Mystery plays and miracle plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. Medieval mystery plays focused on the representation of Bible stories in churches as tableaux with accompanying antiphonal song, they told of subjects such as the Creation and Eve, the murder of Abel, the Last Judgment. They were performed together in cycles which could last for days; the name derives from mystery used in its sense of miracle, but an quoted derivation is from ministerium, meaning craft, so the'mysteries' or plays performed by the craft guilds. As early as the fifth century living tableaux were introduced into sacred services; the plays originated as simple tropes, verbal embellishments of liturgical texts, became more elaborate. At an early period chants from the service of the day were added to the prose dialogue; as these liturgical dramas increased in popularity, vernacular forms emerged, as travelling companies of actors and theatrical productions organized by local communities became more common in the Middle Ages.
The Quem quaeritis? is the best known early form of the dramas, a dramatised liturgical dialogue between the angel at the tomb of Christ and the women who are seeking his body. These primitive forms were elaborated with dialogue and dramatic action; the dramas moved from church to the exterior - the churchyard and the public marketplace. These early performances were given in Latin, were preceded by a vernacular prologue spoken by a herald who gave a synopsis of the events; the writers and directors of the earliest plays were monks. Religious drama flourished from about the ninth century to the sixteenth. In 1210, suspicious of the growing popularity of miracle plays, Pope Innocent III issued a papal edict forbidding clergy from acting on a public stage; this had the effect of transferring the organization of the dramas to town guilds, after which several changes followed. Vernacular texts replaced Latin, non-Biblical passages were added along with comic scenes, for example in the Secunda Pastorum of the Wakefield Cycle.
Acting and characterization became more elaborate. These vernacular religious performances were, in some of the larger cities in England such as York and produced by guilds, with each guild taking responsibility for a particular piece of scriptural history. From the guild control originated the term mystery play or mysteries, from the Latin ministerium meaning "occupation"; the genre was again banned, following the Reformation and the establishment of the Church of England in 1534. An example of a mystery play was the Easter Trope performed in the 10th Century, it was called Quem Quaeritis? The mystery play developed, in some places, into a series of plays dealing with all the major events in the Christian calendar, from the Creation to the Day of Judgment. By the end of the 15th century, the practice of acting these plays in cycles on festival days was established in several parts of Europe. Sometimes, each play was performed on a decorated pageant cart that moved about the city to allow different crowds to watch each play as well as provided actors with a dressing room as well as a stage The entire cycle could take up to twenty hours to perform and could be spread over a number of days.
Taken as a whole, these are referred to as Corpus Christi cycles. These cycles were performed during the Feast of Corpus Christi and their overall design drew attention to Christ's life and his redemption for all of mankind; the plays were performed by a combination of professionals and amateurs and were written in elaborate stanza forms. The variety of theatrical and poetic styles in a single cycle of plays, could be remarkable. Mystery Plays origin comes from the Latin word "mysterium" which translates craft or handicraft There are four complete or nearly complete extant English biblical collections of plays; the most complete is the York cycle of forty-eight pageants. Extant are two pageants from a New Testament cycle acted at Coventry and one pageant each from Norwich and Newcastle upon Tyne. Additionally, a fifteenth-century play of the life of Mary Magdalene, The Brome Abraham and Isaac and a sixteenth-century play of the Conversion of Saint Paul exist, all hailing from East Anglia. Besides the Middle English drama, there are three surviving plays in Cornish known as the Ordinalia, several cyclical plays survive from continental Europe.
These biblical plays differ in content. Most contain episodes such as the Fall of Lucifer, the Creation and Fall of Man and Abel, Noah and the Flood and Isaac, the Nativity, the Raising of Lazarus, the Passion, the Resurrection. Other pageants included the story of Moses, the Procession of the Prophets, Christ's Baptism, the Temptation in the Wilderness, the Assumption and Coronation of the Virgin. In given cycles, the plays came to be sponsored by the newly emerging Medieval craft guilds; the York mercers, for example, sponsored the Doomsday pageant. Other guilds p
Canadian singer-songwriter Avril Lavigne has released 6 studio albums, 8 extended plays, 28 singles, 29 music videos, she has appeared on several movie soundtracks and charity albums. Lavigne's debut studio album Let Go was released in June 2002 and peaked at number two on the US Billboard 200 in the United States, it has sold over 16 million copies worldwide and is certified six-times platinum in the United States. The album's lead single, "Complicated", peaked at number one in Australia and Canada and at number two in the United States, its subsequent single releases, "Sk8er Boi", became worldwide top ten hits. Lavigne released her second studio album Under My Skin in May 2004, debuted at number one in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States; the album went on to sell more than 10 million copies worldwide. "My Happy Ending", the second and most successful single from the album, peaked at number nine on the US Billboard Hot 100 and sold 1.2 million copies in the United States.
In April 2007, her third studio album, The Best Damn Thing, was released. It was her second album to debut at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart and has produced Lavigne's most successful single, "Girlfriend"; the song became her first number one hit on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, subsequently became her best-selling single in that region with 3.8 million copies sold. The song peaked at number one on the other record charts of several nations, including Canada, New Zealand and Europe. "Girlfriend" became the worldwide best-selling single of 2007, with 7.5 million copies sold. The album's second single, "When You're Gone", was a top-forty hit in the United States, it reached the top ten in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. In March 2011, Lavigne released Goodbye Lullaby, it was preceded by its lead single, "What the Hell", which peaked at number eleven on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and has sold 2.1 million copies in the United States. The album's second single, "Smile", was released in May 2011, its third, "Wish You Were Here", was released in September.
