Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
Foster and Partners
Foster + Partners is a British international studio for architecture and integrated design, with headquarters in London. The practice is led by its founder and chairman, Norman Foster, has constructed many high-profile glass-and-steel buildings. Established by Norman Foster as Foster Associates in 1967 shortly after leaving Team 4, the firm was renamed Sir Norman Foster and Partners Ltd in 1992 and shortened to Foster & Partners Ltd in 1999 to more reflect the influence of the other lead architects. In 2007 the private equity company 3i took a stake in the practice; this was bought back by the practice in June 2014 to become wholly owned by the 140 partners. Major projects, by year of completion and ordered by type, are: More London, London, UK Duisburg Inner Harbour, Germany Trafalgar Square Redevelopment, London, UK Quartermile, Scotland Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, UAE West Kowloon Cultural District, Hong Kong Thames Hub, UK Central Square, Cardiff, UK Amaravati, India The Tulip,London,UK Millau Viaduct, the highest road bridge in the world Western Årsta Bridge, Årstabroarna, Sweden Millennium Bridge in London Reichstag building redevelopment in Berlin London City Hall New Supreme Court Building, Singapore Palace of Peace and Reconciliation in Astana, Kazakhstan Buenos Aires City Hall, Buenos Aires, Argentina Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts at University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK Clyde Auditorium, part of the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre complex, Glasgow Sackler Galleries, Royal Academy of Arts, London, UK Carré d'Art, Nîmes, France American Air Museum, Imperial War Museum Duxford, UK – Stirling Prize Redevelopment of the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court of the British Museum The Sage Gateshead, England The Zénith, Zénith de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Étienne, France The Robert and Arlene Kogod Courtyard, Smithsonian Institution, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.
C. Winspear Opera House, Dallas Art of the Americas Wing, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center, Kazakhstan Sperone Westwater Gallery, New York City Extension to Lenbachhaus art museum, Munich The SSE Hydro, Scotland Kings Norton Library, Cranfield University, UK Faculty of Law, Cambridge, UK Faculty of Management, The Robert Gordon University, UK Imperial College School of Medicine, Sir Alexander Flemming Building, London, UK Center for Clinical Science Research, Stanford University Stanford, California, USA British Library of Political and Economic Science, London School of Economics, London, UK Imperial College London, Flowers Building London, UK Faculty of Social Studies, University of Oxford, UK James H. Clark Center, California, USA Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Malaysia Tanaka Business School, as of 2008 renamed the Imperial College Business School, London Free University of Berlin Berlin, Germany Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Canada Library, California State University Channel Islands, California, USA Yale School of Management, new campus, New Haven, USA Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE China Resources University, Shenzhen Wembley Stadium reconstruction Lusail Iconic Stadium, Qatar Stansted Airport, UK Metro Bilbao, Spain – Line 2 Hong Kong International Airport, Chek Lap Kok in Hong Kong Canary Wharf Underground Station, London, UK Expo MRT Station, Singapore Dresden Central Station Redevelopment, Germany Beijing Capital International Airport London Heathrow Airport East Terminal Spaceport America, New Mexico Four railway stations for the Haramain High Speed Rail Project, Saudi Arabia Kai Tak Cruise Terminal, Hong Kong New Mexico City International Airport Slussen, re-development and masterplan of a major transportation hub in central Stockholm Queen Alia International Airport, Jordan Thames Hub, UK Thames Hub Airport, UK Ocean Terminal extension, Hong Kong York University station – TYSSE, Ontario/Toronto, Fred.
Olsen Lines terminal, London Docklands Willis Building, UK HSBC Tower, Hong Kong Commerzbank Tower in Frankfurt, Germany Citigroup Centre, London, UK HSBC HQ, 8 Canada Square, London, UK Gherkin/30 St Mary Axe, London – Swiss Re headquarters – Stirling Prize McLaren Technology Centre, base for the McLaren Formula One team and McLaren Group Deutsche Bank Place, Australia Hearst Tower, New York City Willis Building London, UK Caja Madrid, Spain Apple Park in Cupertino, California Bloomberg London European HQ, UK – Stirling Prize 425 Park Avenue, New York, New York The Great Glashouse National Botanic Garden of Wales, Wales, UK Elephant House, Copenhagen Zoo#Foster's Elephant House, Denmark Dolder Grand restoration, Zürich, Switzerland Faustino Winery Bodegas Faustino, Castilla y Leon, Spain ME Hotel, ME by Meliá, London, UK Albion Rive
Guy Lowell, was an American architect and landscape architect. Born in Boston, Lowell was the son of Mary Walcott and Edward Jackson Lowell, a member of Boston's well-known Lowell family, he graduated from Noble's Classical School in 1888 and from Harvard College in 1892, received his degree in architecture from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1894. He studied landscape and horticulture at the Royal Botanic Gardens and architectural history and landscape architecture in the atelier of Jean-Louis Pascal at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, with diplomé in 1899. In the middle of these studies he married Henrietta Sargent, the daughter of the director of Harvard's Arnold Arboretum, Charles S. Sargent of Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 17, 1898. Returning to the United States, Lowell opened his own practice in Boston in 1899 and was successful immediately. By 1906, he had opened a branch office in New York and split each week between New York and Boston, his commissions included large public and commercial buildings, as well as many distinctive residences, country estates, formal gardens.
