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Musical tuning

In music, there are two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice. Tuning systems, the various systems of pitches used to tune an instrument, their theoretical bases. Tuning is the process of adjusting the pitch of one or many tones from musical instruments to establish typical intervals between these tones. Tuning is based on a fixed reference, such as A = 440 Hz; the term "out of tune" refers to a pitch/tone, either too high or too low in relation to a given reference pitch. While an instrument might be in tune relative to its own range of notes, it may not be considered'in tune' if it does not match the chosen reference pitch; some instruments become'out of tune' with temperature, damage, or just time, must be readjusted or repaired. Different methods of sound production require different methods of adjustment: Tuning to a pitch with one's voice is called matching pitch and is the most basic skill learned in ear training. Turning pegs to decrease the tension on strings so as to control the pitch.

Instruments such as the harp and harpsichord require a wrench to turn the tuning pegs, while others such as the violin can be tuned manually. Modifying the length or width of the tube of a wind instrument, brass instrument, bell, or similar instrument to adjust the pitch; the sounds of some instruments such as cymbals are inharmonic—they have irregular overtones not conforming to the harmonic series. Tuning may be done aurally by sounding two pitches and adjusting one of them to match or relate to the other. A tuning fork or electronic tuning device may be used as a reference pitch, though in ensemble rehearsals a piano is used. Symphony orchestras and concert bands tune to an A440 or a B♭ provided by the principal oboist or clarinetist, who tune to the keyboard if part of the performance; when only strings are used the principal string has sounded the tuning pitch, but some orchestras have used an electronic tone machine for tuning. Interference beats are used to objectively measure the accuracy of tuning.

As the two pitches approach a harmonic relationship, the frequency of beating decreases. When tuning a unison or octave it is desired to reduce the beating frequency until it cannot be detected. For other intervals, this is dependent on the tuning system being used. Harmonics may be used to facilitate tuning of strings. For example touching the highest string of a cello at the middle while bowing produces the same pitch as doing the same a third of the way down its second-highest string; the resulting unison is more and judged than the quality of the perfect fifth between the fundamentals of the two strings. In music, the term open string refers to the fundamental note of the full string; the strings of a guitar are tuned to fourths, as are the strings of the bass guitar and double bass. Violin and cello strings are tuned to fifths. However, non-standard tunings exist to change the sound of the instrument or create other playing options. To tune an instrument only one reference pitch is given; this reference is used to tune one string, to which the other strings are tuned in the desired intervals.

On a guitar the lowest string is tuned to an E. From this, each successive string can be tuned by fingering the fifth fret of an tuned string and comparing it with the next higher string played open; this works with the exception of the G string, which must be stopped at the fourth fret to sound B against the open B string above. Alternatively, each string can be tuned to its own reference tone. Note that while the guitar and other modern stringed instruments with fixed frets are tuned in equal temperament, string instruments without frets, such as those of the violin family, are not; the violin and cello are tuned to beatless just perfect fifths and ensembles such as string quartets and orchestras tend to play in fifths based Pythagorean tuning or to compensate and play in equal temperament, such as when playing with other instruments such as the piano. For example, the cello, tuned down from A220, has three more strings and the just perfect fifth is about two cents off from the equal tempered perfect fifth, making its lowest string, C-, about six cents more flat than the equal tempered C.

This table lists open strings on some common string instruments and their standard tunings from low to high unless otherwise noted. Violin scordatura was employed in the 17th and 18th centuries by Italian and German composers, Biagio Marini, Antonio Vivaldi, Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber, Johann Pachelbel and Johann Sebastian Bach, whose Fifth Suite For Unaccompanied Cello calls for the lowering of the A string to G. In Mozart's Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major, all the strings of the solo viola are raised one half-step, ostensibly to give the instrument a brighter tone so the solo violin does not overshadow it. Scordatura for the violin was used in the 19th and 20th centuries in works by Niccolò Paganini, Robert Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns and Béla Bartók. In Saint-Saëns' "Danse Macabre", the high string of the violin is lower half a tone to the E♭ so as to have the most accented note of the main theme sound on an open string. In Bartók's Contrasts, the violin is tuned G♯-D-A-E♭ to facilitate the playing of tritones on open strings.

American folk violinists of the Appalachians and Ozarks empl

Healthcare in Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago operates under a two-tier healthcare system. That is, there is the existence of both private and public facilities; the Ministry of Health is responsible for leading the health sector. The service provision aspect of public healthcare has been devolved to newly created entities, the Regional Health Authorities. Responsibility for the provision of healthcare services in Trinidad and Tobago was devolved from the Ministry of Health to Regional Health Authorities under the Regional Health Authorities Act No. 5 in 1994. While the Ministry of Health does not directly run health facilities, it is required to play a key role in ensuring that they are properly run, by setting policies and targets for Regions based on assessment of real health needs; this is the main role of the Ministry of Health. The Ministry allocates resources to the RHAs to finance their operations; the Ministry of Health is shifting its focus to concentrate on policy development, planning and evaluation, regulation and research.

Citizens can access free health care at public healthcare facilities where health insurance is not required. However, the government is developing the National Health Service in which a package of services is to be determined, as well as a financing strategy. Public Healthcare is free to everyone in Trinidad and Tobago and is paid for by the Government and taxpayers. Healthcare services are provided on a walk-in basis. There are a few major hospitals throughout the country as well as smaller health centers and clinics located regionally throughout. Several major hospitals in Trinidad and Tobago are: Port of Spain General Hospital located in the country's capital of Port of Spain, it is a major trauma centre in the Caribbean. San Fernando General Hospital located in the City of San Fernando. San Fernando Teaching Hospital located in the City of San Fernando. Sangre Grande Hospital located in Trinidad. Point Fortin Hospital Eric Williams Medical Science Complex located in Trinidad. Scarborough General Hospital located in Signal Hill, TobagoThese hospitals are aided by many DHF'S located throughout the country.

The Ministry of Health is mandated to provide a functioning healthcare system to benefit all citizens. This had led to the reforming of the entire healthcare system in the country; the government of Trinidad and Tobago has launched CDAP. The Chronic Disease Assistance Programme provides citizens with free prescription drugs and other pharmaceutical items to combat the following health conditions: Diabetes Asthma Cardiac Diseases Arthritis Glaucoma Mental Depression High Blood Pressure Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epilepsy Hypercholesterolemia Parkinson’s disease Thyroid diseasesThere are over 250 pharmacies throughout the country that provide medications through CDAP. All citizens of Trinidad & Tobago are eligible. There are no age exceptions. Health in Trinidad and Tobago Universal healthcare

Purian Kalan

Purian Kalan is a village in Batala in Gurdaspur district of Punjab State, India. It is located 8 kilometres from sub district headquarter, 36 kilometres from district headquarter and 8 kilometres from Sri Hargobindpur; the village is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village. As of 2011, The village has a total number of 420 houses and the population of 2153 of which 1129 are males while 1024 are females. According to the report published by Census India in 2011, out of the total population of the village 737 people are from Schedule Caste and the village does not have any Schedule Tribe population so far. List of villages in India Tourism of Punjab Census of Punjab

Edna H. Fawcett

Edna Hague Fawcett was an American botanist and specialist on plant health problems. Fawcett earned a bachelor's degree from Smith College in 1901. Around this same time, Fawcett held a temporary position as an assistant at a public school in Springfield, Massachusetts, she continued her studies at Barnard College before taking a position at the New York Botanical Garden. She joined the research staff of the Bureau of Plant Industry at the United States Department of Agriculture in 1906. Working her way up from a technician position, Fawcett became an assistant pathologist in 1930. Among her most notable written studies are Stabilization of Boric Acid Buffers By Aeration and The Problem of Dilution in Colorimetric H-Ion Measurements, which were both written in conjunction with S. F. Acree. Image of Edna Fawcett via Smithsonian Institution

Rape of Belgium

The Rape of Belgium is a phrase given to the German mistreatment of civilians during the invasion and subsequent occupation of Belgium during World War I. The neutrality of Belgium had been guaranteed by the Treaty of London, signed by Prussia. However, the German Schlieffen Plan required that German armed forces pass through Belgium in order to outflank the French Army, concentrated in eastern France; the German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg dismissed the treaty of 1839 as a "scrap of paper". Throughout the beginning of the war, the German army engaged in numerous atrocities against the civilian population of Belgium, including the destruction of civilian property. Another 3,000 Belgian civilians died due to electric fences the German Army put up to prevent civilians from fleeing the country, 120,000 became forced laborers, with half of that number deported to Germany. 25,000 homes and other buildings in 837 communities were destroyed in 1914 alone, 1.5 million Belgians fled from the invading German army.

In some places Liège, Andenne and Leuven, but firstly Dinant, there is evidence that the violence against civilians was premeditated. However, in Dinant, the German army believed the inhabitants were as dangerous as the French soldiers themselves. German troops, afraid of Belgian guerrilla fighters, or francs-tireurs, burned homes and executed civilians throughout eastern and central Belgium, including Aarschot, Seilles and Dinant; the victims included men and children. In the Province of Brabant, nuns were ordered to strip under the pretext that they were spies or men in disguise. However, there is no evidence. In and around Aarschot, between August 19 and the recapture of the town by September 9, women were victimized. Rape was nearly as ubiquitous as murder and looting, if never as visible. On August 25, 1914, the German army ravaged the city of Leuven, deliberately burning the university library of 300,000 medieval books and manuscripts with gasoline, killing 248 residents, expelling the population of 10,000.

Civilian homes were set on fire and citizens shot where they stood. Over 2,000 buildings were destroyed and large quantities of strategic materials and modern industrial equipment were looted and transferred to Germany during 1914; these actions brought worldwide condemnation. The Germans were responsible for the deaths of 23,700 Belgian civilians, caused further non-fatalities of 10,400 permanent and 22,700 temporary invalids, with 18,296 children becoming war orphans. Military losses were 26,338 killed, died from injuries or accidents, 14,029 died from disease, or went missing; as raw material imported from abroad dried up, more firms laid off workers. Unemployment became a major problem and increased reliance on charity distributed by civil institutions and organizations; as many as 650,000 people were unemployed between 1915 and 1918. The German authorities used the unemployment crisis to loot industrial machinery from Belgian factories, either sent to Germany intact or melted down; the German policies enacted by the Imperial German General Government of Belgium would create major problems for Belgian economic recovery after the end of the war, the Germans destroyed the Belgian economy so by dismantling industries and transporting the equipment and machinery to Germany that it never regained its pre-war level.

Agreeing with the analysis of historian Susan Kingsley Kent, historian Nicoletta Gullace writes that "the invasion of Belgium, with its real suffering, was represented in a stylized way that dwelt on perverse sexual acts, lurid mutilations, graphic accounts of child abuse of dubious veracity." In Britain, many patriotic publicists propagated these stories on their own. For example, popular writer William Le Queux described the German army as "one vast gang of Jack-the-Rippers", described in graphic detail events such as a governess hanged naked and mutilated, the bayoneting of a small baby, or the "screams of dying women", raped and "horribly mutilated" by German soldiers, accusing them of cutting off the hands, feet, or breasts of their victims. Gullace argues that "British propagandists were eager to move as as possible from an explanation of the war that focused on the murder of an Austrian archduke and his wife by Serbian nationalists to the morally unambiguous question of the invasion of neutral Belgium".

In support of her thesis, she quotes from two letters of Lord Bryce. In the first letter Bryce writes "There must be something fatally wrong with our so-called civilization for this Serian cause so frightful a calamity has descended on all Europe". In a subsequent letter Bryce writes "The one thing we have to comfort us in this war is that we are all convinced of the justice of the cause, of our duty, once Belgium had been invaded, to take up the sword". Although the infamous German phrase "scrap of paper" galvanized a large segment of British intellectuals in support of the war, in more proletarian circles this imagery had less impact. For example, Labour politician Ramsay MacDonald upon hearing about it, declared that "Never did we arm our people and ask them to give up their lives for a less good cause than th

Charlotta Aurora De Geer

Charlotta Aurora De Geer Gyldenstolpe and Wetterstedt, was a politically influential Swedish countess and courtier. Born to the royal court chamberlain baron Johan Jakob De Geer af Finspång and Fredrika Aurora Taube, she served as hovfröken to Princess Charlotte until her marriage in 1796. During her tenure as courtier of Frederica, she appears to have been somewhat favored: she was one of the two ladies-in-waiting chosen to accompany the queen to Finland in 1802 and to Germany in 1803-05. On 12 April 1796 in Stockholm Castle she married her relative, Major General and governor Count Nils Gyldenstolpe, she divorced in 1810, married the politician count Gustaf af Wetterstedt in 1811. Charlotta Aurora De Geer was described as a beautiful wit, belonged to the leading central figures of the Swedish capital's society in the first decades of the 19th century, she hosted a salon which functioned as a political forum, were King Charles XIII of Sweden, was a frequent guest, as was Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, during his visit to Sweden in 1801-02.

She influenced politics herself by making her salon a forum for political discussions, as a 19th-century author described it: "Through the wife of count Wetterstedt, the society life in his home became the most sophisticated and interesting, foreigners frequented it more than many others known. The countess was amused by state affairs and exposed the lions of the opposition to criticism, she belonged to the intimate circle of friends around the king and crown prince in the early 1820s, where she, Gustaf Lagerbielke, Mariana Koskull and the wife of the Dutch ambassador were prominent members of the French language amateur theater at Rosersberg Palace. During this period, she introduced her daughter Jaquette Löwenhielm to this intimate circle; when her daughter and crown prince Oscar became lovers, she prevented her son-in-law from removing her daughter from court: her son-in-law commented that whether she was unknowing or just pretended not to know, she refused to prevent or stop it and by her actions rather ensured that the love affair could continue.

When the marriage of the crown prince was to be arranged, she contributed to the list of candidates. While baron von Böhnen spoke in favor of Josephine of Leuchtenberg, whom he managed to include as number two on the list, De Geer pointed out that the father of Leuchtenberg was a mere titular monarch and related through the queen of Bavaria to the deposed Swedish queen Frederica of Baden, that the queen of Bavaria had plans to reinstate her nephew in the Swedish succession. Instead, she promoted Princess Marie Frederica of Hesse-Kassel, daughter of her personal friend Augusta of Prussia, who favored the match, managed to have her listed as number three.> When Oscar and his entourage made a trip through Germany in 1822-23 to meet prospective brides, Charlotta Aurora De Geer arranged for her spouse and son-in-law to accompany him. Prior to the official trip of prince Oscar, baron von Böhnen visited Hesse and informed the electress Augusta that the Bernadotte dynasty could be deposed at any moment and that Sweden had further more deposed or murdered its latest regents.

Shortly thereafter, Charlotta Aurora De Geer arrived to Hesse and informally made a proposal on behalf of the crown prince. She was given a negative reply, which made the entourage of Oscar to decide against a visit to Hesse and instead continue from Copenhagen directly to Leuchtenberg. Wilhelmina Stålberg: Anteqningar om Svenska kvinnor Cecilia af Klercker. Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok V 1795-1796. P. A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. P. 343. 231845. Cecilia af Klercker. Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII. Stockholm: Norstedt & Söners förlag