In November 2013, Lavigne released Avril Lavigne. Its lead single, "Here's to Never Growing Up", had moderate success peaking inside the top 20 in Australia, Ireland, the United Kingdom, the United States, selling 1.3 million copies in the United States. The album spawned four more singles: "Rock n Roll", "Let Me Go", "Hello Kitty" and "Give You What You Like". Lavigne has written songs for several film soundtracks, including those of American Wedding and Sweet Home Alabama. Two songs that she wrote for films were included on subsequent studio albums. "Keep Holding On", written for Eragon, appeared on The Best Damn Thing, "Alice", written for Alice in Wonderland, appeared on Goodbye Lullaby. To date, Lavigne has sold 12.4 million albums in the United States. Worldwide, those figures have over 50 million singles sold, she has 13 vevo certified videos, including "Girlfriend", "Smile", "Complicated" and "Hot". List of songs performed by Avril Lavigne Avril Lavigne's official website
Jean Fayolle is a French former long-distance runner who competed in track and cross country running. Born in Saint-Étienne, he became a member of ASPTT Paris and went on to represent France in the 5000 metres and 10,000 metres at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, he was a four-time French national champion, winning titles in cross country, 3000 metres steeplechase, 5000 m and the 10,000 m in the 1960s. His greatest achievement was a gold medal at the 1965 International Cross Country Championships, he led the French team to the silver medals alongside Michel Jazy. He was the last Frenchman to lift the title and his win marked the first French victory since the 1940s and 1950s wins by Alain Mimoun and Raphaël Pujazon. and He competed at the International Cross Country Championships four more times during the 1960s, including a team bronze with Bernard, Salah Beddiaf and Mimoun in 1961 and a team silver alongside Jean Vaillant, Yves Martinage and Lucien Rault in 1964. Despite his success in 1965, he did not feature in the top twenty of the race in his other outings.
Fayolle competed at the 1963 Mediterranean Games and was a 5000 m silver medallist behind Mohammed Gammoudi. His personal bests on the track were 13.42.2 minutes for the 5000 m and 28.56.2 minutes for the 10,000 m. Both those times placed him in the top twenty of the seasonal rankings. French Athletics Championships 3000 m steeplechase: 1964 5000 m: 1964 10,000 m: 1966 French Cross Country Championships Long race: 1964 Jean Fayolle at World Athletics Image of Fayolle in 1965
Sinking Ships was an American hardcore punk band from Seattle, formed in 2004. In 2005, the band released their debut EP, Meridian on Run For Cover Records and re issued on 6131 Records and contributed the track "Turn My Headphones Up" to the Generations compilation released on Revelation Records; that year, Sinking Ships signed to Revelation Records and released their album, Disconnecting, in July 2006. During their existence, Sinking Ships toured with bands such as Comeback Kid, Down To Nothing, Shook Ones and Shipwreck, they released an EP on Revelation entitled Ten, as well as the tour only single Safe. Sinking Ships released a split album released in Japan with alliance trax with the Japanese bands As We Let Go and My Love; this was their final release. In the spring and summer of 2008 Sinking Ships played Rainfest and Sound And Fury This was to be their final shows. There has been rumors of a reunion to play one final Seattle club show or house show. Members of the band deny these rumors.
Members have gone on to play in Wait In Vain, Self Defense Family, Gone But Not Forgotten, A Storm of Light. In 2013, the band reunited for The Rainfest pre-show. Demo Meridian Generations Compilation Disconnecting Ten Safe Split Sinking Ships Sinking Ships Website Official Sinking Ships Myspace Sinking Ships Interview at REDEFINE Magazine, September 2006 Sinking Ships Record label
Desmond "Dessie" Gorman is an Irish former professional footballer who played for a number of clubs on both sides of the Irish border. Gorman started his career with Dundalk, making his League of Ireland debut on 10 March 1985, his form attracted the attention of English side Arsenal, he played for them in a friendly against Shamrock Rovers at Glenmalure Park in August 1986. While at Dundalk he won all domestic honours, was top scorer during both the 1985–86 and 1987–88 seasons. In 1989, he moved to French club FC Bourges who he helped win promotion, to Derry City in October 1990. In the summer of 1991 he moved to Shelbourne, before signing with Linfield in December 1992, he stayed with Linfield until 1997, before playing with Newry Town, Ards, Banbridge Town. He returned to Dundalk in 2003, before retiring, he came out of retirement in 2007 to play for Loughgall. League of Ireland: 2 Dundalk – 1988–89 Shelbourne – 1991–92 FAI Cup Dundalk – 1988 League of Ireland Cup: 2 Dundalk – 1987–88 Derry City – 1990–91 Irish Premier League: 2 Linfield – 1992–93, 1993–94 IFA Cup: 2 Linfield – 1993–94, 1994–95 Irish League Cup Linfield – 1993–94 Gold Cup Linfield – 1996–97 Floodlit Cup Linfield – 1993–94 County Antrim Shield Linfield – 1994–95
Captain Edward Calcott Pryce CBE, was a British Solicitor and Liberal Party politician. Pryce was the son of Guilsfield, he was educated at Aberystwyth. In 1911 he married Sylvia Middleton of Scotland, he was awarded the OBE in 1940 and the CBE in 1957. Pryce qualified as a Solicitor in 1909, he served in the European War of 1914–18, the War of 1939–45. In 1954 he was appointed the Sheriff, of the City of London. In 1956 he was appointed the High Sheriff of Montgomeryshire. Pryce unsuccessfully contested the 1910 London County Council election as a Progressive Party candidate in Hackney North, he was National Liberal candidate for the Ludlow division of Shropshire at the 1922 General Election. After that election, when the 1923 Ludlow by-election occurred, following the mood around the country, the National Liberals and Liberals in Ludlow united behind his candidature and he ran as a united Liberal candidate. Although he finished a strong second, he did not run for election again