Zanesville is a city in and the county seat of Muskingum County, United States. It is located 52 miles east of Columbus; the population was 25,487 as of the 2010 census. Zanesville was named after Ebenezer Zane, who had blazed Zane's Trace, a pioneer trail from Wheeling, Virginia to Maysville, Kentucky through present-day Ohio. In 1797, he remitted land as payment to his son-in-law, John McIntire, at the point where Zane's Trace met the Muskingum River. With the assistance of Zane, McIntire platted the town, opened an inn and ferry by 1799. In 1801, Zanesville was renamed Westbourne, the chosen name for the settlement by Zane. From 1810–1812, the city was the second state capital of Ohio; the National Road courses through Zanesville as U. S. Route 40; the city grew in the 1820s–1850s. In excess of 5,000 Union soldiers, along with hundreds of townsfolk, were stationed in the Zanesville area to protect the city in 1863 during Morgan's Raid. Novelist Zane Grey, a descendant of the Zane family, was born in the city.
The city increased because of factories producing pottery, glassware, ball-bearings, soap and many other products from the 1880s until the mid-1950s. The city had a booming downtown increase in the northern area of the town. By the 1950s many factories had moved. Pottery, a major industrial employer waned in demand because of cheaper Asian companies. During the 1950s until the 1980s nearly one-third of the population abandoned the city. By the 1990s the city/county opened industrial parks and several housing developments were built in the northern parts of the city. In 2016, the Good Samaritan campus and the Bethesda campus merged to form the enlarged Genesis hospital, located on Maple Avenue; the city has two engineering landmarks: the Muskingum River Canal, designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. "Lorena" may have been the most popular song, on both sides by their campfires during the American Civil War. The song was based on an ill-advised love affair.
The song has been sung in many Westerns/Civil War movies as well. John Ford sung the song as background in many of his movies. Today, a sight-seeing sternwheeler named Lorena cruises on the Muskingum River. Zanesville is located at 39°56′46″N 82°0′44″W, along the Muskingum River at its confluence with the Licking River, it is located 52 miles east of Columbus. It is situated within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.14 square miles, of which 11.77 square miles is land and 0.37 square miles is water. The area has important deposits of clay which were exploited by a number of pottery companies in the first half of the twentieth century. Famous companies included Roseville pottery, Weller pottery, the J. B. Owens Pottery Company, the Zanesville Stoneware Company, the Mosaic Tile Company, the American Encaustic Tiling Company, the T. B. Townsend Brick Yard under the ownership of T. B. Townsend. In the 1950s, Zanesville was known for its population of light-skinned blacks who could "pass".
This characteristic was due to a history of racial intermixing dating back to the role of Zanesville as a stop on the Underground Railroad. As of the census of 2010, there were 25,487 people, 10,864 households, 6,176 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,165.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,385 housing units at an average density of 1,052.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.4% White, 9.7% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 4.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 10,864 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.1% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.2% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.97.
The median age in the city was 36.3 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,586 people, 10,572 households, 6,438 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,276.8 people per square mile. There were 11,662 housing units at an average density of 1,037.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.48% White, 10.76% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 10,572 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.5% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and
Ohio's 12th congressional district
Ohio's 12th congressional district is a United States congressional district in central Ohio, covering Delaware County, Morrow County, Licking County, along with parts of Franklin, Marion and Richland counties. The district includes communities north and east of Columbus including Zanesville and Dublin. On January 15, 2018, the district's representative Pat Tiberi resigned. A special election was held on August 7, 2018 to fill the vacancy for the remainder of Tiberi's term, which ends on November 6, 2018. At the special election, the Republican candidate was Troy Balderson, endorsed by President Trump, the Democratic candidate was Danny O’Connor. On August 24, Balderson was declared winner of the special election, which witnessed a significant swing away from the Republican Party. From 2003 to 2013 the district included eastern Columbus, including most of its African-American neighborhoods; the district took in most of its northern suburbs, including Westerville. It was one of two districts. For most of the time from the 1980s to the 2000s, it was considered to be less Republican than the 15th, in part due to its large black population.
However, redistricting after the 2010 census drew nearly all of the 15th's black constituents into the 3rd District, while the 15th was pushed into more exurban and Republican areas north and east of the capital. It has been in Republican hands since 1920, except for an eight-year stretch in the 1930s and a two-year term in 1980 where the Democratic Party held the seat. In the 2004 presidential election George W. Bush narrowly won the district against John Kerry, 51% to 49%. However, in the 2008 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama won the 12th district by a margin of 53% to 46%. After the 2011 redistricting cycle, the district has since been won in larger margins by Republican presidential candidates; the following chart shows historic election results. Georgia's 6th congressional district Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Licking County, Ohio
Licking County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 166,492, its county seat is Newark. The county was formed on January 1808 from portions of Fairfield County, it is named for the salt licks. Licking County is part of OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 687 square miles, of which 683 square miles is land and 5.0 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in Ohio by land area. Knox County Coshocton County Muskingum County Perry County Fairfield County Franklin County Delaware County As of the census of 2000, there were 146,491 people, 55,609 households, 40,149 families residing in the county; the population density was 212 people per square mile. There were 58,760 housing units at an average density of 86 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.64% White, 2.06% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races.
0.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 55,609 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.50% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,124, the median income for a family was $51,969. Males had a median income of $37,957 versus $26,884 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,581.
About 5.50% of families and 7.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.10% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 166,492 people, 63,989 households, 45,162 families residing in the county; the population density was 243.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 69,291 housing units at an average density of 101.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.2% white, 3.4% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 29.5% were German, 16.0% were Irish, 13.0% were English, 10.8% were American, 5.5% were Italian. Of the 63,989 households, 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families, 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 39.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $53,291 and the median income for a family was $64,386. Males had a median income of $47,391 versus $37,054 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,534. About 8.2% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over. Prior to 1944, Licking County supported Democratic Party candidates in presidential elections, only voting for Republican candidates four times from 1872 to 1940 in four national landslides for the party. From 1944 on, the county has become a Republican stronghold presidentially, with the only Democratic presidential candidate to win the county since being Lyndon B. Johnson in the midst of his 1964 national landslide. Newark Earthworks Blackhand Gorge State Nature Preserve Flint Ridge State Memorial Dawes Arboretum Ye Olde Mill in Utica, where Velvet ice cream is produced.
Heisey Glass Museum Longaberger Basket Facility National Trail Raceway - NHRA Approved Dragway Denison University Home Building Association Bank Licking County high school athletic programs include Granville High School, Heath High School, Johnstown-Monroe High School, Lakewood High School, Licking Valley High School, Licking Heights High School, Newark Catholic High School, Newark High School, Northridge High School, Utica High School, Watkins Memorial High School. In baseball, a state title has been won by a Licking County high school team every year since to 2002, when three Licking County teams won state titles. Newark Catholic High School and Heath High School have combined for nine state titles in a six-year span. Licking County schools won at least one state title in four straight sport seasons: Heath in both Boys Track and Boys Baseball, Newark Catholic in Football, Newark in Boys Basketball and Lakewood in Softball. Heath New Albany Newark Pataskala Reynoldsburg https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Beechwood Trails Brownsville Etna Granville South Harbor Hills Marne Amsterdam Appleton Ben Boston Chatham Columbia Center Fleatown Fredonia Homer Jacksontown Jersey Linnville Lloyd Corners Locust Grove Luray New Way Outville Perryton Rain Rock Toboso Union Station Wagram Welsh Hills Wilkins Run National Register of Historic Places listings in Licking County, Ohio Thomas William L
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
The Muskingum River is a tributary of the Ohio River 111 miles long, in southeastern Ohio in the United States. An important commercial route in the 19th century, it flows southward through the eastern hill country of Ohio. Via the Ohio, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed; the river is navigable for much of its length through a series of dams. The Muskingum is formed at Coshocton in east-central Ohio by the confluence of the Walhonding and Tuscarawas rivers, it flows in a meandering course southward past Conesville and Dresden to Zanesville, southeastward past South Zanesville, Gaysport, Malta, McConnelsville, Lowell and Devola. It joins the Ohio at Marietta. Along its course the Muskingum collects Wills Creek near Conesville; the name Muskingum derives from the Shawnee word mshkikwam'swampy ground', taken to mean'elk's eye' in Lenape by folk etymology, as if < mus'elk' + wəshkinkw'its eye'. It was the name of a large Wyandot town along the river; as part of an expedition to assert French dominance throughout the entire Ohio valley, on August 15, 1749, a leaden plate claiming the region for France was buried at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers by Pierre Joseph Céloron Noted frontier explorer, Christopher Gist, reached the Big Sandy Creek tributary of the river on December 4, 1751.
Traveling downriver, he recorded arriving on December 14 at the western Wyandot town of Muskingum, at present-day Coshocton. There he remained for the following month. Marietta was founded in 1788 as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory, at the mouth of the Muskingum River on the Ohio River; the Big Bottom Massacre occurred along its banks in 1791. Zanesville was settled by European Americans in 1799 at the site where Zane's Trace crossed the Muskingum at the mouth of the Licking River. In the mid-19th century the Muskingum was an important commercial shipping route, with dams and locks controlling the water level to allow boats to travel up and down the river. With the decrease in use of water-based transportation in Ohio by the 1920s, the locks fell into disrepair. Since the 1960s, the locks have been repaired to enable pleasure craft to travel the entire navigable length of the river; the Muskingum waterway is one of the few remaining systems in the US to use hand-operated river locks.
The navigation system has been designated a national Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. In 2006, it was designated "An Ohio Water Trail. Located north of the Mason–Dixon line, from around 1812 to 1861 the Muskingum River was a major Underground Railroad route used by fugitive slaves escaping from the South on their journey north to Lake Erie and Canada; the Friends of the Lower Muskingum River is a 501 nonprofit land trust based in Marietta, concerned with protection of the Muskingum River and adjacent lands. In addition, the Muskingum River Conservation District is a quasi-governmental entity concerned with flood control on the river. According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Muskingum River has been known as: Big Muskingum River Elk River Mouskindom River Mushkingum River Muskingham River Riviere Chiagnez List of rivers of Ohio Muskingum River Power Plant Y-Bridge A history-travel guide on the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers