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NHL commissioner

The National Hockey League commissioner is the highest-ranking executive officer in the National Hockey League. The position was created in 1993 with Gary Bettman as the first commissioner. Among other duties, the commissioner leads collective bargaining negotiations on behalf of the league and appoints officials for all NHL games; until 1993, the NHL's top executive was the league president, for five months in 1993 the league had a commissioner and a president. The roles were amalgamated on July 1, 1993; the presidency originated in the National Hockey Association, which Frank Calder presided over jointly as NHA and NHL president in the period of the NHL's founding and the NHA's suspension. According to the NHL Constitution, Article VI, section 6.1: ”6.1 Office of Commissioner and Term of Office The League shall employ a Commissioner selected by the Board of Governors. The Commissioner shall serve as the Chief Executive Officer of the League and is charged with protecting the integrity of the game of professional hockey and preserving public confidence in the League.

The Board of Governors shall determine the term of compensation of the Commissioner. The Commissioner shall be elected a majority of the Governors present and voting at a League meeting at which a quorum was present when it was convened.“ In Section 6.3, the commissioner's duties are spelled out as having "responsibility for the general supervision and direction of all business and affairs of the league", co-ordinates matters between member clubs and serves as the principal public spokesman for the league. The commissioner has authority over dispute resolution, league committees, interpretation of league rules, appointment of league staff, NHL financial matters, contracting authority, scheduling and disciplinary powers; the commissioner determines the date and places of board of governors meetings. On February 1, 1993, Gary Bettman's tenure as the first commissioner of the National Hockey League began, replacing Gil Stein, who served as the NHL's final president; the owners hired Bettman with the mandate of selling the game in the U.

S. markets, ending labour unrest, completing expansion plans, modernizing the views of the "old-guard" within the ownership ranks. When Bettman started as commissioner, the league had expanded by three teams to 24 since 1991, two more were set to be announced by the expansion committee: the Florida Panthers and Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, who would begin play in 1993–94. Similar to the previous expansion cycles, the focus was on placing teams in the southern United States; the Nashville Predators, Atlanta Thrashers, Minnesota Wild, Columbus Blue Jackets, the Vegas Golden Knights have been added during Bettman's tenure. In addition, five franchises have relocated during Bettman's tenure: the Minnesota North Stars to Dallas, the Quebec Nordiques to Denver, the original Winnipeg Jets to Phoenix, the Hartford Whalers to North Carolina and the Atlanta Thrashers to Winnipeg. Led by Bettman, the league focused expansion and relocation efforts on the American South, working to expand the league's footprint across the country.

As a result, there has been significant growth in the sport of hockey at the grassroots level with children in the U. S. South playing the game in increasing numbers; the move towards Southern markets has been criticized as well, with fans in Canada and the Northern United States lamenting the move away from "traditional hockey markets."Bettman has been accused of having an "anti-Canadian" agenda, with critics citing the relocation of the franchises in Quebec City and Winnipeg and his apparent refusal to help stop it, along with the aborted sale of the Nashville Predators in 2007 to interests that would have moved the team to Hamilton, Ontario. Jim Balsillie accused Bettman of forcing the Predators to end negotiations with him to purchase the team. Bettman was satirized in this vein as the character "Harry Buttman" in the 2006 Canadian movie Bon Cop, Bad Cop. Although Bettman was tasked with putting an end to the NHL's labour problems, the league has nonetheless locked out its players three times during Bettman's tenure.

The 1994–95 lockout lasted 104 days, causing the season to be shortened from 84 to 48 games. A key issue during the lockout was the desire to aid small market teams. Led by Bettman, the owners insisted on a salary cap, changes to free agency and arbitration in the hopes of limiting escalating salaries, the union instead proposed a luxury tax system; the negotiations were at times bitter, with Chris Chelios famously issuing a veiled threat against Bettman, suggesting that Bettman should be "worried about family and well-being", because "Some crazed fans, or a player might take matters into their own hands and figure they get Bettman out of the way."By the end of the deal in 2004, the owners were claiming that player salaries had grown far faster than revenues, that the league as a whole lost over US$300 million in 2002–03. As a result, on September 15, 2004, Bettman announced that the owners again locked the players out prior to the start of the 2004–05 season. Three months Bettman announced the cancellation of the entire season with the words "It is my sad duty to announce that because a solution has not yet been attained, it is no longer practical to conduct an abbreviated season.

Accordingly, I have no choice but to announce the formal cancellation of play for 2004–2005." The NHL became the first North American league to cancel an entire season because of a labour stoppage. As in 1994, the owners' position was predicated around the need for a salary cap. In an effort to ensure solidarity amongst the owners, the league's governors voted to give Bettman the right

A Touch of Home: The Vietnam War's Red Cross Girls

A Touch of Home: The Vietnam War's Red Cross Girls is an American documentary film produced and directed by Patrick and Cheryl Fries. The film tells the story of 627 young American women who served in the American Red Cross Supplemental Recreation Overseas program during the Vietnam War, it was screened in Dallas, Texas on April 21, 2007. The Vietnam War Red Cross "Donut Dollies" were young, college-degreed women who spent a one-year tour in country as morale boosters for American troops, they ran recreation centers, visited hospitals, because of the mobility of the UH-1 Iroquois helicopter, traveled to front-line landing zones and base camps to bring games and smiles to soldiers. Many chose to join the program because of President John F. Kennedy, who encouraged young people to serve the country; the film producers expanded on a brief segment about Vietnam Donut Dollies in their previous production In the Shadow of the Blade with A Touch of Home. The film includes interviews with veterans of the program and follows them as they reflect on their experience during a reunion at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial State Park in Angel Fire, New Mexico.

Much of the documentary includes unique wartime photographs and home movies captured by the Donut Dollies during their tours. The documentary won Best Short Documentary in the 2009 GI Film Festival. Review in Arts of War on the Web, July 8, 2009 Film website

Barton Lynch

Barton Lynch is an Australian former surfer known for his competitive prowess and style. In 1988, he was crowned ASP World Tour Champion, he won the 1991 Rip Curl Pro. In 1998, he was inducted into the Australian Surfing Hall of Fame, in 2000, he was inducted into the Australian Sporting Hall of Fame. Lynch was born in Manly, New South Wales on 9 August 1963 and was raised in the nearby Sydney suburb of Whale Beach; the son of a policeman, he started surfing. He mastered the tricky, powerful sandbars, which proved to be a training ground for the world stage. Lynch emerged from the beachbreak of Manly with a flexible and gymnastic style and unflappable competitive drive that helped him to a successful junior career, including victories in the Pro Junior, the JJJ Junior and the ASPA ratings, he refined his competitive act into a fluid routine of vertical maneuvers that brought him immediate success on the ASP World Tour. He spent 13 consecutive years in the top 16, earning a reputation as a brilliant tactical competitor as well as a forthright and articulate spokesman for the sport.

His greatest competitive moment came in Hawaii, where he won both the 1988 Billabong Pro and the 1988 ASP World Tour title. Over the course of his 15-year pro career, Lynch would place in the top 4 a total of 8 times, win 17 world tour events. In 1993, Lynch won the competitive ranks of the World Qualifying Series Tour, in 1995, at the age of 32 won the Rio Surf Pro. Lynch remained competitive until his retirement in 1998. After retiring, he added big wave tow surfing to his repertoire. In 2006, he teamed up with former rival Tom Carroll to tow an massive swell that hit Sydney, he was chosen to coach Team Australia for the ISA Surfing Games. In explaining his experience prior to coaching the Games, Lynch said, "I love coaching young Aussies and trying to inject the passion I have to maintain our position as the premiere surfing nation". Lynch works as an analyst on the commentary team for the World Surf League Championship Tour coverage, he lives in the Sydney suburb of Avalon with his wife Holly.

He organizes BL's Blast Off. Barton Lynch profile at

Erfurt Hauptbahnhof

Erfurt Hauptbahnhof or Erfurt Central Station is the central railway station at Erfurt in Germany. It is an important junction on the German rail network, served by numerous local and long-distance rail services. North of the station is Erfurt's city centre; the station was used by 12.5 million passengers in 2006, an average of about 34,000 per day. The station lies on the Thüringer Bahn, it is served by the Erfurter Bahn. It was rebuilt from 2002 to 2008 for the completion of the Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway and the Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway and connects the Berlin–Munich and Frankfurt–Dresden long-distance routes. Erfurt Hauptbahnhof is located in the district of Altstadt, 500 metres south of the Anger, on the former fortress established in the 15th century. To the south, it borders on the districts of Daberstedt; the marshalling yard and freight yard as well as the operating facilities of the Hauptbahnhof are located to the east in the Krämpfervorstadt. There and in Daberstedt there used to be numerous apartments for railwaymen.

