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Muslim conquest of the Maghreb

The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb continued the century of rapid Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa. In a series of three stages, the conquest of the Maghreb commenced in 647 and concluded in 709 with the "Byzantine" Roman Empire losing its last remaining strongholds to the then-Umayyad Caliphate. By 642 AD, under Caliph Umar, Arab Muslim forces had laid control of Mesopotamia, Syria and had invaded Armenia, all territories split between the warring Byzantine and Persian Empires, were concluding their conquest of the Persian Empire with their defeat of the Persian army at the Battle of Nahāvand, it was at this point that Arab military expeditions into North African regions west of Egypt were first launched, continuing for years and furthering the spread of Islam. In 644 at Madinah, Caliph Umar was succeeded by Uthman ibn Affan, during whose twelve-year rule Armenia and all of Iran, would be added to the growing Islamic empire.

The Byzantine navy would be defeated in the eastern Mediterranean. The earliest Arab accounts that have come down to us are those of ibn'Abd al-Hakam, al-Baladhuri and Khalifah ibn Khayyat, all of which were written in the 9th century, some 200 years after the first invasions; these are not detailed. In the case of the most informative, the History of the Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain by ibn'Abd al-Hakam, Robert Brunschvig has shown that it was written with a view to illustrating points of Maliki law rather than documenting a history, that some of the events it describes are historical. Beginning in the 12th century, scholars at Kairouan began to construct a new version of the history of the conquest, finalised by Ibrahim ibn ar-Raqiq; this version was copied in its entirety, sometimes interpolated, by authors, reaching its zenith in the 14th century with scholars such as ibn Idhari, ibn Khaldun and al-Nuwayri. It differs from the earlier version not only in the greater detail, but in giving conflicting accounts of events.

This, however, is the one given below. There is ongoing controversy regarding the relative merits of the two versions. For more information, refer to the works cited below by Brunschvig, Modéran and Benabbès and Siraj; the first invasion of North Africa, ordered by Abdallah ibn Sa'd, commenced in 647. 20,000 Arabs marched from Medina in the Arabian Peninsula, another 20,000 joined them in Memphis and Abdallah ibn Sa'd led them into the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa. The army took Tripolitania. Count Gregory, the local Byzantine governor, had declared his independence from the Byzantine Empire in North Africa, he gathered his allies, confronted the invading Islamic Arab forces and suffered defeat at the Battle of Sufetula, a city 240 kilometres south of Carthage. With the death of Gregory his successor Gennadius, secured the Arab withdrawal in exchange for tribute; the campaign lasted fifteen months and Abdallah's force returned to Egypt in 648. All further Muslim conquests were soon interrupted, the Kharijite dissidents murdered Caliph Uthman after holding him under house arrest in 656.

He was replaced by Ali, who in turn was assassinated in 661. The Umayyad Caliphate of secular and hereditary Arab caliphs established itself at Damascus and Caliph Muawiyah I began consolidating the empire from the Aral Sea to the western border of Egypt, he put a governor in place in Egypt at al-Fustat, creating a subordinate seat of power that would continue for the next two centuries. He continued the invasion of non-Muslim neighboring states, attacking Sicily and Anatolia in 663. In 664 Kabul, fell to the invading Muslim armies; the years 665 to 689 saw a new Arab invasion of North Africa. It began, according to Will Durant, to protect Egypt "from flank attack by Byzantine Cyrene". So "an army of more than 40,000 Muslims advanced through the desert to Barca, took it, marched to the neighborhood of Carthage", defeating a defending Byzantine army of 20,000 in the process. Next came a force of 10,000 Arabs led by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi and enlarged by thousands of others. Departing from Damascus, the army took the vanguard.

In 670 the city of Kairouan was established as a base for further operations. This would become the capital of the Islamic province of Ifriqiya, which would cover the coastal regions of today's western Libya and eastern Algeria. After this, as Edward Gibbon writes, the fearless general "plunged into the heart of the country, traversed the wilderness in which his successors erected the splendid capitals of Fes and Morocco, at length penetrated to the verge of the Atlantic and the great desert". In his conquest of the Maghreb he besieged the coastal city of Bugia as well as Tingi or Tangier, overwhelming what had once been the traditional Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana, but here he was stopped and repulsed. Luis Garcia de Valdeavellano writes: In their invasions against the Byzantines and the Berbers, the Arab chieftains had extended their African dominions, as early as the year 682 Uqba had reached the shores of the Atlantic, but he was unable to occupy Tangier, for he was forced to turn back toward the Atlas Mountains by a man who became known to history a

Børøy Bridge

The Børøy Bridge is a bridge in Hadsel Municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The bridge carries Norwegian County Road 82 between the town of Stokmarknes on the island of Hadseløya to the nearby island of Børøya. Together with the Hadsel Bridge it connects the islands of Hadseløya and Langøya; the bridge is 336 metres long and its maximum clearing to the sea is 15 metres. The Børøy Bridge was built in 1967, was the first of the main bridges in the Vesterålen islands; the municipality of Hadsel financed the building of the bridge after the municipality bought the island of Børøya in 1963. List of bridges in Norway List of bridges in Norway by length List of bridges List of bridges by length

