Colonialism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories with the aim of opening trade opportunities. The colonizing country seeks to benefit from the colonized land mass. In the process, colonizers imposed their religion and medicinal practices on the natives; some argue this was a positive move toward modernization, while other scholars counter that this is an intrinsically Eurocentric rationalization, given that modernization is itself a concept introduced by Europeans. Colonialism is regarded as a relationship of domination of an indigenous majority by a minority of foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of its interests. Early records of colonization go as far back as Phoenicians, an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC and the Greeks and Persians continued on this line of setting up colonies; the Romans would soon follow, setting up colonies throughout the Mediterranean, Northern Africa, Western Asia.
In the 9th century a new wave of Mediterranean colonization had begun between competing states such as the Islamic Ottomans and the Venetians and Amalfians, invading the wealthy Byzantine or Eastern Roman islands and lands. Venice began with the conquest of Dalmatia and reached its greatest nominal extent at the conclusion of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, with the declaration of the acquisition of three octaves of the Byzantine Empire. In the 15th century some European states established their own empires during the European colonial period; the Belgian, Danish, French, Russian and Swedish empires established colonies across large areas. Imperial Japan, the Ottoman Empire and the United States acquired colonies, as did imperialist China and in the late 19th century the German and the Italian. At first, European colonizing countries followed policies of mercantilism, in order to strengthen the home economy, so agreements restricted the colonies to trading only with the metropole. By the mid-19th century, the British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and adopted the principle of free trade, with few restrictions or tariffs.
Christian missionaries were active in all of the colonies because the Colonialists were Christians. Historian Philip Hoffman calculated that by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans controlled at least 35% of the globe, by 1914, they had gained control of 84%. In the aftermath of World War II, the archetypal European colonial system ended between 1945–1975, when nearly all Europe's colonies gained political independence. Collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas". Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary defines colonialism as "the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories"; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by one power over a dependent area or people". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy "uses the term'colonialism' to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including the Americas and parts of Africa and Asia".
It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s". In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammel's Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence." In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can'colonialism' be defined independently from'colony?'" He settles on a three-sentence definition: Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are defined in a distant metropolis.
Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule. Historians distinguish between various overlapping forms of colonialism, which are classified into four types: settler colonialism, exploitation colonialism, surrogate colonialism, internal colonialism. Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons, it pursues to replace the original population. Here, a large number of people emigrate to the colony for the purpose of staying and cultivating the land. Australia, Israel, South Africa, the United States are all examples of current settler colonial societies. Exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on the exploitation of natural resources or population as labor to the benefit of the metropole; this category includes trading posts as well as larger colonies where colonists would constitute much of the political and economic administration.
Prior to the end of the slave trade and widespread abolition, when indigenous labor was unavailable, slaves were imported to the Americas, first by the Portuguese Empire, by the Spanish, Dutch and British. Surrogate colonialism involves a set
Jamu is a traditional medicine from Indonesia. It is predominantly a herbal medicine made from natural materials, such as roots, flowers, seeds and fruits. Materials acquired from animals, such as honey, royal jelly and ayam kampung eggs are often used. Jamu can be found throughout Indonesia, however it is most prevalent in Java, where Mbok Jamu, the traditional kain kebaya-wearing young to middle-aged Javanese woman carrying bamboo basket, filled with bottles of jamu on her back, travelling villages and towns alleys, offering her fares of traditional herbal medicine, can be found. In many large cities jamu herbal medicine is sold on the street by hawkers carry a refreshing drink bitter but sweetened with honey or palm sugar; the traditional method of carrying. Herbal medicine is produced in factories by large companies such as Air Mancur, Nyonya Meneer or Djamu Djago, sold at various drug stores in sachet packaging. Packaged dried. Nowadays herbal medicine is sold in the form of tablets and capsules.
These jamu brands are united in an Indonesian Herbal and Traditional Medicine Association, locally known as Gabungan Pengusaha Jamu. Today, jamu is a growing local herbal medicine industry worth millions of dollars. In 2014, Jamu contributes Rp 3 trillion to overall sales. Despite jamu's popularity throughout Indonesia, it seems that jamu culture is most prevalent in Java; the jamu herbal culture is prevailing in Javanese royal courts of Surakarta. According to Javanese tradition, the famed beauty of putri keraton are owed to lulur. Sukoharjo in Central Java in particular is believed to be one of the center of jamu tradition. Many of the Mbok Jamu jamu sellers ladies are hailed from this town; the traditional jamu herbal traders in Sukoharjo has established the statue of jamu seller as Sukoharjo's identity in Bulakrejo. Called "jamu herbal seller statue" it depicts a farmer and a jamu gendong herbalist carrying her wares. Sukoharjo regions sub-district Nguter, is known as the place of origin of Mbok Jamu gendong herbalist in many big cities, such as Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya.
Jamu is claimed to have originated in the Mataram Kingdom era, some 1300 years ago. The stone mortar and pestle with long cylindrical stone mortar — the type used in today's traditional jamu making, was discovered in Liyangan archaeological site on the slope of Mount Sundoro, Central Java; the site and relics are dated from Medang Mataram kingdom era circa 8th to 10th century, which suggest that the herbal medicine tradition of jamu took its roots by then. The bas-reliefs on Borobudur depicts the image of people ground something with stone mortar and pestle, drink seller and masseuse treating their clients. All of these scenes might be interpreted as a traditional herbal medicine and health-related treatments in ancient Java; the Madhawapura inscription from Majapahit period mentioned a specific profession of herbs mixer and combiner, called Acaraki. The medicine book from Mataram dated from circa 1700 contains 3,000 entries of jamu recipes, while Javanese classical literature Serat Centhini describes some jamu herbal concoction recipes.
Though influenced by Ayurveda from India, Indonesia is a vast archipelago with numerous indigenous plants not found in India, include plants similar to Australia beyond the Wallace Line. Jamu may vary from region to region, not written down in remote areas of the country. Jamu was practiced by indigenous physicians. However, it is prepared and prescribed by women, who sell it on the streets; the different jamu prescriptions are not written down but handed down between the generations. Some early handbooks, have survived. A jamu handbook, used in households throughout the Indies was published in 1911 by Mrs. Kloppenburg-Versteegh. One of the first European physicians to study jamu was Jacobus Bontius, a physician in Batavia in the early seventeenth century, his writings contain information about indigenous medicine. A comprehensive book on indigenous herbal medicine in the Indies was published by Rumphius, who worked on Ambon during the early eighteenth century, he published. During the nineteenth century, European physicians had a keen interest in jamu, as they did not know how to treat the diseases they encountered in their patients in the Indies.
The German physician Carl Waitz published on jamu in 1829. In the 1880s and 1890s, A. G. Vorderman published extensive accounts on jamu as well. Pharmacological research on herbal medicine was undertaken by M. Greshoff and W. G. Boorsma at the pharmacological laboratory at the Bogor Botanical Garden Indonesian physicians were not interested in jamu. During the second conference of the Indonesian Association of Physicians, held in Solo in March 1940, two presentations on the topic were given. During the Japanese occupation, Indonesia's Jamu Committee was formed in 1944. During the following decades, the popularity of jamu increased, although physicians had rather ambivalent opinions about it. Indonesia — home to diversified herbs products — expects domestic sales of herbal and traditional medicine, including food supplements and cosmetics, to expand by 15 percent by 2014 to Rp 15 trillion compared to 2013, due to its health-conscious
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are inherited from a shared parent language, but they may involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dish and desk and the German word Tisch are cognates because they all come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or opposite meanings, but in most cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words; some words don't come from the same root. The word cognate derives from the Latin noun cognatus, which means "blood relative". Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterbaną. Discus is from Greek δίσκος. A and separate English reflex of discus through medieval Latin desca, is desk. Cognates do not need to have similar forms: English father, French père, Armenian հայր all descend directly from Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr.
Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night, noche, nacht, nicht, nat, nátt, nótt, noc, ночь, noch, ноќ, noć, нощ, nosht, ніч, nich, ноч, noch/noč, noč, noć, νύξ, nox/nocte, nakt-, natë, nueche, notte, nit, nuèch/nuèit, nakts and Naach, all meaning "night" and being derived from the Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts "night". Another Indo-European example is star, str-, tora, astre/étoile, ἀστήρ, astro/stella, aster stea, astgh, ster, Schtähn, stjerne, stjärna, stjørna, setāre, seren, estel, estela estrella and astro Spanish, estrella Asturian and Leonese and astro and estêre or stêrk, from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr "star"; the Arabic سلام salām, the Hebrew שלום shalom, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic shlama and the Amharic selam are cognates, derived from the Proto-Semitic *šalām- "peace". Cognates may be less recognised than the above examples, authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence; the English word milk is a cognate of German Milch, Dutch melk, Russian молоко and Bosnian, Croatian, Slovenian mleko Montenegrin mlijeko.
On the other hand, French lait, Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian lapte, Spanish leche and leite are less-obvious cognates of Ancient Greek γάλακτος gálaktos, a relationship, more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin lac "milk" as well as the English word lactic and other terms borrowed from Latin. All of them come from Proto-Indo-European h₂melǵ- "milk"; some cognates are semantic opposites. For instance, while the Hebrew word חוצפה chutzpah means "impudence," its Classical Arabic cognate حصافة ḥaṣāfah means "sound judgment." Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are or totally different. For example, English ward and guard are cognates, as are skirt. In some cases, including this one, one cognate has an ultimate source in another language related to English, but the other one is native; that happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw. Sometimes both doublets come from other languages the same one but at different times.
For example, the word chief comes from the Middle French chef, its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound. Such word sets can be called etymological twins, they may come in groups of higher numbers, as with, for example, the words wain, waggon/wagon, vehicle in English. A word may enter another language, develop a new form or meaning there, be re-borrowed into the original language. For example, the Greek word κίνημα became French cinéma and later returned to Greece as σινεμά. In Greek, κίνημα and σινεμά are now doublets. A less obvious English-language doublet pair is glamour. False cognates are words that people believe are related, but that linguistic examination reveals are unrelated. For example, on the basis of superficial similarities, the Latin verb habēre and German haben, both meaning'to have
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda traditions are a type of alternative medicine. In countries beyond India, Ayurvedic therapies and practices have been integrated in general wellness applications and in some cases in medical use; the main classical Ayurveda texts begin with accounts of the transmission of medical knowledge from the Gods to sages, to human physicians. In Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta wrote that Dhanvantari, Hindu god of Ayurveda, incarnated himself as a king of Varanasi and taught medicine to a group of physicians, including Sushruta. Ayurveda therapies have evolved over more than two millennia. Therapies are based on complex herbal compounds and metal substances. Ancient Ayurveda texts taught surgical techniques, including rhinoplasty, kidney stone extractions and the extraction of foreign objects. Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances used in Ayurveda might be developed into effective treatments, there is no scientific evidence that any are effective as practiced.
Ayurveda medicine is considered pseudoscientific. Other researchers consider it a trans-science system instead. In a 2008 study, close to 21% of Ayurveda U. S. and Indian-manufactured patent medicines sold through the Internet were found to contain toxic levels of heavy metals lead and arsenic. The public health implications of such metallic contaminants in India are unknown; some scholars assert that Ayurveda originated in prehistoric times, that some of the concepts of Ayurveda have existed from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization or earlier. Ayurveda developed during the Vedic period and some of the non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism and Jainism developed medical concepts and practices that appear in the classical Ayurveda texts. Doṣa balance is emphasized, suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. Ayurveda treatises describe three elemental doṣas viz. vāta, pitta and kapha, state that equality of the doṣas results in health, while inequality results in disease.
Ayurveda treatises divide medicine into eight canonical components. Ayurveda practitioners had developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures from at least the beginning of the common era; the earliest classical Sanskrit works on Ayurveda describe medicine as being divided into eight components. This characterization of the physicians' art, "the medicine that has eight components", is first found in the Sanskrit epic the Mahābhārata, ca 4th century BCE; the components are: Kāyachikitsā: general medicine, medicine of the body Kaumāra-bhṛtya: the treatment of children, pediatrics Śalyatantra: surgical techniques and the extraction of foreign objects Śhālākyatantra: treatment of ailments affecting ears, nose, etc. Bhūtavidyā: pacification of possessing spirits, the people whose minds are affected by such possession Agadatantra: toxicology Rasāyantantra: rejuvenation and tonics for increasing lifespan and strength Vājīkaraṇatantra: aphrodisiacs and treatments for increasing the volume and viability of semen and sexual pleasure.
The word "ayurveda" is Sanskrit: Āyurveda, meaning knowledge of life and longevity. The central theoretical ideas of Ayurveda developed in the mid-first millennium BCE, show parallels with Sāṅkhya and Vaiśeṣika philosophies, as well as with Buddhism and Jainism. Balance is emphasized, suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. For example, to suppress sneezing is said to give rise to shoulder pain. However, people are cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure when following nature's urges. For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake and sexual intercourse. Ayurveda names seven basic tissues, which are plasma, muscles, bone and semen. Like the medicine of classical antiquity, Ayurveda has divided bodily substances into five classical elements, viz. earth, fire and ether. There are twenty gunas which are considered to be inherent in all matter; these are organized in ten pairs: heavy/light, cold/hot, unctuous/dry, dull/sharp, stable/mobile, soft/hard, non-slimy/slimy, smooth/coarse, minute/gross, viscous/liquid.
Ama is used to refer to the concept of anything. With regards to oral hygiene, it is claimed to be a toxic byproduct generated by improper or incomplete digestion; the concept has no equivalent in standard medicine. Ayurveda names three elemental bodily humors, the doshas, states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease. One Ayurvedic view is that the doshas are balanced when they are equal to each other, while another view is that each human possesses a unique combination of the doshas which define this person's temperament and characteristics. In either case, it says that each person should modulate their behavior or environment to increase or decrease the doshas and maintain their natural state. In medieval taxonomies of the Sanskrit knowledge systems, Ayurveda is assigned a place as a subsidiary Veda; some medicinal plant names from the Atharvaveda and other Ve
Kampo medicine known as Kanpō, is the study of traditional Chinese medicine in Japan following its introduction, beginning in the 7th century. Since the Japanese have created their own unique system of diagnosis and therapy. Japanese traditional medicine uses most of the Chinese therapies including acupuncture and moxibustion, but Kampō in its present-day sense is concerned with the study of herbs. According to Chinese mythology, the origins of traditional Chinese medicine are traced back to the three legendary sovereigns Fuxi and Yellow Emperor. Shennong is believed to have tasted hundreds of herbs to ascertain their medicinal value and effects on the human body and help relieve people of their sufferings; the oldest written record focussing on the medicinal use of plants was the Shennong Ben Cao Jing, compiled around the end of the first century B. C. and is said to have classified 365 species of medicinal plants. Chinese medical practices were introduced to Japan during the 6th century A. D.
In 608 Empress Suiko dispatched Fuku-In and other young physicians to China. It is said; until 838 Japan sent 19 missions to Tang China. While the officials studied Chinese government structures and many of the Japanese monks absorbed Chinese medical knowledge. In 702 A. D. the Taihō Code was promulgated as an adaptation of the governmental system of China's Tang Dynasty. One section called for the establishment of a university including a medical school with an elaborate training program, but due to incessant civil war this program never became effective. Empress Kōmyō established the Hidenin and Seyakuin in the Kōfuku-Temple in Nara, being two Buddhist institutions that provided free healthcare and medicine for the needy. For centuries to come Japanese Buddhist monks were essential to convey Chinese medical know how to Japan and to provide health care for both the elite and the general population. In 753 A. D. the Chinese priest Jianzhen, well-versed in medicine arrived in Japan after five failed attempts in 12 years to cross the East China Sea.
As he was blind he used his sense of smell to identify herbs. He brought medical texts and a large collection of materia medica to the imperial palace in Nara, which he dedicated to the Emperor Shōmu in 756, 49 days after the emperor’s death, they are kept in a log-cabin style treasure house of the Tōdai-Temple known as Shōsōin. In 787 A. D. the "Newly Revised Materia Medica", sponsored by the Tang Imperial Court, became an obligatory text in the study of medicine at the Japanese Health Ministry, but many of the 844 medicinal substances described in this book were not available in Japan at the time. Around 918 A. D. a Japanese medical dictionary entitled "Japanese names of Materia Medica" was compiled, quoting from 60 Chinese medical works. During the Heian Period, Tanba Yasuyori compiled the first Japanese medical book, Ishinpō, drawing from numerous Chinese texts some of which have perished later. During the period from 1200 to 1600, medicine in Japan became more practical. Most of the physicians were Buddhist monks who continued to use the formulas and practices, introduced by the early envoys from Tang China.
During the 15th and 16th century, Japanese physicians began to achieve a more independent view on Chinese medicine. After 12 years of studies in China Tashirō Sanki became the leading figure of a movement called "Followers of Later Developments in Medicine"; this school propagated the teachings of Li Dongyuan and Zhu Tanxi that superseded the older doctrines from the Song dynasty. Manase Dōsan, one of his disciples, adapted Tashiro's teachings to Japanese conditions. Based on own observation and experience he compiled a book on internal medicine in 8 volumes and established an influential private medical school in Kyōto, his son Gensaku wrote a book of case studies and developed a considerable number of new herb formulas. Since the second half of the 17th century a new movement, the "Followers of Classic Methods" evolved, that emphasized the teachings and formulas of the Chinese classic "Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders". While the etiological concepts of this school were as speculative as those of the Gosei-ha, the therapeutic approaches were based on empirical observations and practical experience.
This return to "classic methods" was initiated by Nagoya Gen'i, advocated by influential proponents such as Gotō Gonzan, Yamawaki Tōyō, Yoshimasu Tōdō. Yoshimasu is considered to be the most influential figure, he accepted any effective technique, regardless of its particular philosophical background. Yoshimasu's abdominal diagnostics are credited with differentiating early modern Traditional Japanese medicine from Traditional Chinese medicine. During the part of the Edo period, many Japanese practitioners began to utilize elements of both schools. Some, such as Ogino Gengai, Ishizaka Sōtetsu, or Honma Sōken tried to incorporate Western concepts and therapies, that had made their way into the country through physicians at the Dutch trading-post Dejima. Although Western medicine gained some ground in the field of surgery, there was not much competition between "Eastern" and "Western" schools until the 19th century, because adherents of "Dutch-Studies" were eclectic in their actual practice
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual. Human sacrifice has been practiced in various cultures throughout history. Victims were ritually killed in a manner, supposed to please or appease gods, spirits or the deceased, for example, as a propitiatory offering or as a retainer sacrifice when a king's servants are killed in order for them to continue to serve their master in the next life. Related practices found in some tribal societies are cannibalism and headhunting. By the Iron Age, with the associated developments in religion, human sacrifice was becoming less common throughout the Old World, came to be looked down upon as barbaric in classical antiquity. In the New World, human sacrifice continued to be widespread to varying degrees until the European colonization of the Americas. In modern times the practice of animal sacrifice has disappeared from many religions, human sacrifice has become rare. Most religions condemn the practice, modern secular laws treat it as murder.
In a society which condemns human sacrifice, the term ritual murder is used. The idea of human sacrifice has its roots in the evolution of human behaviour. From its historical occurrences it seems associated with neolithic or nomadic cultures, on the emergent edge of civilization. Human sacrifice has been practiced on a number of different occasions and in many different cultures; the various rationales behind human sacrifice are the same that motivate religious sacrifice in general. Human sacrifice is intended to bring good fortune and to pacify the gods, for example in the context of the dedication of a completed building like a temple or bridge. In ancient Japan, legends talk about hitobashira, in which maidens were buried alive at the base or near some constructions to protect the buildings against disasters or enemy attacks, identical myths appear in the Balkans. For the re-consecration of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they killed about 80,400 prisoners over the course of four days.
According to Ross Hassig, author of Aztec Warfare, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed in the ceremony. Human sacrifice can have the intention of winning the gods' favour in warfare. In Homeric legend, Iphigeneia was to be sacrificed by her father Agamemnon to appease Artemis so she would allow the Greeks to wage the Trojan War. In some notions of an afterlife, the deceased will benefit from victims killed at his funeral. Mongols, early Egyptians and various Mesoamerican chiefs could take most of their household, including servants and concubines, with them to the next world; this is sometimes called a "retainer sacrifice", as the leader's retainers would be sacrificed along with their master, so that they could continue to serve him in the afterlife. Another purpose is divination from the body parts of the victim. According to Strabo, Celts stabbed a victim with a sword and divined the future from his death spasms. Headhunting is the practice of taking the head of a killed adversary, for ceremonial or magical purposes, or for reasons of prestige.
It was found in many pre-modern tribal societies. Human sacrifice may be a ritual practiced in a stable society, may be conducive to enhance societal bonds, both by creating a bond unifying the sacrificing community, in combining human sacrifice and capital punishment, by removing individuals that have a negative effect on societal stability. However, outside of civil religion, human sacrifice may result in outbursts of "blood frenzy" and mass killings that destabilize society; the bursts of human sacrifice during European witch-hunts, or during the French Revolutionary Reign of Terror, show similar sociological patterns. Many cultures show traces of prehistoric human sacrifice in their mythologies and religious texts, but ceased the practice before the onset of historical records; some see the story of Abraham and Isaac as an example of an etiological myth explaining the abolition of human sacrifice. The Vedic Purushamedha is a purely symbolic act in its earliest attestation. According to Pliny the Elder, human sacrifice in Ancient Rome was abolished by a senatorial decree in 97 BCE, although by this time the practice had become so rare that the decree was a symbolic act.
Human sacrifice once abolished is replaced by either animal sacrifice, or by the "mock-sacrifice" of effigies, such as the Argei in ancient Rome. There may be evidence of retainer sacrifice in the early dynastic period at Abydos, when on the death of a King he would be accompanied with servants, high officials, who would continue to serve him in eternal life; the skeletons that were found had no obvious signs of trauma, leading to speculation that the giving up of life to serve the King may have been a voluntary act carried out in a drug induced state. At about 2800 BCE any possible evidence of such practices disappeared, though echoes are to be seen in the burial of statues of servants in Old Kingdom tombs. Retainer sacrifice was practised within the royal tombs of ancient Mesopotamia. Courtiers, musicians and grooms were presumed to have committed ritual suicide by taking poison. A new examination of skulls from the royal cemetery at Ur, discovered in Iraq a century ago, appears to support a more grisly interpretation of human sacrifices associated with elite burials in ancient Mesopotamia than had been recognized, say archae
Traditional healers of South Africa
Traditional healers of South Africa are practitioners of traditional African medicine in Southern Africa. They fulfill different social and political roles in the community, including divination, healing physical and spiritual illnesses, directing birth or death rituals, finding lost cattle, protecting warriors, counteracting witchcraft, narrating the history and myths of their tradition. There are two main types of traditional healers within the Nguni, Sotho-Tswana, Tsonga societies of Southern Africa: the diviner, the herbalist; these healers are South African shamans who are revered and respected in a society where illness is thought to be caused by witchcraft, pollution or through neglect of the ancestors. It is estimated that there are as many as 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa compared to 25,000 Western-trained doctors. Traditional healers are consulted by 60% of the South African population in conjunction with modern biomedical services. For harmony between the living and the dead, vital for a trouble-free life, traditional healers believe that the ancestors must be shown respect through ritual and animal sacrifice.
They perform summoning rituals by burning plants like imphepho, chanting, channelling or playing drums. Traditional healers will give their patients muti—medications made from plant and minerals—imbued with spiritual significance; these muti have powerful symbolism. There are medicines for everything from physical and mental illness, social disharmony and spiritual difficulties to potions for protection and luck. Although sangoma is a Zulu term, colloquially used to describe all types of Southern African traditional healers, there are differences between practices: an inyanga is concerned with medicines made from plants and animals, while a sangoma relies on divination for healing purposes and might be considered a type of fortune teller. In modern times, urbanisation and transculturation have blurred the distinction between the two and traditional healers tend to practice both arts. Traditional healers can alternate between these roles by diagnosing common illnesses and dispensing remedies for medical complaints, divining cause and providing solutions to spiritually or centred complaints.
Each culture has their own terminology for their traditional healers. Xhosa traditional healers are known as amagqirha. Ngaka and selaoli are the terms in Northern Sotho and Southern Sotho while among the Venda they are called mungome; the Tsonga refer to their healers as mungoma. A sangoma is a practitioner of ngoma, a philosophy based on a belief in ancestral spirits and the practice of traditional African medicine, a mix of medicinal plants and various animal body fats or skin. Sangomas perform a holistic and symbolic form of healing by drawing on the embedded beliefs of the Bantu peoples in South Africa, who believe that ancestors in the afterlife guide and protect the living. Sangomas are called to heal, through them it is believed that ancestors from the spirit world can give instruction and advice to heal illness, social disharmony and spiritual difficulties. Traditional healers work in a sacred healing hut or indumba, where they believe their ancestors reside. Where no physical'indumba' is available, a makeshift miniature sacred place called imsamo can be used.
Sangomas believe they are able to access advice and guidance from the ancestors for their patients through spirit possession by an ancestor, or mediumship, throwing bones, or by dream interpretation. In possession states, the sangoma works themself into a trance through drumming and chanting, allows their ego to step aside for an ancestor to take possession of his or her body and communicate directly with the patient, or dancing fervently beyond their stated ability; the sangoma will provide specific information about the problems of the patient. Some sangomas speak to their patients through normal conversation, whilst others speak in tongues, or languages foreign to their patients, but all languages used by sangomas are indigenous Southern African languages depending on the specific ancestors being called upon. Not all sangomas follow the same beliefs. Ancestral spirits can be the personal ancestors of the sangoma or the patient or they might be general ancestors associated with the geographic area or the community.
It is believed that the spirits have the power to intervene in people's lives who work to connect the sangoma to the spirits that are acting in a manner to cause affliction. For example, a crab could be invoked as a mediator between the human world and the world of spirits because of its ability to move between the world of the land and the sea. Helping and harming spirits are believed to use the human body as a battleground for their own conflicts. By using ngoma, the sangoma believes they can create harmony between the spirits, thought to bring an alleviation of the patient's suffering; the sangoma may burn sacrifice animals to please the ancestral spirits. Snuff is used to communicate with the ancestors through prayer. A sangoma's goal in healing is to establish a balanced and harmless relationship between the afflicted patient and the spirits that are causing their illness or problem; the healer intercedes between the world of the dead in order to make restitution. This is performed through divination (th