Georges Braque was a major 20th-century French painter, draughtsman and sculptor. His most important contributions to the history of art were in his alliance with Fauvism from 1906, the role he played in the development of Cubism. Braque’s work between 1908 and 1912 is associated with that of his colleague Pablo Picasso, their respective Cubist works were indistinguishable for many years, yet the quiet nature of Braque was eclipsed by the fame and notoriety of Picasso. Georges Braque was born on 13 May 1882 in Val-d'Oise, he grew up in Le Havre and trained to be a house painter and decorator like his father and grandfather. However, he studied artistic painting during evenings at the École des Beaux-Arts, in Le Havre, from about 1897 to 1899. In Paris, he apprenticed with a decorator and was awarded his certificate in 1902; the next year, he attended the Académie Humbert in Paris, painted there until 1904. It was here that he met Francis Picabia. Braque's earliest works were impressionistic, but after seeing the work exhibited by the artistic group known as the "Fauves" in 1905, he adopted a Fauvist style.
The Fauves, a group that included Henri Matisse and André Derain among others, used brilliant colors to represent emotional response. Braque worked most with the artists Raoul Dufy and Othon Friesz, who shared Braque's hometown of Le Havre, to develop a somewhat more subdued Fauvist style. In 1906, Braque traveled with Friesz to L'Estaque, to Antwerp, home to Le Havre to paint. In May 1907, he exhibited works of the Fauve style in the Salon des Indépendants; the same year, Braque's style began a slow evolution as he became influenced by Paul Cézanne who had died in 1906 and whose works were exhibited in Paris for the first time in a large-scale, museum-like retrospective in September 1907. The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne affected the avant-garde artists of Paris, resulting in the advent of Cubism. Braque's paintings of 1908–1912 reflected his new interest in geometry and simultaneous perspective, he conducted an intense study of the effects of light and perspective and the technical means that painters use to represent these effects, seeming to question the most standard of artistic conventions.
In his village scenes, for example, Braque reduced an architectural structure to a geometric form approximating a cube, yet rendered its shading so that it looked both flat and three-dimensional by fragmenting the image. He showed this in the painting Houses at l'Estaque. Beginning in 1909, Braque began to work with Pablo Picasso, developing a similar proto-Cubist style of painting. At the time, Pablo Picasso was influenced by Gauguin, Cézanne, African masks and Iberian sculpture while Braque was interested in developing Cézanne's ideas of multiple perspectives. “A comparison of the works of Picasso and Braque during 1908 reveals that the effect of his encounter with Picasso was more to accelerate and intensify Braque’s exploration of Cézanne’s ideas, rather than to divert his thinking in any essential way.” Braque’s essential subject is the ordinary objects he has known forever. Picasso celebrates animation. Thus, the invention of Cubism was a joint effort between Picasso and Braque residents of Montmartre, Paris.
These artists were the style's main innovators. After meeting in October or November 1907, Braque and Picasso, in particular, began working on the development of Cubism in 1908. Both artists produced paintings of monochromatic color and complex patterns of faceted form, now termed Analytic Cubism. A decisive time of its development occurred during the summer of 1911, when Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso painted side by side in Céret in the French Pyrenees, each artist producing paintings that are difficult—sometimes impossible—to distinguish from those of the other. In 1912, they began to experiment with collage and Braque invented the papier collé technique. On 14 November 1908, the French art critic Louis Vauxcelles, in his review of Georges Braque's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles, on 25 March 1909, used the terms "bizarreries cubiques" after seeing a painting by Braque at the Salon des Indépendants.
The term'Cubism', first pronounced in 1911 with reference to artists exhibiting at the Salon des Indépendants gained wide use but Picasso and Braque did not adopt it initially. Art historian Ernst Gombrich described Cubism as "the most radical attempt to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture—that of a man-made construction, a colored canvas." The Cubist style spread throughout Paris and Europe. The two artists' productive collaboration continued and they worked together until the beginning of World War I in 1914, when Braque enlisted with the French Army. In May 1915, Braque received a severe head injury in battle at Carency and suffered temporary blindness, he was trepanned, required a long period of recuperation. The things that Picasso and I said to one another during those years will never be said again, if they were, no one would understand them anymore, it was like being roped together on a mountain. Braque resumed painting in late 1916. Working alone, he began to moderate the harsh abstraction of cubism.