He was the architect and landscape architect for the first Charles River dam, completed in 1910, which transformed the tidal river into the Charles River Basin. He designed five structures on the dam: the Upper and Lower Lock Gate Houses, the Stable, the Boat House, an open pavilion; as part of the dam's construction, Frederick Law Olmsted's Charlesbank was extended from Charles Circle to the Harvard Bridge, Lowell was responsible for the landscape design of the Boston Embankment, now universally known as the Esplanade. Lowell is most recognized for his design of two public buildings: the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the New York State Supreme Court building in New York City; some of his other commissions included Lowell Lecture Hall at Harvard and academic buildings at Phillips Academy Andover, Simmons College, Brown University. Guy's work on Harvard University's President's House was commissioned by his cousin, Abbott Lawrence Lowell, during his tenure as Harvard President; the house remained the residence of succeeding presidents until 1971, when Derek Bok moved his young family to the bucolic grounds of the Elmwood colonial mansion.
Elmwood was the lifelong home of another of Guy's ancestors, the celebrated American writer and foreign diplomat James Russell Lowell. As Percival Lowell's third cousin, Guy became the sole trustee of the Lowell Observatory after his cousin's death in 1916. Lowell made a name for himself as a landscape architect, his obituary in The New York Times notes that he designed or "fitted up" gardens for the elder J. Pierpont Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, the Piping Rock Club. Additional garden-related projects included those of T. Jefferson Coolidge, Mrs. Oscar Lasigi in Stockbridge and Payne Whitney in Manhasett on Long Island. Lowell designed many of the gardens and grounds for his numerous residential commissions as an architect, but the most significant project appears to have been the grounds of Harbor Hill, it is in the area of education that Lowell left his lasting mark on the profession of landscape architecture. He founded the short-lived, but influential, landscape architecture program at MIT. Under his guidance, the program developed as a synthesis of French planning ideals and Italian garden design, with a significant emphasis on horticulture and engineering.
The first students graduated from the program in 1902. It was an undergraduate option from 1900 until 1904, it continued as a graduate course until 1909, with Lowell's offering instruction in landscape architecture until 1912, he taught an important group of landscape architects their trade including Mabel Keyes Babcock, George Elberton Burnap, Marian Cruger Coffin, Martha Brookes Hutcheson, Rose Standish Nichols. Lowell's program at MIT provided educational opportunities in landscape architecture for women that they could not find elsewhere. Lowell published several books, including: American Gardens, Smaller Italian Villas and Farmhouses, More Small Italian Villas and Farmhouses, he contributed to American Gardens, a photographic magazine. Lowell died in the Madeira Islands on February 4, 1927. 1902 Lowell Lecture Hall, Harvard University, Massachusetts 1906 Fox Clubhouse, 44 JFK Street, Harvard University, Massachusetts 1904 Emerson Hall, Harvard University, Massachusetts 1909 Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1910 Charles River Dam, including the Boston Embankment, the Upper and Lower Lock Gate Houses, the Stable, the Boat House, an open pavilion 1912 Natirar, Somerset Hills, New Jersey 1913 New York State Supreme Courthouse, New York City 1913 Planting Fields Arboretum, Oyster Bay, New York 1929 Grosse Pointe Yacht Club, Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan 1900 13 Follen Street, Massachusetts, built for Alice Lowell Ropes 1901 Tupper Manor, Massachusetts 1902 Johnson Memorial Fountain, Massachusetts 1904 Spring Lawn, Kemble Street, Massachusetts 1907 Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Rhode Island 1907 Unitarian Church of Barnstable, Cobb's Hill, Massachusetts 1909 New Hampshire Historical Society building, 30 Park Street, New Hamp
Green Line (MBTA)
The Green Line is a light rail system run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority in the Boston, metropolitan area. It is the oldest Boston subway line, with tunnel sections dating from 1897, the oldest in America, it runs underground through downtown Boston, on the surface on several radial boulevards and into inner suburbs. With an average daily weekday ridership of 169,600 in 2018, it is the third most used light rail system in the country; the line was assigned the green color in 1967 during a systemwide rebranding because several branches pass through sections of the Emerald Necklace of Boston. The four branches are the remnants of a large streetcar system, which began in 1856 with the Cambridge Horse Railroad and was consolidated into the Boston Elevated Railway several decades later; the Tremont Street Subway – the oldest subway tunnel in North America – opened its first section on September 1, 1897, to take streetcars off overcrowded downtown streets. The streetcar system peaked in size around 1930 and was replaced with trackless trolleys and buses, with cuts as late as 1985.
