Music history

Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is a diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology that studies music from a historical point of view. In theory, "music history" could refer to the study of the history of any genre of music. In practice, these research topics are categorized as part of ethnomusicology or cultural studies, whether or not they are ethnographically based; the terms "music history" and "historical musicology" refer to the history of the notated music of Western elites, sometimes called "art music". The methods of music history include source studies, philology, style criticism, musical analysis, iconography; the application of musical analysis to further these goals is a part of music history, though pure analysis or the development of new tools of music analysis is more to be seen in the field of music theory. Some of the intellectual products of music historians include peer-reviewed articles in journals, university press-published music history books, university textbooks, new editions of musical works, biographies of composers and other musicians, studies of the relationship between words and music, reflections upon the role of music in society.

Although most performers of classical and traditional instruments receive some instruction in music history, whether this is the history or art music, pop, or rock and roll, from their music teachers throughout their lessons and high school classes, the majority of formal music history courses are offered at the post-secondary level. In Canada, some music students receive training prior to undergraduate studies because examinations in music history are required to complete Royal Conservatory of Music certification at the Grade 9 level and higher Most medium and large institutions will offer music appreciation courses for non-music majors and music history courses for music majors; the two types of courses will differ in length and depth. Both types of courses tend to emphasize a balance among the acquisition of musical repertory and analysis of these works and cultural details of music and musicians, writing about music through music criticism. More specialized seminars in music history tend to use a similar approach on a narrower subject while introducing more of the tools of research in music history.

The range of possible topics is limitless. Some examples might be "Music during World War I," "Medieval and Renaissance instrumental music," "Music and politics," "Mozart's Don Giovanni, or Women and music." The methods and tools of music history are nearly as many as its subjects and therefore make a strict categorization impossible. However, a few trends and approaches can be outlined here. Like in any other historical discipline, most research in music history can be divided into two categories: the establishing of factual and correct data and the interpretation of data. Most historical research does not fall into one category but rather employs a combination of methods from both categories; the act of establishing factual data can never be separate from the act of interpretation. Archival work may be conducted to find connections to music or musicians in a collection of documents of broader interests or to more systematically study a collection of documents related to a musician. In some cases, where records and letters have been digitized, archival work can be done online.

One example of a composer for whom archival materials can be examined online is the Arnold Schoenberg Center. Performance practice draws on many of the tools of historical musicology to answer the specific question of how music was performed in various places at various times in the past. Scholars investigate questions such as which instruments or voices were used to perform a given work, what tempos were used, how ornaments were used. Although performance practice was confined to early music from the Baroque era, since the 1990s, research in performance practice has examined other historical eras, such as how early Classical era piano concerti were performed, how the early history of recording affected the use of vibrato in classical music, or which instruments were used in Klezmer music. Biographical studies of composers can give us a better sense of the chronology of compositions, influences on style and works, provide important background to the interpretation of works, thus biography can form one part of the larger study of the cultural significance, underlying program, or agenda of a work.

Sociological studies focus on the function of music in society as well as its meaning for individuals and society as a whole. Researchers emphasizing the social importance of music are sometimes called New musicologists, they may examine the intersection of music and music-making with issues such as race, gender and disability, among other approaches. Semiotic studies are most conventionally the province of music analysts rather than historia

Andy Kelly (rugby league)

Andy Kelly known by the nicknames of "Boot", "Big Andy", is an English former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1980s and 1990s, coached in the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. He played at representative level for England, at club level for Wakefield Trinity, Hull Kingston Rovers and the Illawarra Steelers, as a second-row, has coached at representative level for Ireland, at club level for Wakefield Trinity/Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, Gateshead Thunder, Featherstone Rovers and the Dewsbury Rams. Andy Kelly was born in West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Andy Kelly won a cap for England while at Wakefield Trinity in 1984 against Wales. Andy Kelly played left-second-row, i.e. number 11, in Hull Kingston Rovers' 14–15 defeat by Castleford in the 1983–84 Challenge Cup Final during the 1984–85 season at Wembley Stadium, London, on Saturday 3 May 1986, in front of a crowd of 82,134. Andy Kelly played right-second-row, i.e. number 12, in Hull Kingston Rovers' 12–29 defeat by Hull F. C. in the 1984–85 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1984–85 season at Boothferry Park, Kingston upon Hull, on Saturday 27 October 1984, played as an interchange/substitute, i.e. number 15, in the 22–18 victory over Castleford in the 1985–86 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1985–86 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds, on Sunday 27 October 1985, played left-second-row, i.e. number 11, was captain in Wakefield Trinity's 8–11 defeat by Castleford in the 1990–91 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1990–91 season at Elland Road, Leeds, on Sunday 23 September 1990.

Andy Kelly played right-second-row, i.e. number 12, in Hull Kingston Rovers' 8–11 defeat by Wigan in the 1985–86 John Player Special Trophy Final during the 1985–86 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 11 January 1986. During his time at Wakefield Trinity he scored fifteen 3-point tries and, fifteen 4-point tries, he is the former head coach of the Ireland national rugby league team having coached them for over 11 years. He is the former coach of Dewsbury Rams, Wakefield Trinity/Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, Featherstone Rovers and Gateshead, he is head of youth at Huddersfield Giants and helped the Giants Academy team reach the grand final play offs for the first time Andy Kelly is one of three brothers to have played professional Rugby league. Kelly Leads Wakefield to Grand Final Glory 2010 Kelly Leaves Irish Post 2010 Kelly eyes Student Cup Shock 2010 Andy Kelly Joins Alex Murphy for Challenge Cup Draw 2009 Wales 42 v Ireland 12 post match interviews 2008 Kelly hopes for NEW OPPORTUNITIES After World Cup Success 2008 RLWC Fiji 40 v Ireland 14 post match interview 2008 RLWC Samoa v Ireland Post match Interview 2008 Superb Ireland Hammer Samoa 2008 RLWC Samoa V Ireland Samoan war dance 2008 Ireland Shake Tonga in World Cup Opener 2008 Kelly Names World Cup Squad 2007 Andy Kelly takes Ireland Team to Carnegie University 2007 Kelly Proud to Lead Ireland 2004 Kelly handed Dewsbury post 2001 Same again for Ireland 2000 Kelly Leaves Job as Head Coach of Wakefield Andy Kelly interview at Great Britain Rugby All Stars Squad

Upsilon Scorpii

Upsilon Scorpii, formally named Lesath, is a star located in the "stinger" of the southern zodiac constellation of Scorpius, the scorpion. Based on parallax measurements obtained during the Hipparcos mission, it is 580 light-years from the Sun. On the night sky it lies near the 1.6 magnitude star Lambda Scorpii, the two form an optical pair, sometimes called the "Cat's Eyes". Υ Scorpii is the star's Bayer designation. It bore the traditional name Lesath, from the Arabic las'a "pass of a poisonous animal". In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars; the WGSN approved the name Lesath for this star on 21 August 2016 and it is now so included in the List of IAU-approved Star Names. Together with Lambda Scorpii, Lesath is listed in the Babylonian compendium MUL. APIN as dSharur4 u dShargaz, meaning "Sharur and Shargaz". In Coptic, they were called Minamref The indigenous Boorong people of northwestern Victoria named it as Karik Karik, "the Falcons"In Chinese, 尾宿, meaning Tail, refers to an asterism consisting of Upsilon, Mu1, Zeta1, Zeta2, Theta, Iota1, Iota2, Lambda Scorpii.

The Chinese name for Upsilon Scorpii itself is 尾宿九, "the Ninth Star of Tail". USS Lesuth was a United States Navy Crater class cargo ship named after the star; this star has apparent magnitude +2.7 and belongs to spectral class B2 IV, with the luminosity class of'IV' indicating it is a subgiant star. The star's luminosity is 12,300 times that of the Sun, while its surface temperature is 22,831 kelvins; the star has a radius of 6.1 times solar and 11 times the mass of the Sun