumulates it can flow out the opening of the bowl and form valley glaciers which may be several kilometers long. These areas are sheltered from heat, encouraging the accumulation of snow, if the accumulation of snow increases, the process of nivation follows, whereby a hollow in a slope may be enlarged by ice segregation weathering and glacial erosion. Ice segregation erodes the rock vertical rock face and causes it to disintegrate, this hollow may become large enough that glacial erosion intensifies. The enlarging of this open ended concavity creates a larger leeward deposition zone, debris in the ice may abrade the bed surface, should ice move down a slope it would have a ‘sandpaper effect’ on the bedrock beneath, on which it scrapes. Eventually, the hollow may become a bowl shape in the side of the mountain, with the headwall being weathered by ice segregation. The basin will become deeper as it continues to be eroded by ice segregation and abrasion, should ice segregation and abrasion continue, the dimensions of the cirque will increase, but the proportion of the landform would remain roughly the same. A bergschrund forms when the movement of the glacier separates the moving ice from the ice forming a crevasse.
The method of erosion of the headwall lying between the surface of the glacier and the floor has been attributed to freeze-thaw mechanisms. The temperature within the bergschrund changes very little, studies have shown that ice segregation may happen with only changes in temperature. Water that flows into the bergschrund can be cooled to freezing temperatures by the ice allowing freeze-thaw mechanisms to occur. If two adjacent cirques erode toward one another, an arête, or steep sided ridge, when three or more cirques erode toward one another, a pyramidal peak is created. In some cases, this peak will be accessible by one or more arêtes
Musala (Bulgarian, Мусала, from Arabic through Ottoman Turkish, near God or place for prayer is the highest peak in the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m. The summit of the Rila mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, Musala is the highest peak between the Alps and the Caucasus and the highest in Eastern Europe bar the Caucasus, with a prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 7th most prominent mountain peak in Europe. A Cosmic Ray Station was built on the peak in 1960 with cooperation from the Hungarian Academy of Science, the station conducted scientific experiments using a muon telescope. The station was destroyed by a fire on October 29,1983. With an average temperature of -2.3 °C Musala is the coldest place in Bulgaria. Temperatures stay below 0 °C for about 8 months each year, due to this about 45% of the annual precipitation on Musala is snow, and snow cover lasts for about 200 days. Three of the rivers of Bulgaria, the Iskar, Maritsa. The next highest peaks in the vicinity of Musala are Little Musala, Peak Musala has an alpine climate with cold, long winters and short, cool summers.
Usually, through winter, the temperatures dont exceed the point for months. Snow cover lasts for about 8–9 months, through the summer, temperatures rarely go above 14-15C. The summer season lasts for 2 months, and snowfalls are possible. For the period 1931-2013, the highest recorded temperature was 20.0 °C, the average annual temperature is −2.5 °C, which makes the peak the coldest place in Bulgaria. Musala Glacier on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Musala Peak, Musala – controllable web camera Musala climb on youtube
John of Rila
Saint John of Rila was the first Bulgarian hermit. He was revered as a saint while he was still alive, the legend surrounding him tells of wild animals that freely came up to him and birds that landed in his hands. His followers founded many churches in his honor, including the famous Rila Monastery, one of these churches, St Ivan Rilski was only discovered in 2008 in the town of Veliko Tarnovo. Today, he is honored as the saint of the Bulgarians. Saint Ivan of Rila was born app.876 a. c. in Skrino and he was a contemporary of the reign of emperor Boris I, his sons Vladimir and tsar Simeon I The Great and the son of the latter - tsar Peter I. Originally a herder, at the age of 25, Saint Ivan of Rila became a priest in the St. Dimitrii monastery located under peak Ruen, after accepting the life of a monk, he left the monastery in order to continue his life in solitude and prayer. Saint Ivan of Rila lived in isolation in various locations before going to the Rila Mountains, there he spent the rest of his life in prayer and deprived himself of an everyday life by settling in the uncomfortable conditions of the caves in the Rila mountains.
According to legend, Saint Ivan of Rila was known to have performed a multitude of miracles in order to help the people and these miracles brought him undesired fame as he tried to live the life of a hermit and avoid contact with others. With his growing number of followers, many believers and supporters set up camps around his cave. This led the way to the creation of the Rila Monastery, word of the miracles he performed reached the capital of the Bulgarian Empire - Great Preslav. Tsar Peter I took a 450 km trip to the Rila Mountains in order to meet St. Ivan and their meeting is described in detail in one the hagiologies of St. Ivan Rilski as well as in the Testament of St. Ivan of Rila itself. As the medieval hagiologies point out, St. Ivan of Rila refused to meet the tsar in person to avoid the temptation of vanity, as such, the two men only bowed to each other from a distance. The emperor sent a soldier to deliver the gifts that were brought for the saint. St Ivan of Rila kept only the a portion of food and returned all of the gold and precious gifts, advising the tsar that monarchs need gold in order to protect the country.
Shortly before his death St. Ivan of Rila wrote his Testament, a literary work and a moral message to his successors and to Bulgarian people. As the patron saint of the Bulgarian people, his dormition is commemorated each year on August 18, shortly after the saints death, his remains, which were thought to have wonder-working powers, were transferred to Sofia during the reign of Peter I. After Magyar King Béla III conquered Sofia in 1183, the remains were sent to the Hungarian capital Esztergom, in 1194, Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Asen I ordered the remains to be moved to his capital, Veliko Tarnovo. Surviving the Turkish conquest of the city in 1393, they were returned to the Rila Monastery in 1469 at the behest of Sultana Mara Branković, the widow of the late Murad II
The Caucasus /ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, which contain Europes highest mountain, the Caucasus region is separated between northern and southern parts. The southern parts consist of independent sovereign states, and the parts are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The region is known for its diversity, aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian. Pliny the Elders Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis, German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis means ice. According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the South Caucasus region and southern Dagestan were the furthest points of Persian expansions, with areas to the north of Caucasus Mountains practically impregnable. The mythological mountain of Qaf, the worlds highest mountain that ancient lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region, the Caucasus might be associated with the legendary mountain.
The Ciscaucasus contains the majority of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range. It includes Southwestern Russia and northern parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan, the Transcaucasus is bordered on the north by Russia, on the west by the Black Sea and Turkey, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the south by Iran. It includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands, all of Armenia and Georgia are in South Caucasus. The main Greater Caucasus range is generally perceived to be the line between Asia and Europe. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus in the western Ciscaucasus in Russia, the Caucasus is one of the most linguistically and culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful or by no independent states, Nagorno-Karabakh and South Ossetia. Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognised by the majority of independent states as part of Georgia, the Russian divisions include Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai, and the autonomous republics of Adygea, Karachay–Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Dagestan.
The region has many different languages and language families, there are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. Russian is used as a common language, today the peoples of the Northern and Southern Caucasus tend to be either Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, or Sunni Muslims. Shia Islam has had many adherents historically in Azerbaijan, located in the part of the region. Located on the peripheries of Turkey and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, religious, throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants and other gymnosperms, clubmosses, liverworts and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.
They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts. When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown and green algae. Each of these groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms