The Moriori are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Moriori originated from Māori settlers from the New Zealand mainland around the year 1500; this was near the time of the shift from the Archaic to Classic Māori culture on the main islands of New Zealand. Oral tradition records multiple waves of migration to the Chatham Islands. Over several centuries these settlers' culture diverged from mainland Māori, developing a distinctive dialect, artistic expression and way of life. Early Moriori formed tribal groups based on organisation; this culture made it easier for Taranaki Māori invaders to nearly exterminate them in the 1830s during the Musket Wars. There are around 700 people who identify as Moriori, most of whom no longer live on the Chatham Islands. During the late 19th century some prominent anthropologists proposed that Moriori were pre-Māori settlers of mainland New Zealand, Melanesian in origin; this hypothesis was taught in New Zealand’s schools for most of the 20th century, long after it had fallen from favour among academics.
The Moriori are ethnically Polynesian. They developed a distinct Moriori culture in the Chatham Islands as they adapted to local conditions. Although speculation once suggested that they settled the Chatham Islands directly from the tropical Polynesian islands, current research indicates that ancestral Moriori were Māori Polynesians who emigrated to the Chatham Islands from mainland New Zealand around 1500. Evidence supporting this theory comes from the characteristics that the Moriori language has in common with the dialect of Māori spoken by the Ngāi Tahu tribe of the South Island, comparisons of the genealogies of Moriori and Māori. Prevailing wind patterns in the southern Pacific add to the speculation that the Chatham Islands were the last part of the Pacific to be settled during the period of Polynesian discovery and colonisation; the word Moriori derives from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine". It is cognate with the Māori language word Māori and also had the meaning " people".
The Chathams are colder and less hospitable than the land the original settlers left behind, although abundant in resources, these were different from those available where they had come from. The Chathams proved unsuitable for the cultivation of most crops known to Polynesians, the Moriori adopted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Food was entirely marine-sourced — protein and fat from fish, fur seals, the fatty young of sea birds; the islands supported about 2,000 people. Lacking resources of cultural significance such as greenstone and plentiful timber, they found outlets for their ritual needs in the carving of dendroglyphs; some of these carvings are protected by the J M Barker National Historic Reserve. As a small and precarious population, Moriori embraced a pacifist culture that rigidly avoided warfare, replacing it with dispute resolution in the form of ritual fighting and conciliation; the ban on warfare and cannibalism is attributed to their ancestor Nunuku-whenua....because men get angry and during such anger feel the will to strike, that so they may, but only with a rod the thickness of a thumb, one stretch of the arms length, thrash away, but that on an abrasion of the hide, or first sign of blood, all should consider honour satisfied.
This enabled the Moriori to preserve what limited resources they had in their harsh climate, avoiding waste through warfare, such as may have led to catastrophic habitat destruction and population decline on Easter Island. However, when considered as a moral imperative rather than a pragmatic response to circumstances, it led to their near-destruction at the hands of invading North Island Māori. Moriori castrated some male infants; the first Europeans to make contact with the Moriori were the crew of HMS Chatham on 29 November 1791, while on its voyage to the northern Pacific from England, via Dusky Sound. The Chatham's captain, William R. Broughton, named the islands after his ship and claimed them for Great Britain; the landing party came to shore in Kaingaroa Harbour on the far Northeast coast of Chatham Island. The Moriori at first retreated into the forest. Seventy years the Europeans would be recalled in Moriori oral tradition as containing the god of fire, given the pipes they were smoking and female from the clothes they were wearing.
It was this interpretation. A brief period of hostility was calmed by the crew putting gifts on the end of Moriori spears, though attempts at trade were unsuccessful. After exploring the area for water the crew again became fearful of Moriori aggression; some misunderstanding led to an escalation of violence and one Moriori was killed. HMS Chatham left the island with all its crew. Both the diary of Broughton and local oral tradition record that both sides regretted the incident and to some extent blamed themselves for overreacting, it was this regret in part that led to good relations when the next ships arrived in the islands sometime between 1804 and 1807. They were sealers from Sydney and word of their welcome soon gave the Moriori a reputation of being friendly. During this time at least one Moriori visited the New Zealand mainland and returned home with knowledge of the Māori; as more ships came, sealing gangs were left behind on the islands for months at a time. Sealers and whalers soon made the islands a centre of thei
Flax in New Zealand
New Zealand flax describes the common New Zealand perennial plants Phormium tenax and Phormium colensoi, known by the Māori names harakeke and wharariki respectively. Although given the common name'flax' they are quite distinct from the Northern Hemisphere plant known as flax P. tenax occurs in New Zealand and Norfolk Island, while P. colensoi is endemic to New Zealand. They have played an important part in the cultural and economic history of New Zealand for both the Māori people and the European settlers. Both species and their cultivars have now been distributed to temperate regions of the world as ornamental garden plants - and to lesser extent for fibre production. Although the Māori made textiles from a number of other plants, including tī kōuka, tōī, kiekie and the paper mulberry, the use of harakeke and wharariki was predominant; as Captain Cook wrote: “Of the leaves of these plants, with little preparation, they make all their common apparel. They made baskets and fishing nets from the undressed flax.
The Māori practised advanced weft twining in phormium fibre cloaks. Plaiting and weaving the flax fibres into baskets were but only two of the great variety of uses made of flax by Māori who recognised nearly 60 varieties, who propagated their own flax nurseries and plantations throughout the land. Leaves were cut near the base of the plant using a sharp mussel shell or specially shaped rocks, more than not greenstone; the green fleshy substance of the leaf was stripped off, again using a mussel shell, right through to the fibre which went through several processes of washing, fixing, softening and drying. The flax fibre, called muka, is laboriously washed and hand wrung to make soft for the skin; the cords form the base cloth for intricate cloaks or garments such as the prized traditional feather cloak. Different type of cloaks, such as kahu kiwi and kahu kākā, were produced by adorning them with colourful feathers from different native birds, such as kiwi, kākā, tui and kererū. Fibres of various strengths were used to fashion eel traps large fishing nets and lines, bird snares, cordage for ropes, bags, clothing, buckets, food baskets, cooking utensils etc.
The handmade flax cording and ropes had such great tensile strength that they were used to bind together sections of hollowed out logs to create huge ocean-going canoes. With the help of wakas, pre-European Māori deployed seine nets which could be over one thousand metres long; the nets were woven from green flax, with stone weights and light wood or gourd floats, could require hundreds of men to haul. It was used to make rigging and lengthy anchor warps, roofs for housing. Frayed ends of flax leaves were fashioned into lights for use at night; the dried flower stalks, which are light, were bound together with flax twine to make river rafts called mokihi. For centuries, Māori have used nectar from the flowers for medicinal purposes and as a general sweetener. Boiled and crushed harakeke roots were applied externally as a poultice for boils and abscesses, as well as to varicose ulcers. Juice from pounded roots was used as a disinfectant, taken internally to relieve constipation or expel worms; the pulp of pounded leaves was applied as dressings to bayonet or other wounds.
The gum-like sap produced by harakeke contains enzymes that give it blood clotting and antiseptic qualities to help healing processes. It is a mild anaesthetic, Māori traditionally applied the sap to boils and various wounds, to aching teeth, to rheumatic and associated pains and various skin irritations, scalds and burns. Splints were fashioned from korari and leaves, fine cords of muka fibre utilise the styptic properties of the gel before being used to stitch wounds. Harakeke can secure broken bones much as plaster is used today. Chemical analysis shows the antifungal, anti-inflammatory drug and laxative anthraquinones are in common and mountain flaxes. During the early Musket Wars and New Zealand wars, Māori used large, thickly woven flax mats to cover entrances and lookout holes in their "gunfighter's pā" fortifications; some warriors wore coats of plaited Phormium tenax, which gave defense characteristics similar to a medieval gambeson, slowing musket balls to be wounding rather than deadly.
In winter 1823 Captain John Rodolphus Kent went to Foveaux Strait, filled 14 large casks with flax, bought 1,100 lb of dressed flax, took 25 flax plants. That trip was by way of an experiment to confirm the value of flax, but he continued trading until 1836 and several other traders followed his example. Thus, by the early 19th century, the quality of rope materials made from New Zealand flax was known internationally, as was the quality of New Zealand trees which were used for spars and masts; the Royal Navy was one of the largest customers. The flax trade burgeoned after male Māori recognised the advantages of trade and adapted to helping in the harvesting and dressing of flax, done by females. "Whole tribes sometimes relocated to swamps where flax grew in abundance but where it was decidedly unhealthy to live. The taking of slaves increased - slaves who could be put to work dressing flax...". A burgeoning flax industry developed with the fibres being used for rope, matting, carpet under felt, wool packs.
Wild stands of flax were h
Dargaville is a town in the North Island of New Zealand. It is situated on the bank of the Northern Wairoa River in the Northland region; the town is located 55 kilometres southwest of Whangarei. The population was 4,251 at the 2013 Census, a decrease of 204 since 2006 and 282 from 2001, it is noted for the high proportion of residents of Croatian descent. The area around it is one of the chief regions in the country for cultivating kumara and so Dargaville is known by many locals as the Kumara Capital of New Zealand; the town was named after politician Joseph Dargaville. Founded during the 19th-century kauri gum and timber trade, it had New Zealand's largest population; the area became known for a thriving industry that included gum digging and kauri logging, based at Te Kopuru, several kilometres south of Dargaville on the banks of the Northern Wairoa river. The river was used to transport the huge logs downstream to shipbuilders and as a primary means of transport to Auckland. Te Houhanga Marae and Rāhiri meeting house is a traditional meeting place for Te Roroa and the Ngāti Whātua hapū of Te Kuihi and Te Roroa.
The nearby Ripiro Beach has the longest unbroken stretches of sand beach in New Zealand, is drivable from one end to the other. This beach is home of the famous local shellfish delicacy called the toheroa. Overexploitation in the 1950s and 1960s caused the population of the shellfish to decline enough that public gathering of the shellfish is now prohibited. Dargaville is the gateway to the Waipoua Forest, a protected national park and home of the biggest specimens of Kauri tree in New Zealand, Tane Mahuta being chief amongst them. Dargaville is situated with boat moorings adjacent to the town centre; the river is tidal. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as oceanic. Dargaville is on the junction of State Highways 12 and 14. North of the town, the Donnelly's Crossing Section railway was established to provide access to other logging activities; the first portion of this line was opened in 1889, it reached its greatest extent in 1923, after operating isolated from the national rail network for decades, it was connected with the North Auckland Line by the Dargaville Branch in 1940.
The Donnelly's Crossing Section closed in 1959, but the Dargaville Branch continues to operate today as a freight-only line, though its future is less than certain. The area around Dargaville is now predominantly a farming region and supports extensive dairy and sheep farms, as well as a thriving plantation forest industry. Other attractions are the Kai Iwi lakes some 25 kilometres north of the town, Pouto Peninsula. Baylys Beach is the local beach, just 13 kilometres from the township, offers over 90 kilometres of rugged west coast surf. Dargaville High School is a secondary school with a roll of 528; the school was destroyed by fire in 1937 and rebuilt the following year. Dargaville Intermediate is an intermediate school with a roll of 166. Both schools have a decile rating of 3. Dargaville Primary School and Selwyn Park School are contributing primary schools with rolls of 401 and 128, respectively. Dargaville Primary was established by 1877. In 1879, it had a roll of 16, which grew to 155 in 1899.
It has a decile rating of 4. Selwyn Park celebrates its 50th Jubilee in 2008, it has a decile rating of 1. St Joseph's School is a full primary school with a decile rating of 3 and a roll of 114, it is a state integrated Catholic school. All these schools are coeducational. NorthTec polytechnic has a campus in Dargaville. Amelia Batistich, was born here in 1905 Robert Hornblow, the town's mayor from 1919 to 1925 Dion Nash, New Zealand cricketeer, attended Dargaville High School Mike Perjanik, record producer and composer Winston Peters, New Zealand politician and leader of the New Zealand First party, attended Dargaville High School Mark Taylor, All Black Frank Watkins, World War II RNZAF pilot Mark Williams and recording artist Croatian New Zealanders Dargaville online portal
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
A taiaha is a traditional weapon of the Māori of New Zealand. Taiaha are between 5 to 6 feet in length, it has three main parts. Mau rākau is the martial art that teaches other Māori weapons in combat; as with other martial arts styles, students of the taiaha spend years mastering the skills of timing, balance and co-ordination necessary to wield the weapon effectively. The taiaha is known due to its use in the wero — the traditional Māori challenge during the pōwhiri, a formal welcoming ceremony. A wero is given to heads of state and visiting dignitaries welcomed to New Zealand. Individual displays of weaponry expertise were performed during the wero ceremony. In full view of the visiting party, a selected warrior would parry invisible blows and strike down unseen foes, he would lay down a taki, picked up by the visitors, the welcoming ceremony would continue. Such weaponry displays still occur today during important Māori gatherings; the wero is performed by a lone warrior, but during special events, there might be as many as three.
This unique demonstration of Māori weaponry remains part of modern Māori society. The taiaha is one of many cultural items which are used to introduce children in school to Māori culture, they are used in present-day kapa haka competitions, training with the taiaha is seen as part of the Māori cultural revival. The use of traditional Māori weaponry declined. Weapons like the taiaha were replaced by the European’s muskets and para whakawai, or traditional Māori weaponry training schools, disappeared altogether; as a result, the traditional weaponry knowledge was lost among many Maori tribes. Some tribes managed to maintain their distinctive traditions by passing down traditional knowledge secretly between a few chosen individuals. During the Māori cultural renaissance in the 1980s, there has been a renewed interest and cultivation of traditional weapons. Although there is a much narrower range of traditional weapons being revived, the Māori weaponry has expanded to become a significant trademark of Māori culture.
This revival has been part of the larger Māori cultural renaissance. The survival of Māori weaponry was only possible with the work and activism of remaining experts like Irirangi Tiakiawa, Pita Sharples, John Rangihau, Matiu Mareikura and Mita Mohi. In a modern context, Māori weaponry is limited to just a few types, with the taiaha being one of the most popular. Only a small number of para whakawai are in operation—most are taught within a tribal framework. Much of the knowledge within today’s para whakawai is presented with a background of a deeper tribal history, offering a strong sense of identity and belonging; the para whakawai on Mokoia Island in Lake Rotorua trains members of Te Arawa and other interested individuals in weaponry ideologies and beliefs. This programme was established under the guidance of Mita Mohi in the mid-1980s; this programme was extended to the Christchurch area in the 90s being delivered by Temairiki Williams and the group Te Tohu O Tu. The para whakawai Te Whare Tū Taua o Aotearoa began at Hoani Waititi marae in Auckland and grew to include a number of outreach programmes in different regions.
It was established by Pita Sharples in the 1980s ‘to offer the ancient art of mau rakau back to Maoridom as an innovative programme’. Warfare and weaponry were essential to the traditionally militant Māori society. Children were prepared for warfare from an early age, their early training included playing activities like boxing and stick-throwing games. In the para whakawai, the young men learned mau rākau, they were instructed in battle formations, weapon use, attack and defense maneuvers. They would participate in mock battles using reeds instead of the real weapons. Rakanga waewae was vital to using weapons. Using weapons the taiaha, takes "a lot of maneuvering, it is dangerous. It requires hours, days and years of constant use to master it." To Māori, weapons were more than just implements of warfare — they were taonga, handed down as precious heirlooms from generation to generation. Weapons were made of wood and bone in a slow, painstaking process. Traditionally, a long weapon from hardwood could take months to decorate.
Though it took time to fashion weapons, the level of dedication and pride in creating these objects made them valuable. Karakia were sometimes said over weapons to make them tapu; the New Zealand Army includes an image of a taiaha in its official badge. The Defence Force announced during Charles Bennett's tangihanga that their crest will be changed from the traditional two crossed swords to a sword crossed with a taiaha in his honour; the coat of arms of New Zealand depicts a Māori warrior with a taiaha. The taiaha was featured in the award-winning 2002 film, Whale Rider and more in the film Once Were Warriors. In the TV series, Deadliest Warrior, the taiaha is one of the Māori warrior's weapons in a contest with a Shaolin monk; the taiaha was featured
The sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Its large, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are a root vegetable; the young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. The sweet potato is only distantly related to the potato and does not belong to the nightshade family, but both families belong to the same taxonomic order, the Solanales; the plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, red, brown and beige, its flesh ranges from beige through white, pink, yellow and purple. Sweet potato cultivars with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh. Ipomoea batatas is native to the tropical regions in the Americas. Of the 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally, but many are poisonous.
The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato includes several garden flowers called morning glories, though that term is not extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants under the name tuberous morning glory, used in a horticultural context; the sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, but is botanically distinct from the botanical yams. Although the soft, orange sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, the sweet potato is distinct from the botanical yams, native to Africa and Asia and belongs to the monocot family Dioscoreaceae. To add to the confusion, a different crop plant, the oca, is called a "yam" in many parts of Polynesia, including New Zealand. Although the sweet potato is not related botanically to the common potato, they have a shared etymology; the first Europeans to taste sweet potatoes were members of Christopher Columbus's expedition in 1492. Explorers found many cultivars under an assortment of local names, but the name which stayed was the indigenous Taino name of batata.
The Spanish combined this with the Quechua word for potato, papa, to create the word patata for the common potato. In Argentina, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic the sweet potato is called batata. In Mexico, Chile, Central America, the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote, derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. In Peru, the Quechua name for a type of sweet potato is kumar, strikingly similar to the Polynesian name kumara and its regional Oceanic cognates, which has led some scholars to suspect an instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. In New Zealand, the original Māori varieties bore elongated tubers with white skin and a whitish flesh. Kumara is popular as a roasted food served with sour cream and sweet chili sauce. In Australia, shops will label purple cultivars as "purple sweet potato" to denote the difference to the other cultivars. About 95% of Australia's production is of the orange cultivar named'Beauregard' from North America, known as "sweet potato". A reddish-purple cultivar,'Northern Star', is 4% of production and is sold as "kumara".
The origin and domestication of sweet potato occurred in either South America. In Central America, domesticated sweet potatoes were present at least 5,000 years ago, with the origin of I. batatas between the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. The cultigen was most spread by local people to the Caribbean and South America by 2500 BCE; the sweet potato was grown in Polynesia before western exploration as the Ipomoea batatas, spread by vine cuttings rather than by seeds. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1400 CE. A common hypothesis is that a vine cutting was brought to central Polynesia by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, spread from there across Polynesia to Easter Island and New Zealand. Divergence time estimates suggest that sweet potatoes might have been present in Polynesia thousands of years before humans arrived there, although other reports dispute this. In response to a major crop failure, sweet potatoes were introduced to Fujian province of China in about 1594 from Luzon.
The growing of sweet potatoes was encouraged by the Governor Chin Hsüeh-tseng. The sweet potato was introduced to Japan, in the early 1600s. Sweet potatoes became a staple in Japan because they were important in preventing famine when rice harvests were poor. Sweet potatoes were planted in Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune's private garden, it was introduced to Korea in 1764. The sweet potato arrived in Europe with the Columbian exchange, it is recorded, for example, in Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book, compiled in England in 1604. The genome of cultivated sweet potatoes contains sequences of DNA from Agrobacterium, with genes expressed by the plants. Transgenes were observed both in related wild relatives of the sweet potato, in more distantly related wild species. Studies indicated that the sweet potato genome evolved over millennia, with eventual domestication of the crop taking advantage of natural genetic modific
The word pā can refer to any Māori village or defensive settlement, but refers to hillforts – fortified settlements with palisades and defensive terraces – and to fortified villages. Pā are in the North Island of New Zealand, north of Lake Taupo. Over 5000 sites have been located and examined although few have been subject to detailed analysis. No pā have been yet located from the early colonization period when early Polynesian-Māori colonizers lived in the lower South Island. Variations similar to pā are found throughout central Polynesia, in the islands of Fiji and the Marquesas Islands. In Māori culture, a great pā represented the mana and strategic ability of an iwi, as personified by a rangatira. Pā are located in various defensible locations around the territory of an iwi to protect fertile plantation sites and food supplies. All pā are found on prominent raised ground volcanic hills; the natural slope of the hill is terraced. Dormant volcanoes were used for pā in Auckland. Pā are multipurpose in function.
Pā that have been extensively studied after the New Zealand Wars and more were found to safeguard food and water storage sites or wells, food storage pits, small integrated plantations, maintained inside the pā. Recent studies have shown that in most cases, few people lived long term in a single pā, that iwi maintained several pā at once under the control of a hapū; the area in between pā were common residential and horticultural sites. A tourist attraction of authentic pā engineering is Auckland's Maungawhau / Mount Eden. Traditional pā took a variety of designs; the simplest pā, the tuwatawata consisted of a single wood palisade around the village stronghold, several elevated stage levels from which to defend and attack. A pā maioro, general construction used multiple ramparts, earthen ditches used as hiding posts for ambush, multiple rows of palisades; the most sophisticated pā was called a pā whakino, which included all the other features plus more food storage areas, water wells, more terraces, palisades, fighting stages, outpost stages, underground dug-posts, mountain or hill summit areas called "tihi", defended by more multiple wall palisades with underground communication passages, escape passages, elaborate traditionally carved entrance ways, artistically carved main posts.
An important feature of pā that set them apart from British forts was their incorporation of food storage pits. Pā locations include volcanoes, headlands, ridges and small islands, including artificial islands. Standard features included a community well for long term supply of water, designated waste areas, an outpost or an elevated stage on a summit on which a pahu would be slung on a frame that when struck would alarm the residents of an attack; the pahu was a large oblong piece of wood with a groove in the middle. A heavy piece of wood was struck from side to side of the groove to sound the alarm; the whare of the rangatira and ariki were built on the summit with a weapons storage. In the 17th and 18th centuries the taiaha was the most common weapon; the chief's stronghold on the summit could be bigger than a normal whare, some measuring 4.5 meters x 4 meters. Pā excavated in Northland have provided numerous clues to Māori tool and weapon manufacturing, including the manufacturing of obsidian and argillite basalt, pounamu chisels, adzes and ivory weapons, an abundance of various hammer tools which had accumulated over hundreds of years.
Chert, a fine-grained worked stone, familiar to Māori from its extensive use in Polynesia, was the most used stone, with thousands of pieces being found in some Northland digs. Chips or flakes of chert were used as drills for pā construction, for the making process of other industrial tools like Polynesian fish hooks. Another find in Northland pā studies was the use of what Māori call "kokowai", or red ochre, a red dye made from red iron or aluminium oxides, finely ground mixed with an oily substance like fish oil or a plant resin. Māori used the chemical compound to keep insects away in pā built in more hazardous platforms in war; the compound is still used on whare and waka, is used as a coating to prevent the wood from drying out. Pā studies showed that on lower pā terraces were semi-underground whare about 2.4m x 2m for housing kūmara. These houses or storage houses were equipped with wide racks to hold hand-woven kūmara baskets at an angle of about 20 degrees, to shed water; these storage whare had internal drains to drain water.
In many pā studies, kūmara were stored in rua. Common or lower rank Māori whare were on the lower or outer land, sometimes sunk into the ground by 300-400mm. On the lower terraces, the ngutu is situated, it had a low fence to force attackers to take an awkward high step. The entrance was overlooked by a raised stage so attackers were vulnerable. Most food was grown outside the pā, though in some higher ranked pā designs there were small terraces areas to grow food within the palisades. Guards were stationed on the summit during times of threat; the blowing of a polished shell trumpet or banging a large wooden gong signaled the alarm. In some pā in rocky terrain, boulders were used as weapons; some iwi such as Ngāi Tūhoe did not construct pā during early periods, but used forest locations for defense and refuge – called pā runanga. Leading British archaeologist, L