Kraal is an Afrikaans and Dutch word for an enclosure for cattle or other livestock, located within an African settlement or village surrounded by a fence of thorn-bush branches, a palisade, mud wall, or other fencing circular in form. It is similar to a boma in central Africa. In Curaçao, another Dutch colony, the enclosure was called "koraal" which in Papiamentu is translated "kura". In the Afrikaans language a kraal is a term derived from the Portuguese word curral, cognate with the Spanish-language corral, which entered into English separately. In Eastern and Central Africa, the equivalent word for a livestock enclosure is boma, but this has taken on wider meanings. In some Southern African regions, the term Kraal is used in scouting to refer to the team of Scout Leaders of a group; the term refers to the type of dispersed homestead characteristic of the Nguni-speaking peoples of southern Africa. Although from the period of colonisation, European South Africans and historians referred to the entire settlement as a kraal, ethnographers have long recognised that its proper referent is the animal pen area within a homestead.
Modern ethnographers call the several human dwellings within a homestead houses. Folds for animals and enclosures made specially for defensive purposes are called kraals. Animal pound Potgieter, D. J. Standard Encyclopedia of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Nasionale Opvoedkundige Uitgewery ISBN 978-0-625-00322-8. Südafrikas Norden und Ostküste. Dormagen: Reisebuchverlag Iwanowski. 2006. P. 521. ISBN 3-933041-18-X. Brockhaus Enzyklopädie. 21. Auflage. Mannheim: Brockhaus F. A. 2006 ISBN 3-7653-4115-0. The New Encyclopædia Britannica. 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007 ISBN 978-1-59339-292-5
Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe, the largest city in the country's Matabeleland. The city's population is disputed. Bulawayo covers an area of about 1,707 square kilometres in the western part of the country, along the Matsh' Amhlope River. Along with the capital Harare, Bulawayo is one of two cities in Zimbabwe that are a province. Bulawayo was founded around 1840 as the kraal of the Ndebele king, his son, succeeded him in the 1860s, ruled from Bulawayo until 1893, when the settlement was captured by British South Africa Company soldiers during the First Matabele War. That year, the first white settlers rebuilt the town; the town was besieged by Ndebele warriors during the Second Matabele War. Bulawayo attained municipality status in 1897, city status in 1943. Bulawayo is, at least the principal industrial centre of Zimbabwe. Bulawayo is the hub of Zimbabwe's rail network and the headquarters of the National Railways of Zimbabwe. In recent years, the city's economy has struggled as many factories either closed or moved operations to Harare.
Still, Bulawayo has the highest Human Development Index in the country, at.649 as of 2017. Bulawayo's central business district covers 5.4 square kilometres in the heart of the city, is surrounded by numerous suburbs towards the outskirts. The majority of the city's population belong to the Ndebele people, with minorities of Shona and other groups. Bulawayo is home to over a dozen colleges and universities, most notably the National University of Science and Technology; the Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe the National Museum, is located in Bulawayo, the city is in close proximity to popular tourist sites like Matobo National Park and the Khami Ruins, World Heritage Site. The city was founded by the Ndebele king, the son of King Mzilikazi born of Matshobana who settled in modern-day Zimbabwe around the 1840s after the Ndebele people's great trek from Nguniland; the name Bulawayo comes from the Ndebele word KoBulawayo meaning "a place where he is being killed". It is thought. A group of Ndebeles not aligned to Prince Lobengula were fighting him as they felt he was not the heir to the throne, hence he gave his capital the name "where he is being killed".
It is said that when King Lobengula named the place "KoBulawayo" his generals asked "who is being killed mtanenkosi?" and he replied "Yimi umntwanenkosi engibulawayo", meaning "it's me, the prince, being killed". At the time Lobengula was a prince fighting to ascend his father's throne, it was common at the time for people to refer to Bulawayo as "KoBulawayo UmntwaneNkosi" "a place where they are fighting or rising against the prince". The name Bulawayo is imported from Nguniland, once occupied by the Khumalo people; the place still exists: It is next to Richards Bay. In the 1860s the city was further influenced by European intrigue, many colonial powers cast covetous eyes on Bulawayo and the land surrounding it. Britain made skillful use of private initiative in the shape of Cecil Rhodes and the Chartered Company to disarm the suspicion of her rivals. Lobengula once described Britain as himself as the fly. During the 1893 Matabele War, the invasion by British South Africa Company troops forced King Lobengula to evacuate his followers, after first detonating munitions and setting fire to the town.
BSAC troops and white settlers occupied the ruins. On 4 November 1893, Leander Starr Jameson declared Bulawayo a settlement under the rule of the British South Africa Company. Cecil Rhodes ordained that the new settlement be founded on the ruins of Lobengula's royal kraal, where the State House stands today. In 1897, the new town of Bulawayo acquired the status of municipality, Lt. Col. Harry White became one of the first mayors. At the outbreak of the Second Matabele War, in March 1896, Bulawayo was besieged by Ndebele forces, a laager was established there for defensive purposes; the Ndebele had experienced the brutal effectiveness of the British Maxim guns in the First Matabele War, so they never mounted a significant attack against Bulawayo though over 10,000 Ndebele warriors could be seen near the town. Rather than wait passively, the settlers mounted patrols, called the Bulawayo Field Force, under Frederick Selous and Frederick Russell Burnham; these patrols attacked the Ndebele. In the first week of fighting, 20 men of the Bulawayo Field Force were killed and 50 were wounded.
An unknown number of Ndebele were wounded. During the siege, conditions in Bulawayo deteriorated. By day, settlers could go to homes and buildings in the town, but at night they were forced to seek shelter in the much smaller laager. Nearly 1,000 women and children were crowded into the small area and false alarms of attacks were common; the Ndebele made a critical error during the siege in neglecting to cut the telegraph lines connecting Bulawayo to Mafikeng. This gave the besieged Bulawayo Field Force and the British relief forces, coming from Salisbury and Fort Victoria 300 miles to the north, from Kimberley and Mafeking 600 miles to the south, far more information than they would otherwise have had. Once the relief forces arrived in late May 1896, the siege was broken and an estimated 50,000 Ndebele retreated into their stronghold, the Matobo H
Cecil John Rhodes was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia, which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, funded by his estate, he put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory. The son of a vicar, Rhodes grew up in Bishop's Stortford and was a sickly child, he was sent to South Africa by his family when he was 17 years old in the hope that the climate might improve his health. He entered the diamond trade at Kimberley in 1871, when he was 18, over the next two decades gained near-complete domination of the world diamond market, his De Beers diamond company, formed in 1888, retains its prominence into the 21st century. Rhodes entered the Cape Parliament at the age of 27 in 1880, a decade became Prime Minister.
After overseeing the formation of Rhodesia during the early 1890s, he was forced to resign as Prime Minister in 1896 after the disastrous Jameson Raid, an unauthorised attack on Paul Kruger's South African Republic. One of Rhodes's primary motivations in politics and business was his professed belief that the Anglo-Saxon race was, to quote his will, "the first race in the world". Under the reasoning that "the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race", he advocated vigorous settler colonialism and a reformation of the British Empire so that each component would be self-governing and represented in a single parliament in London. Ambitions such as these, juxtaposed with his policies regarding indigenous Africans in the Cape Colony—describing the country's black population as "in a state of barbarism", he advocated their governance as a "subject race", was at the centre of actions to marginalise them politically—have led recent critics to characterise him as a white supremacist and "an architect of apartheid".
Historian Richard A. McFarlane has described Rhodes "as integral a participant in southern African and British imperial history as George Washington or Abraham Lincoln are in their respective eras in United States history." After Rhodes's death in 1902, at the age of 48, he was buried in the Matopos Hills in what is now Zimbabwe. Rhodes was born in 1853 in Bishop's Stortford, England, he was his wife Louisa Peacock Rhodes. His father was a Church of England clergyman, proud of never having preached a sermon longer than 10 minutes, his siblings included Frank Rhodes. Rhodes attended the Bishop's Stortford Grammar School from the age of nine, but, as a sickly, asthmatic adolescent, he was taken out of grammar school in 1869 and, according to Basil Williams, "continued his studies under his father's eye. At age seven, he was recorded in the 1861 census as boarding with his aunt, Sophia Peacock, at a boarding house in Jersey, where the climate was perceived to provide a respite for those with conditions such as asthma.
His health was weak and there were fears that he might be consumptive, a disease of which several of the family showed symptoms. His father decided to send him abroad for what were believed the good effects of a sea voyage and a better climate in South Africa; when he first came to Africa, Rhodes lived on money lent by his aunt Sophia. After a brief stay with the Surveyor-General of Natal, Dr. P. C. Sutherland, in Pietermaritzburg, Rhodes took an interest in agriculture, he joined his brother Herbert on his cotton farm in the Umkomazi valley in Natal. The land was unsuitable for cotton, the venture failed. In October 1871, 18-year-old Rhodes and his 26 year-old brother Herbert left the colony for the diamond fields of Kimberley in Northern Cape Province. Financed by N M Rothschild & Sons, Rhodes succeeded over the next 17 years in buying up all the smaller diamond mining operations in the Kimberley area. In 1873, he returned to Britain to study at Oxford, but stayed there for only one term, after which he went back to South Africa.
His monopoly of the world's diamond supply was sealed in 1890 through a strategic partnership with the London-based Diamond Syndicate. They agreed to control world supply to maintain high prices. Rhodes speculated on his behalf. Among his associates in the early days were John X. Merriman and Charles Rudd, who became his partner in the De Beers Mining Company and the Niger Oil Company. During the 1880s, Cape vineyards had been devastated by a phylloxera epidemic; the diseased vineyards were dug up and replanted, farmers were looking for alternatives to wine. In 1892, Rhodes financed The Pioneer Fruit Growing Company at Nooitgedacht, a venture created by Harry Pickstone, an Englishman who had experience with fruit-growing in California; the shipping magnate Percy Molteno had just undertaken the first successful refrigerated export to Europe. In 1896, after consulting with Molteno, Rhodes began to pay more attention to export fruit farming and bought farms in Groot Drakenstein and Stellenbosch. A year he bought Rhone and Boschendal and commissioned Sir Herbert Baker to build him a cottage there.
The successful operation soon expanded into Rhodes Fruit Farms, formed a cornerstone of the modern-day Cape fruit industry. In 1873, Rhodes left his farm field in the care of his business partner and sailed for England to study at university, he was admitted to Oriel Colleg
British South Africa Company
The British South Africa Company was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing. The company received a Royal Charter in 1889 modelled on that of the British East India Company, its first directors included the Duke of Abercorn, Rhodes himself and the South African financier Alfred Beit. Rhodes hoped BSAC would promote colonisation and economic exploitation across much of south-central Africa, as part of the "Scramble for Africa". However, his main focus was south of the Zambezi, in Mashonaland and the coastal areas to its east, from which he believed the Portuguese could be removed by payment or force, in the Transvaal, which he hoped would return to British control, it has been suggested that Rhodes' ambition was to create a zone of British commercial and political influence from "Cape to Cairo", but this was far beyond the resources of any commercial company to achieve and would not have given investors the financial returns they expected.
The BSAC was created in the expectation that the gold fields of Mashonaland would provide funds for the development of other areas of Central Africa, including the mineral wealth of Katanga. When the expected wealth of Mashonaland did not materialise and Katanga was acquired by the Congo Free State, the company had little money left for significant development after building railways in areas north of the Zambezi. BSAC regarded its lands north of the Zambezi as territory to be held as cheaply as possible for future, rather than immediate, exploitation; as part of administering Southern Rhodesia until 1923 and Northern Rhodesia until 1924, the BSAC formed what were paramilitary forces, but which included more normal police functions. In addition to the administration of Southern and Northern Rhodesia, the BSAC claimed extensive landholdings and mineral rights in both the Rhodesias and, although its land claims in Southern Rhodesia were nullified in 1918, its land rights in Northern Rhodesia and its mineral rights in Southern Rhodesia had to be bought out in 1924 and 1933 and its mineral rights in Northern Rhodesia lasted until 1964.
The BSAC created the Rhodesian railway system and owned the railways there until 1947. The Royal Charter of the British South Africa Company came into effect on 20 December 1889; this was for a period of 25 years extended for a further 10 years, so it expired in 1924. The company had been incorporated in October 1888, much of the time after Rhodes arrived in London in March 1889 and before its Charter was granted, was taken up in discussions on its terms. In these discussions, Rhodes led the BSAC negotiators. Although the British government broadly supported the scheme, it demanded that it and the High Commissioner for Southern Africa it appointed should have the ultimate responsibility for any territory BSAC might acquire and for approving or rejecting all BSAC actions. Although Clause 3 of the Charter appeared to grant BSAC powers to administer a wide area of Central Africa on behalf of the British government, this was subject to it obtaining those powers through treaties with local rulers.
Under Clauses 4 and 9, the British government had to accept those treaties and agree to assume any powers to govern that the rulers had granted before authorising BSAC to exercise those powers in its behalf. The BSAC was an amalgamation of a London-based group headed by Lord Gifford and George Cawston and backed financially by Baron Nathan de Rothschild, Rhodes and his South African associates including Alfred Beit with the resources of the De Beers Syndicate and Gold Fields of South Africa; these two groups had been in competition but united because of common economic interests. Gifford and Cawston's interests were represented by the Bechuanaland Exploration Company and its offshoot, the Exploring Company. Rhodes and his associates secured the Rudd Concession from the Ndebele king, transferred to the Central Search Association, the Exploring Company was given one-quarter of the shares in it; the British South Africa Company leased mineral rights from the Central Search Association, paying it half the net profits from mineral exploitation.
From the start, Gifford disliked Rhodes, who he thought had acquired too much power in BSAC and had marginalised him. Cawston supported Rhodes only in those commercial activities to make a profit and not in any less commercial ventures; the four other directors were appointed to represent the other shareholders. The dukes of Abercorn and of Fife chairman and vice-chairman were appointed to give the company prestige but they took little part in running the company. Neither had previous interest in Africa and Fife had no business experience. Albert Grey Earl Grey had an active role as a liaison between Rhodes in South Africa and government officials in London, he and Horace Farquhar, a prominent London banker, completed the first Board. Sir Henry Loch, the High Commissioner for Southern Africa, had planned the overthrow of the Transvaal Government in the event of a rising in Johannesburg by British subjects denied civil and political rights as early as 1893, the Colonial Secretary, Lord Ripon, did nothing to discourage this.
Loch's successor as High Commissioner from 1895, Sir Hercules Robinson inherited these plans, but none of Loch, Robinson or Ripon took any steps to promote such a rising. Joseph Chamberlain, who succeeded Ripon in 1895, was certainly aware that Rhodes was planning a rising, but not
Sakubva township is a high-density suburb of the city of Mutare, which contains nearly a quarter of the population of Mutare despite an area of less than four square miles. It was the first high-density suburb being established in Mutare. At that time, it was located in the Old Location section of Sakubva, it is the poorest of Mutare's suburb and its economy is centred on a large outdoor food and flea market. Sakubva's most famous attraction is the Sakubva Market referred to as Musika Wehuku which means the'Chicken market.' The market has the largest food and vegetable markets, traditional artwork, a second-hand clothing market. Significant portions of Sakubva's informal houses were destroyed by police and military forces during the operation Murambatsvina in May 2005. Sakubva is the poorest of Mutare's suburbs and its economy is centred on a large outdoor food and flea market called Sakubva Market referred to as'Musika Wehuku' which means the'chicken market.' The market has the largest food and vegetable markets, traditional artwork, a second-hand clothing market.
Over the past few years the suburb has suffered as a result of the collapse of the country's economy. Sakubva is the first black location of Mutare, it was established in 1925. By 1927 its population had grown to 200, it was designed as single rooms to house black male workers for the nearby industries of Mutare. During this period, blacks were treated as temporary migrants who did not require family accommodation; such a philosophy ensured. Before 1935 black housing provision in Mutare was believed to be financed with profits made through the sale of opaque beer in beer halls located in the city's low-income residential area. By 2002, the population of Sakubva was estimated to be between 50,000 and 65,000. Sakubva township is located about five kilometres south-west of the central business district of Mutare, it is divided into the following sections. Sakubva has a number of schools and tertiary institutions. Sakubva has five government primary schools namely Mutanda Primary School, Sakubva and Dangare Primary Schools.
St Joseph's Primary and High School is a Roman Catholic-run school. Sakubva High School, Rushingo Secondary School, Elise Gledhill Secondary School and St Joseph's School are the four secondary schools in Sakubva. A number of owned high schools have sprouted in Sakubva to meet the increasing population the most prominent of, First Class Academy; these "colleges" are popular because they stray from the conventional teaching methods and they accommodate older students who intend to repeat their secondary education Mutare Teachers College. St Josephs Catholic Mission Mutare Polytechnic Marry mount teachers college Sakubva District Hospital Sakubva Health Centre St Joseph's Hospital Sakubva Stadium is located in Sakubva. Methuen Grounds referred to as Sports Oval. Next to the stadium is a public swimming pool available for residents. Sakubva Stadium made history on the night of 29 April 1989 when Oliver Mtukudzi held the Tuku Live at Sakubva Concert where he recorded his first live album; the recording was the first live musical recording of Zimbabwe.
Fans came from Bulawayo, Harare, Chiredzi, Gweru including neighbouring Mozambique. Simon Chimbetu and Penga Udzoke were supporting artists at the concert. Sakubva has been a subject of violence due to the activities of the so-called bouncers and some of them work for notable Politicians. There has been cases of violence between the residents from Chisamba Singles and the residents of NHBs, OTS, Matida. Notable and influential leaders of these groups are Pension "Master Payee" Gwinyai and Joel Chitsinga. There has been recorded cases of "hwindis" fighting for ranks in Sakubva Market e.g. the Hobhouse, Swimming Pool ranks etc. Some of the popular bouncers who resides, or grew up in Sakubva are Jack Robert and his brother Jericho Robert, Charles Tsambare, David aka Mambo Jesu, Raphel from OTS, Simon Giant, the late Master Mondi, Mani Tindo, Tobe, Master Lucky etc. Old Folks Home is an old age home located in Old Location section of Sakubva. Sakubva Beit Hall is one of Mutare's oldest theatre centre and one of the most notable historical buildings in Sakubva.
Queens Hall Sakubva Stadium which hosted the 6th Africa Games. Mutare Airport Sakubva Market Nyausunzi Beer Hall Sakubva Sewer Works St Joseph's Cemetery Sakubva Library Sakubva Police Station Sakubva Post office Sakubva Swimming Pool Maonde Beer Hall Old Location Beer Hall Hilltop United Methodist Church - one of oldest UMC churches in Zimbabwe
Rusape is a town in Zimbabwe. It is located in northeastern Zimbabwe, it lies 170 kilometres, by road, southeast of Harare, the capital and the largest city in Zimbabwe. Rusape is situated on the main road, between Harare and Mutare 94 kilometres, further southeast of Rusape. Rusape sits above sea level. Rusape is a sprawling town that has not quite reached city status; as is typical of Zimbabwean towns, Rusape has areas of high density population. The main high density area close to the town is Vengere township. Other suburbs have been built since Independence in 1980. Mabvazuva to the east of town, Tsanzaguru further out by the lakeside. Mabvazuva translates to "where the sun rises". There is a new fast growing medium density suburb far east sprawling into the farmlands, called Magamba Township. Tsanzaguru is home to much of Rusape's golden history; the name Tsanzaguru is derived from the Rozvi meaning of a big and tall hill from which the Rozvi were known to have wanted to build to the moon from there.
They are said to have wanted to bring the moon to the King's Zunde Ramambo as a gift. It is from this background that all Chiefs countrywide have their badges designed in a circular form resembling the circular dream moon that the Rozvi wanted to bring their King. Noticeable in the surrounding region are the kopjes, msasa trees, occasional tobacco farms and the sometimes densely crowded rural resettlement villages. Rusape's main piped water supply is from the purpose-built Rusape Dam, built on the Rusape River; the river runs in a northwest to southeast direction on the town outskirts. It is such a big river that the dam was planned with the eastern lowveld sugar-growing areas in mind. Ideally, Rusape dam was to be a reservoir for irrigation in areas deep down around Triangle and Chiredzi since it pours out into the Save River to the semi-arid regions. Rusape was derived from rusapwe which means "may it never dry", with reference to the ever-flowing waters of the Rusape River, adjacent to the town.
Because there are no other perennial streams in its vicinity, it would be a disaster if the river dried. The settlement began in 1894 with the establishment of a British South Africa Company post on the Rusape River. A village grew around the post and during the First Chimurenga the village was attacked by Chief Mangwende. At Gwindingwi, during the early days, Chief Makoni was beheaded by the British in front of his subjects, his head taken to England; the town of Rusape has expanded southward, to include the high density area of Vengere and northward to include the low density development known as Silverbow. According to the 1982 Population Census, the town had a population of 8,216; this rose to 13,920 in 1992. In 2004, the population of Rusape was estimated at 29,292; the National Population Census of 2012 in Zimbabwe recorded a population of 30,316 for the town on 17 Augustus 2012. Former Zimbabwean Cricketer Kevin Curran hails from Rusape; the list of schools in Rusape include the following: Primary SchoolsMount Carmel Primary School John Cowie Primary School St Joseph's Primary School Tsanzaguru Primary School Vengere Primary School Rujeko Primary School Highveld Primary School Mabvazuva Primary School Manda Primary School Madzingidzi Primary School Yorkshere Primary School St David's Gunda Primary SchoolSecondary/High SchoolsVengere High School St Joseph's Secondary School Tsanzaguru Secondary School Tsindi Secondary School St Faith's High School Kriste Mambo High School St. Killians High School Nyakuipa Secondary SchoolCollegesDestiny College Watermark College Three Hills College Vision College Ashanti Dzaro The number of churches in Rusape indicates the importance of religion in the community.
Christianity appears to be the dominant religion, but African religions persist in and through various Christian denominations. Christianity and indigenous religions have influenced each other from the time missionaries first arrived in Rusape in the early 1900s. Anglican Canon, Edgar Lloyd, presided over St Faiths Mission, 17 km from Rusape, from 1903 - 1936. Apostolic Faith Mission Church – Nyanga Drive Celebration Church – Nyanga Drive Dutch Reformed Church – Nyanga Drive Emmaus Zimbabwe – Unknown Grace Fellowship Church – Nyanga Drive One Church - Magamba Extention Rusape Community Church – Chingaira Street See End Time Message – Mabvazuva Road Seventh Day Adventist Church – Rusape.
The Shona are a Bantu ethnic group native to Zimbabwe and neighboring countries. The people are divided into five major clans and adjacent to other groups of similar culture and languages; this name came into effect in the 19th century due to their skill of disappearing and hiding in caves when attacked. Hence Mzilikazi the great king called them amaShona meaning "those who just disappear." When the white settlers came to Mashonaland, they banned the Shona people from staying near caves and kopjes because of their hiding habits. This explanation is. There are various interpretations whom to subsume to the Shona proper and whom only to the Shona family; the Shona people are divided into various tribes in the east regions of Zimbabwe. It is important not to mistake the Bukalanga tribe of Matabeleland as these are a distinct clan of the Lozwi-Moyo Empire. Ethnologue notes that the language of the Bukalanga is mutually intelligible with the main dialects of the Eastern Shona as well as other Bantu languages in central and east of Africa, but counts them separately.
Sure members:Karanga or Southern Shona Duma Njiva Jena Mhari Ngova Nyubi Govera Rozvi, sharing the Karanga dialect Zezuru or Central Shona Budya Gova Tande Tavara Nyongwe Pfunde Shan Gwe Korekore or Northern Shona Shawasha Gova Mbire Tsunga Kachikwakwa Harava Nohwe Njanja Nobvu Kwazwimba narrow Shona Toko Hwesa Members or close relatives: Manyika in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. In Desmond Dale's basic Shona dictionary special vocabulary of Manyika dialect is included. Kalanga, in South-Western Zimbabwe, rather integrated in the Nguni culture, therefore little identification with the other Shona and Botswana: Dhalaunda/Batalaote Lilima Baperi Banyai, speaking Nambya in Zimbabwe and Botswana, sometimes subsumed to the Western Shona Ndau in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, their language is only intelligible with the main Shona dialects and comprises some click sounds that do not occur in standard ChiShona. When the term Shona was invented during the Mfecane in late 19th century by the Ndebele king Mzilikazi, it was a pejorative for non-Nguni people.
On one hand, it is claimed that there was no consciousness of a common identity among the tribes and peoples now forming the Shona of today. On the other hand, the Shona people of Zimbabwe highland always had in common a vivid memory of the ancient kingdoms identified with the Monomotapa state; the terms "Karanga"/"Kalanga"/"Kalaka", now the names of special groups, seem to have been used for all Shona before the Mfecane. Dialect groups are important in Shona. Although'standard' Shona is spoken throughout Zimbabwe, the dialects not only help to identify which town or village a person is from but the ethnic group with which the person identifies; each Shona dialect is specific to a certain ethnic group, i.e. if one speaks the Manyika dialect, they are from the Manyika group/tribe and observe certain customs and norms specific to their group. As such, if one is Zezuru, they speak the Zezuru dialect and observe those customs and beliefs that are specific to them. In 1931, during the process of trying to reconcile the dialects into the single standard Shona, Professor Clement Doke identified six groups, each with subdivisions: The Korekore or Northern Shona, including Taυara, Korekore proper, Goυa, the Korekore of Urungwe, the Korekore of Sipolilo, Nyongwe of "Darwin", Pfungwe of Mrewa.
The influx of immigrants, into the country from bordering countries, has contributed to the variety. There are more than ten million people who speak a range of related dialects whose standardized form is known as Shona; the Shona are traditionally agricultural. Their crops were sorghum, beans, African groundnuts, not before the 16th century, pumpkins. Sorghum and maize are used to prepare the main dish, a thickened porridge called sadza, the traditional beer, called hwahwa; the Shona keep cattle and goats, in history as transhumant herders. The livestock had a special importance as a food reserve in times of drought; the precolonial Shona states received a great deal of their revenues from the export of mining products gold and copper. In their traditional homes, called musha, they had separate round huts for the special functions, such as kitchen and lounging around a yard cleared from ground vegetation; the Shona are known for the high quality of their stone sculptures. Traditional pottery is of a high level.
Traditional textile production was expensive and of high quality. People preferred to wear skins or imp