A new branch opened on a converted commuter rail line in 1959. The line has its northern terminus at Lechmere in East Cambridge with connections to numerous bus routes serving Cambridge and Somerville. From there it runs south over the Lechmere Viaduct and into an extension of the Tremont Street Subway under downtown Boston to the Boston Common, it continues west in the Boylston Street Subway to Kenmore Square. The Green Line tunnels through Downtown Boston and the Back Bay are collectively referred to as the Central Subway; the "E" Branch serves Lechmere and splits just west of Copley, running southwest through the Huntington Avenue Subway, ramping up to the surface at Northeastern University near Boston's Symphony Hall. It continues along Huntington Avenue, terminating at Heath Street near V. A. Medical Center; until 1985, the line continued through Jamaica Plain to Arborway. The "B", "C", "D" Branches diverge west of Kenmore Square. From south to north, they are as follows: The "D" Branch surfaces onto the grade-separated Highland Branch, a branch of the Boston and Albany Railroad until 1958.
It runs about ten and a half miles to Riverside, the primary light rail maintenance facility and major park and ride facility, on the banks of the Charles River and half a mile from the interchange of I-90 and I-95. The "C" Branch surfaces onto Beacon Street, running to Cleveland Circle at the Chestnut Hill Reservoir; the "B" Branch surfaces onto Commonwealth Avenue. It runs past Boston University, passes within a quarter mile of Cleveland Circle, where a connection to the latter runs down Chestnut Hill Ave. and continues to Boston College. The "A" Branch diverged from Commonwealth Ave. west of Boston University and ran to Watertown, across the Charles River from Watertown Square, until 1969. Although the route-letter scheme had been introduced two years prior to its closure, the "A" designation was never signed on streetcars to Watertown, it was, included in the destination signs on the Boeing-Vertol LRVs ordered in the mid-1970s, when reopening service to Watertown was under consideration.
The A line tracks remained in non-revenue service to access maintenance facilities at Watertown until 1994. Not only was there community opposition to restoration, but the tracks would have required a complete rehabilitation; the Lechmere Viaduct connected to the Central Subway via the Causeway Street Elevated, a half-mile-long structure running in front of North Station and the Boston Garden sports complex. A new tunnel, running behind North Station and the new TD Garden and connecting to a new underground Green Line and Orange Line transfer station, was built to replace it. Bus shuttle service ran from Government Center to Lechmere from June 2004 until November 12, 2005 during the final stages of construction; the original Tremont Street Subway south of Boylston station has been closed since 1962, when the last streetcar line feeding into it was replaced by bus service, Pleasant Street Portal at its southern end has been covered over. Reuse of part of the tunnel for the Silver Line Phase III was considered, but the narrow bore was found too small for the Silver Line buses which are not fixed to their guideway.
Plans for the Phase III tunnel were shifted further west to new alignments canceled due to questions over the project's cost-effectiveness. The branches were given letters in 1967, two years after the green color was assigned to the line on August 26, 1965; the letters were assigned increasing from north to south, to the five remaining branches. No branches had used the Canal Street Portal except as a terminal since 1949 with the 93 or the Pleasant Street Portal since 1961 with the 43, a shuttle until 1962. All trains stop at Park Street, Boylston and Copley. All trains except "E" stop at Hynes Convention Center and Kenmore. All trains except "B" stop at Government Center. Only "E" trains stop at Symphony. On the eastern end, only "C" and "E" trains go past Government Center to Haymarket and North Station; the "B", "Boston College" or "Commonwealth Avenue" Branch is the northernmost of the three lines that split west of Kenmore. It travels west down the middle of Commonwealth Avenue; as of 2017, regular "B" service turns a