Musselburgh, New Zealand
Musselburgh is a residential suburb of the New Zealand city of Dunedin. It is located in the southeast of the city's urban area, 2.8 kilometres southeast of the city's centre, at the narrowest point of the isthmus which joins Otago Peninsula to the rest of the South Island. The suburb takes its name from the named town in Scotland. Musselburgh's 2001 population was 2,835. Musselburgh's most distinctive feature is a rocky outcrop called the Musselburgh Rise, which rises prominently above the eastern end of "The Flat", the local name for the broad coastal plain which stretches across the suburbs of Saint Kilda and South Dunedin; the Rise is located close to the southernmost point of the Otago Harbour to the west of the Andersons Bay Inlet. Another outcrop, geologically part of the same formation, lies several hundred metres to the east, has been extensively quarried; the rise lends its name to the suburb's main street, Musselburgh Rise, which connects with the southern end of Andersons Bay Road and skirts the southern flank of the outcrop.
Musselburgh Rise contains the suburb's small retail area, consisting of some dozen or so shops. This shopping area and the southern flank of the Rise is sometimes considered a separate suburb, at one time known as Goat Hill; the northern side of the Musselburgh Rise is skirted by Portobello Road. This road joins with the southern end of Portsmouth Drive close to the northeastern point of the rise, continues across the causeway at Andersons Bay Inlet, though the junction is a limited one, traffic may not turn right from the Musselburgh part of Portsmouth Drive to continue across the causeway. Close to the junction is a large memorial stone to the Taranaki Māori prisoners of the New Zealand Land Wars who were transported south to Dunedin, many of whom constructed the causeway and much of Dunedin's foreshore roads as forced labour. A branch railway ran along Portobello Road in this area from the 1870s until 1912, rail links continued to the suburb until the track were lifted in 1928. Close to the eastern edge of the rise is one of Dunedin's main secondary schools, Bayfield High School.
This school lies close to the boundary of the suburbs of Andersons Bay. Musselburgh's residential area includes the top of the Musselburgh Rise, spreads east and south along the eastern edge of the suburb of Saint Kilda. Other surrounding suburbs include Andersons Bay in the east, Tahuna in the southeast, Tainui in the south; the top of the rise includes several larger homes, notably including Belmont, built in the 1860s for politician and newspaper editor William Cutten. Belmont was owned by Sidney Neill, became famed for its gardens Neill was the son of Percy Neill, founder of Neill & Co, to become New Zealand's largest importer of spirits. Sidney Neill's widow lived at Belmont until the late 1950s when the large house was sold and the property broken up into separate sections; the Rise was home to Sir Norman Haggitt. Media related to Musselburgh, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray
Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray was a soldier and diplomat in the Wars of Scottish Independence, who served as regent of Scotland. Thomas was the son of another Thomas, Chamberlain of Scotland and Sheriff of Roxburgh, the grandson of the Randulf or Ranulf who gave the family their surname, it is known that the younger Thomas was the nephew of King Robert the Bruce, but it is uncertain which of Robert's sisters was his mother. The traditional view is that she was of the first marriage of Marjorie of Carrick, mother of Robert the Bruce by her second marriage. There is conjecture that the King's father Robert married again after Marjorie's death and had with his second wife a daughter, who married the elder Thomas. However, Marjorie of Carrick died in late 1292 whereas Thomas Randolph was born circa 1278, 14 years earlier. Thomas supported Robert in his attempt to take the throne, was present at his uncle's coronation in 1306, he was knighted by the king or shortly after. Following the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Methven, he was taken prisoner by the English, coming first under the custody of Sir Adam Gordon and the Earl of Lincoln.
During his confinement he joined the English cause, remained attached to them until he was captured by Sir James Douglas in 1308, persuaded to rejoin the Scottish side. His defection came to the attention of Edward II of England, who forfeited all his lands, bestowing them on his favourite Hugh le Despencer. In 1312 Robert created him Earl of Moray, he became ruler of a large swathe of land in the north of Scotland, far exceeding his southern possessions, he was made lord of the Isle of Man, in exchange for a reddendo of six ships of 26 oars and 100 silver marks, to be paid at Inverness. Around this time he became one of Robert's most trusted lieutenants, he seems to have accompanied him on most of his campaigns, his most famous achievement took place on 14 March 1314 when he carried out a daring attack on Edinburgh Castle. This was one of a handful of castles in Scotland still in English hands, stood on top of an unscalable rock. Amongst Moray's men was William Francis, the son of a former governor of the castle, who knew of a secret path up the rock.
Moray used this path to reach the castle, retook it for the Scots. Moray played an important role in the Scottish victory at the Battle of Bannockburn, where he commanded one of the three divisions of the infantry, the others being commanded by King Robert and Edward Bruce, the king's brother. In 1315 Moray accompanied the king's brother, during his invasion of Ireland, he was one of the principal leaders in the war against the English settlers in Ireland. He returned twice to Scotland during the war to obtain reinforcements and to get Robert's personal presence in Ireland. Moray's name appears directly after Robert's on the famous Declaration of Arbroath, sent to the Pope by the nobles of Scotland to persuade him to recognise Scotland as an independent nation. In 1324, he was sent to meet the Pope in person at his court in Avignon. At this meeting he persuaded the Pope to recognise Robert as King of Scots; the next year the Pope wrote to Moray declaring his hope and trust in his efforts to make peace between England and Scotland, gave permission for him to visit the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
Moray was again sent to France in 1325, this time to persuade King Louis X to sign the Treaty of Corbeil renewing the Franco-Scottish alliance, which he did successfully. After his return to Scotland he had a commanding role in the Battle of Stanhope Park against the English; the English suffered a humiliating defeat, were forced to sign the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, by which Scotland's independence was acknowledged. During the King's final years, Moray had been a constant companion, had superintended the household of the young heir to the throne, David. Before his death, Robert decreed that Moray would serve as regent for David, only five years old when he succeeded as king. Moray performed this role justly and wisely, but would die at Musselburgh three years while on his way to repel an invasion by Edward Balliol and his supporters. At the time it was said that he had been poisoned by the English, but it is more that he died from a kidney stone, his successor as regent was Donald, Earl of Mar. Thomas married Isabel, only daughter of Margaret and John Stewart of Bonkyll, a brother of James, High Steward of Scotland.
They had two sons and two daughters: Thomas, 2nd Earl of Moray John, 3rd Earl of Moray Agnes Randolph, married Patrick, Earl of Dunbar and had no issue Isabel Randolph, married Sir Patrick Dunbar and had several children, including George, Earl of Dunbar and John, Earl of Moray Electric Scotland biography
Musselburgh is the largest settlement in East Lothian, Scotland, on the coast of the Firth of Forth, 6 miles east of Edinburgh city centre. The population of Musselburgh is 21,900; the name Musselburgh is Old English in origin, with "mussel" referring to the shellfish, "burgh" derived from the Old English for "town". Musselburgh was first settled by the Romans in the years following their invasion of Scotland in AD 80, they built a fort a little inland from the mouth of the River Esk, at Inveresk. They bridged the Esk downstream from the fort, thus established the line of the main eastern approach to Scotland's capital for most of the next 2,000 years; the bridge built by the Romans outlasted them by many centuries. It was rebuilt on the original Roman foundations some time before 1300, in 1597 it was rebuilt again, this time with a third arch added on the east side of the river; the Old Bridge is known as the Roman Bridge and remains in use today by pedestrians. To its north is the New Bridge, designed by John Rennie the Elder and built in 1806.
This in turn was widened in 1925. The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh was fought south of Musselburgh. Around 1315, Musselburgh was made a burgh of barony, earlier than Edinburgh, which became a burgh in 1329; the town motto "Honestas" dates back to 1332, when the Regent of Scotland, Earl of Moray, died in the burgh after a long illness during which he was devotedly cared for by the townsfolk. His successor offered to reward the people for their loyalty but they declined, saying they were only doing their duty; the new regent, the Earl of Mar, was impressed and said they were a set of honest men, hence "Honest Toun". The town and its population grew throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, with major local authority and private housing developments on both the eastern and western outskirts. Before 1975, Musselburgh was part of Midlothian, not East Lothian, it became part of the East Lothian District following the Local Government Act 1973 and subsequently East Lothian unitary council area in 1996.
Until the mid-20th century Musselburgh was governed by a provost. Past provosts include: David Lowe of Stoneyhill served 1928 to 1938 Schools include Loretto School, a private boarding school, Musselburgh Grammar School, the local large comprehensive, one of the oldest grammar schools in the country, dating from 1608. Primary schools include: Campie Primary School, Musselburgh Burgh Primary School, Stoneyhill Primary School, Pinkie St Peter's Primary School, Loretto RC Primary School and Loretto Nippers. Early learning locations include The Burgh, Loretto RC, St. Ninian's. There are several private nurseries for preschool-aged children. Edinburgh's Queen Margaret University relocated all its schools from Edinburgh to Musselburgh as of 2007, her Majesty The Queen opened the QMU campus in July 2008. Musselburgh is served by two railway stations. Musselburgh railway station is in the west of the town adjacent to Queen Margaret University and has regular Abellio ScotRail services from Edinburgh Waverley to North Berwick.
It is a new station, having opened in 1988. The other station serving the town is Wallyford railway station to the east of the town in the village of Wallyford, which opened in 1994; the town's original station was close to the town centre at the end of a short branch from Newhailes Junction. Passenger services from there ceased in 1964, the line closed to all traffic in the early-1970s; the former railway line is now a road bypassing the Fisherrow area of the town. The town is served by Lothian Buses, East Coast Buses and Prentice, Bus Services26 Clerwood - Edinburgh Zoo - Haymarket - Princes Street - Portobello - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Prestonpans - Tranent or Seton Sands X26 Port Seton - Prestonpans - Musselburgh - - Joppa - Portobello - King's Road - Meadowbank House - Abbeyhill - Princes Street - Haymarket 30 Clovenstone - Wester Hailes - Longstone - Balgreen - Princes Street - Prestonfield - Niddrie - Fort Kinnaird - Queen Margaret Uni - Musselburgh 40 Eastfield - Musselburgh - Whitecraig - Dalkeith - Bonnyrigg - Loanhead - Roslin - Penicuik Town Centre 44 Balerno - Currie - Slateford - Haymarket - Princes Street - Meadowbank - Willowbrae - Brunstane - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Wallyford 45 Riccarton - Currie - Colinton - Firhill - Craiglockheart - Bruntsfield - Tollcross - North Bridge - Meadowbank - Portobello - Eastfield - QMU 108 Fort Kinnaird - Newcraighall - Musselburgh - Levenhall - Wallyford Station - Tranent - Macmerry - Gladsmuir - Haddington 111 Royal Infirmary - Millerhill - QMU - Musselburgh - Whitecraig - Wallyford - Prestonpans - Seton Sands - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Drem - Haddington 106 Musselburgh - Wallyford - Tranent - Macmerry - Haddington - East Linton - Dunbar Musselburgh - Dunbar journeys only run early/late113 West Granton - Crewe Toll - - Princes Street - Meadowbank - Brunstane - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Tranent - Ormiston - Pencaitland 124 Semple Street - Princes Street - Meadowbank - Portobello - Eastfield - Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Prestonpans - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Dirleton - North Berwick Tesco X24 Semple Street - Princes Street - Meadowbank House - Portobello Town Hall - Joppa - Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Prestonpans - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Dirleton - North Berwick Tesco 125 Musselburgh - Wallyford P&R - Prestonpans - Longniddry - Aberlady - Gullane - Dirleton - North Berwick High School N26 Clerwood - Haym
Battle of Pinkie Cleugh
The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, sometimes known as the Battle of Pinkie, took place on 10 September 1547 on the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland. The last pitched battle between Scottish and English armies, it was part of the conflict known as the Rough Wooing, is considered to have been the first modern battle in the British Isles, it was a catastrophic defeat for Scotland. In the last years of his reign, King Henry VIII of England tried to secure an alliance with Scotland by the marriage of the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, to his young son, the future Edward VI; when diplomacy failed, Scotland was on the point of an alliance with France, he launched a war against Scotland that became known as the Rough Wooing. The war had a religious aspect. During the battle, the Scots taunted the English soldiers as loons and heretics; the Earl of Angus, said to have arrived “with ‘the professors of the Gospel,’ the heavy pikemen of the Lowlands, eight thousand strong,” was in the lead. When Henry died in 1547, Edward Seymour, maternal uncle of Edward VI, became Lord Protector and Duke of Somerset, with unchallenged power.
He continued the policy of forcible alliance with Scotland by the marriage of Mary to Edward, of imposing an Anglican Reformation on the Scottish Church. Early in September 1547, he led a well-equipped army into Scotland, supported by a large fleet; the Earl of Arran, Scottish Regent at the time, was forewarned by letters from Adam Otterburn, his representative in London, who had observed English war preparations. Somerset's army was composed of the traditional county levies, summoned by Commissions of Array and armed with longbow and bill as they had been at the Battle of Flodden, thirty years before. However, Somerset had several hundred German mercenary arquebusiers, a large and well-appointed artillery train, 6,000 cavalry, including a contingent of Spanish and Italian mounted arquebusiers under Don Pedro de Gamboa; the cavalry were commanded by Lord Grey of Wilton, as High Marshal of the Army, the infantry by the Earl of Warwick, Lord Dacre of Gillesland, Somerset himself. William Patten, an officer of the English army, recorded its numbers as 16,800 fighting men and 1,400 "pioneers".
Somerset advanced along the east coast of Scotland to maintain contact with his fleet and thereby keep in supply. Scottish Border Reivers could impose no major check to their advance. Far to the west, a diversionary invasion of 5000 men was led by Thomas Wharton and the dissident Earl of Lennox on 8 September 1547, they took Castlemilk in Annandale and burnt Annan after a bitter struggle to capture its fortified church. To oppose the English south of Edinburgh, the Earl of Arran had levied a large army, consisting of pikemen with contingents of Highland archers. Arran had large numbers of guns, but these were not as mobile or as well-served as Somerset's, his cavalry consisted of only 2,000 equipped riders under the Earl of Home, most of whom were unreliable Borderers. His infantry and pikemen were commanded by the Earl of Angus, the Earl of Huntly and Arran himself. According to Huntly, the Scottish army numbered 22,000 or 23,000 men, while an English source claimed that it comprised 36,000. Arran occupied the slopes on the west bank of the River Esk to bar Somerset's progress.
The Firth of Forth was on his left flank, a large bog protected his right. Some fortifications were constructed in; some guns pointed out into the Forth to keep English warships at a distance. On 9 September part of Somerset's army occupied Falside Hill, 3 miles east of Arran's main position. In an outdated chivalric gesture, the Earl of Home led 1,500 horsemen close to the English encampment and challenged an equal number of English cavalry to fight. With Somerset's reluctant approval, Lord Grey accepted the challenge and engaged the Scots with 1,000 armoured men-at-arms and 500 lighter demi-lancers; the Scottish horsemen were pursued west for 3 miles. This action cost Arran most of his cavalry. During the day, Somerset sent a detachment with guns to occupy the Inveresk Slopes, which overlooked the Scottish position. During the night, Somerset received two more anachronistic challenges from Arran. One request was for Arran to settle the dispute by single combat. Another was for 20 champions from each side to decide the matter.
Somerset rejected both proposals. On the morning of Saturday, 10 September, Somerset advanced his army to close up with the detachment at Inveresk, he found that Arran had moved his army across the Esk by the'Roman bridge', was advancing to meet him. Arran knew himself to be outmatched in artillery and therefore tried to force close combat before the English artillery could be deployed. Arran's left wing came under fire from English ships offshore, they were thrown into disorder, were pushed into Arran's own division in the centre. On the other flank, Somerset threw in his cavalry to delay the Scots' advance; the Scottish pikemen inflicted heavy casualties on the English horsemen. Lord Grey himself was wounded by a pike thrust into his mouth; the Scottish army was by now stalled and under heavy fire on three sides, from ships' cannon, artillery and archers, to which they had no reply. When they broke, the English cavalry rejoined the battle following a vanguard of 300 experienc
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries a school teaching Latin, but more an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic secondary modern schools. The original purpose of medieval grammar schools was the teaching of Latin. Over time the curriculum was broadened, first to include Ancient Greek, English and other European languages, natural sciences, history and other subjects. In the late Victorian era grammar schools were reorganised to provide secondary education throughout England and Wales. Grammar schools of these types were established in British territories overseas, where they have evolved in different ways. Grammar schools became the selective tier of the Tripartite System of state-funded secondary education operating in England and Wales from the mid-1940s to the late 1960s and continuing in Northern Ireland. With the move to non-selective comprehensive schools in the 1960s and 1970s, some grammar schools became independent and charged fees, while most others were abolished or became comprehensive.
In both cases, many of these schools kept "grammar school" in their names. More a number of state grammar schools still retaining their selective intake gained academy status, meaning that they are independent of the Local Education Authority; some parts of England retain forms of the Tripartite System, a few grammar schools survive in otherwise comprehensive areas. Some of the remaining grammar schools can trace their histories to before the 16th century. Although the term scolae grammaticales was not used until the 14th century, the earliest such schools appeared from the sixth century, e.g. the King's School and the King's School, Rochester. The schools were attached to cathedrals and monasteries, teaching Latin – the language of the church – to future priests and monks. Other subjects required for religious work were added, including music and verse and mathematics and law. With the foundation of the ancient universities from the late 12th century, grammar schools became the entry point to a liberal arts education, with Latin seen as the foundation of the trivium.
Pupils were educated in grammar schools up to the age of 14, after which they would look to universities and the church for further study. Three of the first schools independent of the church – Winchester College, Oswestry School and Eton College – were tied to the universities. An example of an early grammar school founded by an early modern borough corporation unconnected with church or university is Bridgnorth Grammar School, founded in 1503 by Bridgnorth Borough Corporation. During the English Reformation in the 16th century, most cathedral schools were closed and replaced by new foundations funded from the dissolution of the monasteries. For example, the oldest extant schools in Wales – Christ College and the Friars School, Bangor – were established on the sites of former Dominican monasteries. King Edward VI made an important contribution to grammar schools, founding a series of schools during his reign. A few grammar schools were established in the name of Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth I.
King James I founded a series of "Royal Schools" in Ulster, beginning with The Royal Armagh. In theory these schools offered free tuition to those who could not pay fees. In the Scottish Reformation schools such as the Choir School of Glasgow Cathedral and the Grammar School of the Church of Edinburgh passed from church control to burgh councils, the burghs founded new schools. With the increased emphasis on studying the scriptures after the Reformation, many schools added Greek and, in a few cases, Hebrew; the teaching of these languages was hampered by a shortage of non-Latin type and of teachers fluent in the languages. During the 16th and 17th centuries the setting-up of grammar schools became a common act of charity by nobles, wealthy merchants and guilds. Many of these are still commemorated in annual "Founder's Day" services and ceremonies at surviving schools; the usual pattern was to create an endowment to pay the wages of a master to instruct local boys in Latin and sometimes Greek without charge.
The school day ran from 6 a.m. to 5 p.m. with a two-hour break for lunch. Most of the day was spent in the rote learning of Latin. To encourage fluency, some schoolmasters recommended punishing any pupil; the younger boys learned the parts of speech and Latin words in the first year, learned to construct Latin sentences in the second year, began translating English-Latin and Latin-English passages in the third year. By the end of their studies at age 14, they would be quite familiar with the great Latin authors, with Latin drama and rhetoric. Other skills, such as arithmetic and handwriting, were taught in odd moments or by travelling specialist teachers such as scriven