He developed a more personal style characterized by brilliant color, textured surfaces, and—after his relocation to the Normandy seacoast—the reappearance of the human figure. He painted many still life subjects during this time, maintaining his e
Edvard Munch was a Norwegian painter, whose best known work, The Scream, has become one of the most iconic images of world art. His childhood was overshadowed by illness and the dread of inheriting a mental condition that ran in the family. Studying at the Royal School of Art and Design in Kristiania, Munch began to live a bohemian life under the influence of nihilist Hans Jæger, who urged him to paint his own emotional and psychological state. From this would presently emerge his distinctive style. Travel brought new outlets. In Paris, he learned much from Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec their use of colour. In Berlin, he met Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, whom he painted, as he embarked on his major canon The Frieze of Life, depicting a series of deeply-felt themes such as love, anxiety and betrayal, steeped in atmosphere, but it was back in Kristiania. According to Munch, he was out walking at sunset, when he ‘heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature’.
That agonised face is identified with the angst of modern man. Between 1893 and 1910, he made two painted versions and two in pastels, as well as a number of prints. One of the pastels would command the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction; as his fame and wealth grew, his emotional state remained as insecure as ever. He considered marriage, but could not commit himself. A breakdown in 1908 forced him to give up heavy drinking, he was cheered by his increasing acceptance by the people of Kristiania and exposure in the city’s museums, his years were spent working in peace and privacy. Although his works were banned in Nazi Germany, most of them survived World War II, ensuring him a secure legacy. Edvard Munch was born in a farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, to Laura Catherine Bjølstad and Christian Munch, the son of a priest. Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married Laura, a woman half his age, in 1861. Edvard had an elder sister, Johanne Sophie, three younger siblings: Peter Andreas, Laura Catherine, Inger Marie.
Laura may have encouraged Edvard and Sophie. Edvard was related to historian Peter Andreas Munch; the family moved to Christiania in 1864 when Christian Munch was appointed medical officer at Akershus Fortress. Edvard's mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, as did Munch's favorite sister Johanne Sophie in 1877. After their mother's death, the Munch siblings were raised by their aunt Karen. Ill for much of the winters and kept out of school, Edvard would draw to keep himself occupied, he was tutored by his aunt. Christian Munch instructed his son in history and literature, entertained the children with vivid ghost-stories and the tales of American writer Edgar Allan Poe; as Edvard remembered it, Christian's positive behavior toward his children was overshadowed by his morbid pietism. Munch wrote, "My father was temperamentally nervous and obsessively religious—to the point of psychoneurosis. From him I inherited the seeds of madness; the angels of fear and death stood by my side since the day I was born."
Christian reprimanded his children by telling them that their mother was looking down from heaven and grieving over their misbehavior. The oppressive religious milieu, Edvard's poor health, the vivid ghost stories helped inspire his macabre visions and nightmares. One of Munch's younger sisters, was diagnosed with mental illness at an early age. Of the five siblings, only Andreas married. Munch would write, "I inherited two of mankind's most frightful enemies—the heritage of consumption and insanity."Christian Munch's military pay was low, his attempts to develop a private side practice failed, keeping his family in genteel but perennial poverty. They moved from one cheap flat to another. Munch's early drawings and watercolors depicted these interiors, the individual objects, such as medicine bottles and drawing implements, plus some landscapes. By his teens, art dominated Munch's interests. At thirteen, Munch had his first exposure to other artists at the newly formed Art Association, where he admired the work of the Norwegian landscape school.
He returned to copy the paintings, soon he began to paint in oils. In 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college to study engineering, where he excelled in physics and math, he learned scaled and perspective drawing. The following year, much to his father's disappointment, Munch left the college determined to become a painter, his father viewed art as an "unholy trade", his neighbors reacted bitterly and sent him anonymous letters. In contrast to his father's rabid pietism, Munch adopted an undogmatic stance toward art, he wrote his goal in his diary: "in my art I attempt to explain life and its meaning to myself."In 1881, Munch enrolled at the Royal School of Art and Design of Kristiania, one of whose founders was his distant relative Jacob Munch. His teachers were the naturalistic painter Christian Krohg; that year, Munch demonstrated his quick absorption of his figure training at the Academy in his first portraits, including one of his father and his first self-portrait. In 1883, Munch shared a studio with other students.
His full-length portrait of Karl Jensen-Hjell
Degenerate art was a term adopted in the 1920s by the Nazi Party in Germany to describe modern art. During the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler, German modernist art, including many works of internationally renowned artists, was removed from state owned museums and banned in Nazi Germany on the grounds that such art was an "insult to German feeling", un-German, Jewish, or Communist in nature; those identified as degenerate artists were subjected to sanctions that included being dismissed from teaching positions, being forbidden to exhibit or to sell their art, in some cases being forbidden to produce art. Degenerate Art was the title of an exhibition, held by the Nazis in Munich in 1937, consisting of 650 modernist artworks chaotically hung and accompanied by text labels deriding the art. Designed to inflame public opinion against modernism, the exhibition subsequently traveled to several other cities in Germany and Austria. While modern styles of art were prohibited, the Nazis promoted paintings and sculptures that were traditional in manner and that exalted the "blood and soil" values of racial purity and obedience.
Similar restrictions were placed upon music, expected to be tonal and free of any jazz influences. Films and plays were censored; the early 20th century was a period of wrenching changes in the arts. In the visual arts, such innovations as Fauvism, Cubism and Surrealism—following Symbolism and Post-Impressionism—were not universally appreciated; the majority of people in Germany, as elsewhere, did not care for the new art, which many resented as elitist, morally suspect, too incomprehensible. Wilhelm II, who took an active interest in regulating art in Germany, criticized Impressionism as "gutter painting" and forbade Käthe Kollwitz from being awarded a medal for her print series A Weavers' Revolt when it was displayed in the Berlin Grand Exhibition of the Arts in 1898. In 1913, the Prussian house of representatives passed a resolution "against degeneracy in art". Under the Weimar government of the 1920s, Germany emerged as a leading center of the avant-garde, it was the birthplace of Expressionism in painting and sculpture, of the atonal musical compositions of Arnold Schoenberg, the jazz-influenced work of Paul Hindemith and Kurt Weill.
Films such as Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and F. W. Murnau's Nosferatu brought Expressionism to cinema; the Nazis viewed the culture of the Weimar period with disgust. Their response stemmed from a conservative aesthetic taste and from their determination to use culture as a propaganda tool. On both counts, a painting such as Otto Dix's War Cripples was anathema to them, it unsparingly depicts four badly disfigured veterans of the First World War a familiar sight on Berlin's streets, rendered in caricatured style. In 1930 Wilhelm Frick, a Nazi, became Minister for Culture and Education, announced a campaign "against Negro culture—for German national traditions". By his order, 70 Expressionist paintings were removed from the permanent exhibition of the Weimar Schlossmuseum in 1930, the director of the König Albert Museum in Zwickau, Hildebrand Gurlitt, was dismissed for displaying modern art; as dictator, Hitler gave his personal taste in art the force of law to a degree never before seen.
Only in Stalin's Soviet Union, where Socialist Realism was the mandatory style, had a modern state shown such concern with regulation of the arts. In the case of Germany, the model was to be classical Greek and Roman art, regarded by Hitler as an art whose exterior form embodied an inner racial ideal. Art historian Henry Grosshans says that Hitler "saw Greek and Roman art as uncontaminated by Jewish influences. Modern art was an act of aesthetic violence by the Jews against the German spirit; such was true to Hitler though only Liebermann, Meidner and Marc Chagall, among those who made significant contributions to the German modernist movement, were Jewish. But Hitler... took upon himself the responsibility of deciding who, in matters of culture and acted like a Jew."The "Jewish" nature of all art, indecipherable, distorted, or that represented "depraved" subject matter was explained through the concept of degeneracy, which held that distorted and corrupted art was a symptom of an inferior race.
By propagating the theory of degeneracy, the Nazis combined their anti-Semitism with their drive to control the culture, thus consolidating public support for both campaigns. The term Entartung had gained currency in Germany by the late 19th century when the critic and author Max Nordau devised the theory presented in his 1892 book Entartung. Nordau drew upon the writings of the criminologist Cesare Lombroso, whose The Criminal Man, published in 1876, attempted to prove that there were "born criminals" whose atavistic personality traits could be detected by scientifically measuring abnormal physical characteristics. Nordau developed from this premise a critique of modern art, explained as the work of those so corrupted and enfeebled by modern life that they have lost the self-control needed to produce coherent works, he attacked Aestheticism in English literature and described the mysticism of the Symbolist movement in French literature as a product of mental pathology. Explaining the painterliness of Impressionism as the sign of a diseased visual cortex, he decried modern degeneracy while praising traditional German culture.