Gary Alter

Gary J. Alter is an American plastic surgeon, his specialties include sex reassignment surgery, genital reconstruction surgery and facial feminization surgery. He appeared in two episodes of the reality television series, Dr. 90210. PRNewswire reported on June 5, 2015 that Dr. Gary J. Alter performed the body work plastic surgery on Caitlyn Jenner, he has a practice in Beverly Hills, CA. Alter was one of the first physicians with Board Certification by both the American Board of Plastic Surgery and the American Board of Urology, he is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Plastic Surgery at UCLA School of Medicine. Alter's sub-specialty is in genital plastic surgery genital reconstruction, he has invented many original surgical procedures adopted by other plastic surgeons in the field, including the "Alter Central-Wedge labiaplasty technique". Alter attended the University of Berkeley without completing his Bachelor's degree. Afterwards, he received his Doctor of Medicine degree. At the time, it was possible to enroll in medical school upon the completion of prerequisite coursework.

Alter was featured on E! Entertainment's programs Dr. 90210 and Botched. He has been highlighted on Alexis Arquette: She's My Brother and on the TLC show Strange Sex, discussing hidden penis syndrome, he has appeared on the Discovery Health Network, TLC, CNN, the Larry King Show, was a recurrent guest on "Red Eye" on the Fox News Channel. He has been featured in numerous media outlets including the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Self, Marie Claire and Health. Alter has been published in numerous medical journals and textbooks pertaining to his specialty and has co-edited a textbook. “ A new technique for correction of the hidden penis in adults and children”, Gary J. Alter and Richard Ehrlich, Journal of Urology 161:455, 1999 “Penile enhancement surgery”, Gary J. Alter, Techniques in Urology, 4:70, 1998 “A new technique for aesthetic labia minora reduction”, Gary J. Alter, Annals of Plastic Surgery 40:287, 1998 “Use of prefabricated tunica vaginalis fascia flap to reconstruct the tunica albuginea after recurrent penile prosthesis extrusion”, GJ Alter, J Greisman, PE Werthman, AS Seid, BJ Joseph.

Journal of Urology 156:1784, 1996 “Penis enhancement”, Gary J. Alter. B. Saunders, Philadelphia “Prosthetic implantation after phallic construction”, Gary J. Alter, David A. Gilbert, Steven M. Schlossberg, Gerald N. Jordan. Horton, Jr..

List of Black Clover episodes

Black Clover is a Japanese anime series adapted from the manga of the same title written and illustrated by Yūki Tabata. Produced by Pierrot and directed by Tatsuya Yoshihara, the series premiered on October 3, 2017 on TV Tokyo in Japan. Kazuyuki Fudeyasu wrote the scripts, Itsuko Takeda designed the characters, Minako Seki composed the music; the first season, which adapts the first eight volumes of the manga, was listed as running for 13 episodes, but was expanded to 51 episodes. The first two seasons each consisted of 51 episodes; the series uses twenty different pieces of theme music: ten ending themes. An original video animation produced by Xebec, based on the series was shown at the 2016 Jump Festa between November 27 and December 18, 2016, it was bundled with the 11th volume of the manga, released on May 2, 2017. A second original video animation was shown at the 2018 Jump Festa. In 2017, both Crunchyroll and Funimation licensed the series for an English-language release in North America.

Crunchyroll is simulcasting the series. Their adaptation premiered on December 2017, on Adult Swim's Toonami programming block; the first DVD and Blu-ray compilation was released by Avex Pictures on February 23, 2018, with individual volumes being released monthly

March of Carinthia

The March of Carinthia was a frontier district of the Carolingian Empire created in 889. Before it was a march, it had been a principality or duchy ruled by native-born Slavic princes at first independently and under Bavarian and subsequently Frankish suzerainty; the realm was divided into counties which, after the succession of the Carinthian duke to the East Frankish throne, were united in the hands of a single authority as a march of defence against the Slavs of Pannonian Croatia. When the march of Carinthia was raised into a Duchy in 976, a new Carinthian march was created, it became the March of Styria. In 745, Carantania, an independent Slavic principality, with the growth of the Avar threat, submitted to Odilo of Bavaria, himself a vassal of the Franks. With this, the Bavarian frontier was extended and Odilo's son, Tassilo III, began the Christianisation of the Slavic tribes beyond the Enns. In 788, Charlemagne integrated the territory of Carinthia into the Frankish Empire by making it a part of the extended Duchy of Friuli, along with the March of Istria.

Under him, missionary work increased through the Archdiocese of Salzburg. Between 819 and 823, the native Slavic population supported Ljudevit Posavski in revolt against Frankish overlordship. In 827, the Bulgars attacked Carinthia and, in 828, Louis the Pious reorganised Friuli into four counties, the two northernmost of which — Carinthia and Lower Pannonia — were detached from the Italian kingdom and incorporated into Bavaria. Louis, King of Bavaria, reorganised Carinthia into Frankish counties soon after; the division of Carinthia may have occurred as early as before 819 or simultaneously with division of Friuli. Before this, the Carinthians were still ruled by native dukes; the new comital administration was mixed Bavarian-Slavic. The territory remained within the Bavarian kingdom of Louis. In 855, Prefect of the Ostmark was deposed for unfaithfulness and Rastislav of Moravia rebelled against East Frankish suzerainty. In place of Radbod, Louis appointed his eldest son Carloman. Carloman took control of the other eastern marches and Pannonia, in 858 campaigned against Rastislav, forcing him to come to terms.

In 861, margrave of Carinthia, rebelled with his counts and Carloman replaced him with Gundachar. In 863, fearing a filial rebellion, invaded Carinthia, Carloman's home base. Gundachar went over to the king with a large army he had been given to command the defence of the Schwarza. Carloman was captured and deprived of his prefecture, bestowed on Gundachar; when Carloman reconciled with his father and was created King of Bavaria, he granted Carinthia to his son by a Carinthian concubine, Arnulf. Arnulf kept his seat at Moosburg and the Carinthians treated him as their native duke. After Carloman was incapacitated by a stroke in 879, Louis the Younger inherited Bavaria and confirmed Arnulf in Carinthia by an agreement with Carloman. Bavaria, was ruled more or less by Arnulf. Arnulf had ruled Bavaria during the summer and autumn of 879 while his father arranged his succession and he himself was granted "Pannonia," in the words of the Annales Fuldenses, or "Carantanum," in the words of Regino of Prüm.

After he in turn became King of all East Francia, Arnulf created a march of Carinthia. Alongside it were the marches of Istria and Carniola; the southernmost marches and Carniola, were susceptible to Magyar raids. In 901, just two years after their first contact with western Europe, Carinthia was ravaged by the Magyars. In 952, Carinthia was placed under the Duchy of Bavaria, as were Carniola and Friuli; the march's major cities were Villach. In the tenth century, a so-called Carantanian march broke off from Carinthia; the Carantanian march was to become the Duchy of Styria. The only known Carinthian margrave from this period — though many counts are known — is Markward III, a preses de Carinthia. In 976, the Emperor Otto II made his nephew Otto I Duke of Bavaria and separated the Carinthian march and the other marches from the duchy, he made Carinthia a duchy for the Liutpoldinger Henry, who acted as a sort of "chief of the border police," controlling Istria and Carniola. Semple, Ellen Churchill.

"The Barrier Boundary of the Mediterranean Basin and Its Northern Breaches as Factors in History". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 5: 27–59. Doi:10.1080/00045601509357037. Reuter, Timothy The Annals of Fulda. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. New York: Longman, 1991. MacLean, Simon. Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire. Cambridge University Press: 2003

Goa Velha

Goa Velha is a census town in Ilhas, Goa. It should not be confused with the World Heritage Site Velha Goa. St. Andrew's is its parish church, it is well known for its yearly'procession of saints' The town of Goa Velha stands on the site of the ancient port of "Govapuri" or "Gopakapattana", founded by the Kadamba Dynasty in the 11th century on the banks of the Zuari River. Govapuri was one of the main ports first of the Kadamba Dynasty, subsequently of the Vijayanagara Empire. In the 15th century, a number of wars were fought between the Deccan sultanates and Vijayanagara for control of the Goa region, as a result of which Govapuri came under the control of the Adilshahs of Bijapur. Govapuri was devastated by the wars. In addition, the Zuari had begun to recede from the port as a result of silting; as a result, the new Adilshahi rulers built a new port city for Goa some distance to the north, on the banks of the Mandovi. The Portuguese made the new city the capital of Portuguese India, called the old port of Govapuri "Goa Velha".

Goa Velha continued to exist as a small town under Portuguese rule, in 1961 was invaded by India along with the rest of Goa. Goa Velha is located adjacent to Pilar in North Goa. By road it is 2.5 kilometres north-west of Agaçaim, 12 kilometres south-east of the capital Panjim, 17 kilometres north-east of Vasco da Gama, 22 kilometres north of the South Goa district headquarters Margão. As of the 2011 India census, Goa Velha had a population of 4,322. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Goa Velha has an average literacy rate of 89.17%, higher than the state average of 88.70 %: male literacy is 82%, female literacy is 71%. In Goa Velha, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. 68.12 % of the population is Christian, 27.97 % is 3.77 % is Muslim. Goa Velha Census Town has total administration over 1,055 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage, it is authorized to build roads within Census Town limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction