Myanmar or Burma the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast and Thailand to its east and southeast, the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to its south and southwest. With a size of 676,578 square kilometres, Myanmar is the largest of the Mainland Southeast Asian states by area; as of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country; the Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia.
The early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British East India Company seized control of the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions.
There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement, ASEAN and BIMSTEC, but not a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, it is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. Myanmar is endowed with renewable energy. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Myanma or Myamma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from Brahma Desha after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: Burma became Myanmar; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use Burma because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi said concerning the question of which name should be used that, "it is up to you, because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular", she continued, "I use Burma often because I am used to using it. But it does not mean, and I’ll make an effort to say Myanmar from time to time so you all feel comfortable". The country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead.
In English, the country is popularly known as Myanmar. Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group. Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the government of the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as Burma and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the CIA's World Factbook lists the country as Burma as of August 2019. The government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. Th
Sunderland is a hamlet and former civil parish, within the Lake District National Park, now in the parish of Blindcrake in the Allerdale district of the county of Cumbria, England part of Cumberland. Nearby settlements include the towns of Cockermouth, Keswick and Aspatria; the nearest railway station is Aspatria railway station. Sunderland is within the Copeland UK Parliamentary constituency, Trudy Harrison is the Member of parliament. Before Brexit, its residents were covered by the North West England European Parliamentary Constituency. For Local Government purposes it is in the All Saints Ward of Allerdale Borough Council and the Bothel + Wharrels Division of Cumbria County Council. Regarding its Parish Council, on 1 April 1934 the civil parish was abolished and it merged with Blindcrake and Redmaine, Isel Old Park to form Blindcrake Parish Council. Listed buildings in Blindcrake Philip's Street Atlas Cumbria
The Huron River is a 130-mile-long river in southeastern Michigan, rising out of the Huron Swamp in Springfield Township in northern Oakland County and flowing into Lake Erie on the boundary between Wayne County and Monroe County. In addition to thirteen parks, game areas, recreation areas, the river passes through the cities of Dexter, Ann Arbor, Belleville, Flat Rock and Rockwood; the Huron River is a typical Southeast Michigan stream. It runs through the following counties, in order from the headwaters to its mouth: Oakland, Washtenaw and Monroe. There are 24 major tributaries totaling about 370 miles in addition to the mainstream; the Huron River watershed drains 908 square miles. It is the only state-designated Country-Scenic Natural River in southeast Michigan; this includes an additional 10.5 miles of three tributaries. The river was named after the Huron band of Native Americans. In Native languages, it was called Giwitatigweiasibi, it was part of a Native American trade route. The river has 19 on the main stream and at least 96 in the entire system.
Most dams are only a few feet high, built to increase and maintain water levels in existing lakes to provide drought protection and flood control, a use, now environmentally controversial. However, at least a dozen dams were built for mill or hydroelectric power and several formed large new lakes behind them; some of these on the Huron River mainstream are Kent Lake, Barton Pond, Argo Pond, Ford Lake, Belleville Lake, Flat Rock Pond. The Huron River flows through numerous parks and is a prime canoeing river with a slow current and only a few minor rapids or obstructions, except for the short Delhi rapids, runnable by experienced canoeists and kayakers except during low water; the river is fished by sportsmen for rock bass, bluegill, black crappie, white bass, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, northern pike, catfish, trout and below Belleville Dam, Coho salmon, Chinook salmon, Steelhead. Suckers and carp are common fish in the river. In 2009, faculty and students from the University of Michigan produced "Mapping the River," a multimedia presentation combining dance, poetry and projected images which explored the role of the Huron in communities along it.
The Huron River was declared navigable by Congress in the 19th century, for a time, there was flat-boat traffic from Ypsilanti to Lake Erie. This was discontinued as the railroads penetrated the milling developed along the river. By the 1880s, the Huron River was considered peculiar among the rivers in the region because it was intensely exploited for water-powered manufacturing; the census reported a total of 17 developed mill dams on the river, many providing power to multiple mills. Flour milling dominated, but there were sawmills and woolen mills; as the 20th century began, the Detroit Edison Company and Ford Motor Company began acquiring and developing dams along the river for electric power. Notable floods have occurred in 1904, 1918, 1968 and 1982. Significant tributaries of the Huron River are listed below, in order of progression upstream. Sub-tributaries are indented below their parent watercourse. Smith Creek Silver Creek Port Creek Willow Run Fleming Creek Swift Run Malletts Creek Traver Creek Allen Creek Boyden Creek Honey Creek Millers Creek Mill Creek Portage River and Portage Creek Livermore Creek Arms Creek Honey Creek Hay Creek Chilson Creek Horseshoe Lake Creek South Ore Creek Davis Creek Woodruff Creek Mann Creek Pettibone Creek Norton Creek The river flows through the following parks and cities in this order starting from the headwaters: Indian Springs Metropark Pontiac Lake Recreation Area Proud Lake State Recreation Area Milford Camp Dearborn Kensington Metropark Island Lake Recreation Area Huron Meadows Metropark Hudson Mills Metropark Dexter Dexter–Huron Metropark Delhi Metropark Ann Arbor Nichols Arboretum Ypsilanti Lower Huron Metropark Willow Metropark Oakwoods Metropark Lake Erie Metropark Pointe Mouillee State Game Area The Clinton River was known as the Huron River until 1824.
The Clinton River, which drains into Lake St. Clair north of Detroit, shares about 10 miles of watershed boundary with the Huron River system, it was renamed in 1824 by the Michigan Territorial Council to avoid confusion between the two rivers. Huron river chain of lakes Media related to Huron River at Wikimedia Commons Huron River Watershed Council History of Peninsular Dam U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Huron River USGS river level data, at Ann Arbor