Despite the fact that Nordau was Jewish and a key figure in the Zionist moveme
Paula Modersohn-Becker was a German painter and one of the most important representatives of early expressionism. Her brief career was cut short when she died from embolism at the age of 31, she is recognized as the first female painter to paint nude self-portraits. She was an important member of the artistic movement of modernism at the start of the twentieth century. Becker grew up in Dresden-Friedrichstadt, she was the third of seven children in her family. Her father Carl Woldemar Becker, the son of a Russian university professor of French, was employed as an engineer with the German railway, her mother, Mathilde was from an aristocratic family "von Bültzingslöwen", her parents provided their children a cultured and intellectual household environment. In 1888 the family moved from Dresden to Bremen. While visiting a maternal aunt in London, Becker received her first instruction in drawing at St John's Wood Art School. In 1895 she was introduced to works of the artists' circle of Worpswede. In addition to her teacher training in Bremen in 1893–1895, Becker received private instruction in painting.
In 1896 she participated in a course for painting and drawing sponsored by the Verein der Berliner Künstlerinnen which offered art studies to women. Becker's friend Clara Westhoff left Bremen in early 1899 to study in Paris. By December of that year, Becker followed her there, in 1900 she studied at the Académie Colarossi in the Latin Quarter. In April 1900 the great Centennial Exhibition was held in Paris. On this occasion Fritz Overbeck and his wife, along with Otto Modersohn, arrived in June. Modersohn's ailing wife Helen died during his trip to Paris. With this news Modersohn and the Overbecks rushed back to Germany. In 1901 Paula married Otto Modersohn and became stepmother to Otto's two-year-old daughter, Elsbeth Modersohn, the child from his first marriage, she functioned in that capacity for two years relocated to Paris again in 1903. She and Modersohn lived apart from that time forward until 1907, when she returned to Germany. In a letter to Rainer Maria Rilke written from Worpswede on February 17,1906, signs of a troubled marriage are emerge, "And now, I don't know how I should sign my name, I'm not Modersohn and I'm not Paula Becker anymore either"."
Less than a month she writes from Paris to her husband, "try to get used to the possibility of the thought that our lives can go separate ways". After the pregnancy, she complained of severe leg pain. After 18 days he told her to get up and begin moving, but an embolism had formed in her leg, with her mobility, broke off and caused her death within hours. In 1898, at age 22, Becker immersed herself in the artistic community of Worpswede, where artists such as Fritz Mackensen and Heinrich Vogeler had retreated to protest against the domination of the art academy style and life in the big city, she studied under Mackensen, painting the nearby farmers, the northern German landscape. At this time she began close friendships with the sculptor Clara Westhoff and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke; until the years when Becker began the practice, women painters had not used nude females as subjects for their work. The only notable exceptions to this dearth are works by Artemisia Gentileschi, three centuries earlier.
Her work on the female nude is unconventional and expresses an ambivalence to both her subject matter and the method of its representation. Becker was trained in the methods of realism and naturalism, along with a recognizable simplicity of form, she was able to achieve a distinct texture to her work by scratching into the wet paint. She abandoned those techniques to move into Fauvism, she is becoming recognized as having influenced at least one of Picasso's paintings. Until 1907 Modersohn-Becker made another six extended trips to Paris for artistic purposes, sometimes living separately from her husband, Otto. During one of her stays in Paris she took courses at the École des Beaux-Arts, she visited contemporary exhibitions and was intrigued with the work of Paul Cézanne. Other Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionists were influential, including Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin. Fauvism influences appear in her works such as Poorhouse Woman with a Glass Bottle. In 1906, Modersohn-Becker left Worpswede, as well as her husband, Otto, to pursue an artistic career in Paris.
In a journal entry dated February 24th, 1906, a sanguine Modersohn-Becker wrote, "Now I have left Otto Modersohn and am standing between my old life and my new life. I wonder, and I wonder what will become of me in my new life? Now whatever must be, will be." Despite her sister's and mother's general disapproval of Paula's decision to leave Otto for Paris, her relocation there proved to be quite prosperous for her. It was during this time frame. From this body of work she produced a series of paintings about which she felt great excitement and satisfaction. During this period of painting, she produced her initial nude self-portraits, unprecedented for female artists, as well as portraits of her friends, including Rainer Maria Rilke and Werner Sombart. Modersohn-Becker was optimistic about her artistic progress during her final tri
Adolf Ziegler was a German painter and politician. He was tasked by the Nazi Party to oversee the purging of what the Nazi Party described as "degenerate art", by most of the German modern artists, he was Hitler's favourite painter. Born to an architect father and a family of architects on his mother's side, Ziegler was always surrounded by artists, he studied at the Weimar Academy from 1910 under master of technique Max Doerner at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich. However, the First World War interrupted his studies when he signed up to become a front-line officer. After the war, he settled in Munich and continued his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich in 1919, where he attended classes by art nouveau artist Angelo Jank, he achieved the position of professor at the Munich Academy in 1933, when the Nazis came to power. His works fitted the Nazi ideal of "racially pure" art, and, as the President of the Reich Chamber for the Visual Arts, he was entrusted with the task of eliminating avant-garde styles.
This he did by expelling Expressionist artists such as Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Writing to Rottluff, he forbade him from any artistic activity "professional or amateur". A member of the Nazi Party in the early 1920s, he met Hitler in 1925 and became one of his advisors in artistic matters. Hitler commissioned Ziegler to paint a memoriam portrait of his niece, Geli Raubal, who had committed suicide. In 1937 he painted the Judgement of Paris, which Hitler acquired some time hanging it in his residence at Munich—Hitler also hung Ziegler's The Four Elements at a residence in Munich, it became an overnight sensation through frequent reproduction. This painting was much liked, judging by the enormous numbers of postcards and reproductions of it sold; the National Socialist celebrations of the human figure without conflict or suffering were immensely popular. By this time, Ziegler had become the foremost official painter of the Third Reich and was awarded the Golden Party Badge, in recognition for outstanding service to the Nazi Party or State.
Not much is known about his early works except. Exiled museum director Alois Schardt noted in the late thirties that Ziegler was in former times a modern painter and a zealous admirer of the works of Franz Marc.…His transmutation proceeded by slow degrees.…before he took this position, he was one of the most extreme modern painters, but one of inferior rank. There are no examples of such early works, he gave up the modern style for a representational and realistic style in the 1920s, during which time he had increased contact with Hitler. Ziegler exhibited eleven canvases at the Great German Art Exhibitions at the House of German Art between 1937 and 1943. A technically accomplished painter, Ziegler was known for floral compositions, genre paintings, allegorical paintings inspired by Greek mythology and numerous female nudes, his static, pseudo-classical nudes depicted ideal Aryan figures. In an interview with American playwright Barrie Stavis, Ziegler explained that a painting of a beautiful nude German woman encourages the ideal of a perfect body and gives German men the incentive to have many German children.
However, the artistic ‘naturalism’ of the racially pure figures left nothing to the imagination, earning him the disparaging nickname of ‘Meister des Deutschen Schamhaares'. Ziegler occupied several important administrative positions during the Third Reich, he was appointed Senator of the Fine Arts at the Reich Chamber of Culture in 1935. Propaganda Minister Goebbels appointed him to the Presidential Council vice-president of the Reich Chamber of Art. On December 1, 1936, he succeeded architect Eugen Hönig as president of the Chamber of Art, which had 45,000 members. Ziegler's replacement of Hönig as president was a clear signal of the Reich's growing distaste for nonconformity in the arts. Ziegler served as the president of the Prussian Academy of Arts in 1937. Ziegler headed a five-man commission that toured state collections in numerous cities, hastily seizing works they deemed degenerate; the works were rushed to Munich for installation in the narrow rooms of the Hofgarten arcade for display, including some 16,000 examples of expressionist, abstract and surrealist works of art.
The paintings of such "degenerate" artists, including the works of Max Beckmann and Emil Nolde, were confiscated on Ziegler's orders as head of the sluice commission. Ziegler managed to organize the Degenerate Art Exhibition in Munich in less than two weeks. On July 19, 1937, he opened the exhibition and condemned those museum directors from whose collections the works came and their tolerance of the decadent art. During the Second World War, Ziegler was temporarily sent to a prison camp after he publicly expressed doubts about the viability of Hitler's campaign; when Hitler was notified of Ziegler's “defeatist” attitude, he ordered his arrest. Ziegler was imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp for six weeks. However, Hitler ordered that he be released from Dachau and be allowed to retire; because his paintings were so associated with National Socialism, Ziegler was unable to revive his career as an artist after the war. He petitioned for reappointment to the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich from 1955 to 1958, but was denied because the Academy determined that he received the position due to Hitler's personal appointment.
There were some reports that Ziegler exhibited works in 1955 at the Ben Uri Gallery in London, but the gallery's records indicate the artist was an “Adolf Zeigler,” a Jewish painter from London, not t