The station itself is bordered to the south by the Flutgraben and to the north by Willy-Brandt-Platz. Underneath the railway station is the station road, used by the city's public transport, it is used by tram lines 3, 4, 5 and 6 as well as bus routes. Other buses run to the bus station located 150 metres northeast of the station in Bürgermeister-Wagner-Straße. In the adjacent Kurt-Schumacher-Straße there is car access to the station, parking lots, taxis ranks and the InterCityHotel; the old station hotel, the Erfurter Hof, was the location in March 1970 of the Erfurt Summit between Willy Brandt and Willi Stoph, the first meeting between leaders of East Germany and West Germany. Today it is used as a business centre. Erfurt Hauptbahnhof has experienced several new developments and reconstructions in the course of its history; the location of the first Erfurt station was controversial. Inside the Erfurt city walls there were only a limited area available and outside the fortifications a suitable area was available in the Krämpfer field to the east of the Schmidtstedter Tore.

The Erfurt Mayor, Karl Friedrich Wagner, argued in favour of a location within the city fortification and the Prussian authorities and the military demanded that the route of the railway line pass through the fortress ramparts, so that they could stop railway operations in crisis situations. In July 1845, the decision was taken to build the station within the fortifications, north of the hohen Batterie; the first railway station was built in 1846 during the construction of the Thuringian Railway by the Thuringian Railway Company. The location chosen meant that the construction of two double tunnels through the fortress wall and several wooden bridges across the moat would be required, it was opened with the Weimar–Erfurt line on 1 April 1847 with all buildings finished except for the entrance building, completed in 1852. Apart from the unfinished entrance building, the station had at its opening a locomotive building, a goods shed, a carriage shed, a coke shed, a shed for reserve locomotives and an operations workshop.

Within a few years of its opening, the infrastructure was no longer sufficient for the growing needs. Two buildings, an additional goods sheds and a carriage shed, were planned in 1850 and completed in 1854. An enlargement of the locomotive shed was necessary in 1852 and the freight yard was expanded from 1855. One year the side wing of the workshop received another floor. A further expansion of freight transport facilities followed in 1860; the two existing freight sheds were expanded and a third was built. However, the lack of space within the fortifications grew noticeable, the Thuringian Railway Company purchased a large area in front of the Schmidtstedter gate in 1865 to erect a freight yard. Due to the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the start of construction was delayed and work only began in the following year. Freight sheds were built in 1871, allowing the freight yard to be opened in 1872, but it was only completed five years in 1877; the timetable at the opening of Erfurt Hauptbahnhof showed four trains running daily between Halle and Erfurt with a journey time of three to three and a half hours.

Ten years in the summer of 1857, two express trains, three ordinary passenger trains, one mixed train ran daily between Halle and Eisenach via Erfurt. The Nordhausen-Erfurt Railway Company opened the Nordhausen–Erfurt railway on 17 August 1869; the Erfurt terminus was at the Nordhäuser Bahnhof on the Schmidtstedter field. The Nordhäuser Bahnhof served freight traffic from on and its entrance building is now used as a residential house; the Sangerhausen–Erfurt railway originally ended at its own station, the Sangerhäuser Bahnhof, after the opening of the section to Erfurt on 24 October 1881. It was not far from the Nordhäuser Bahnhof and was integrated into the Thuringian station a few years via the branch line of the Thuringian Railway to the Royal Salt Mine at Ilversgehofen. After that the Sangerhäuser Bahnhof was exclusively used for freight transport; the three-storey entrance building of the first Erfurt station is still preserved

Towersey Halt railway station

Towersey Halt railway station was an intermediate station on the Wycombe Railway which served the Oxfordshire village of Towersey from 1933 to 1963. The opening of the halt was part of an attempt by the Great Western Railway to encourage more passengers on the line at a time when competition from bus services was drawing away patronage; the possibility of reopening the line through Towersey Halt, now part of a long-distance footpath, has been explored by Chiltern Railways, the franchise holder for the Chiltern Main Line which runs through Princes Risborough. Parliamentary authorisation for the extension of the Wycombe Railway's single track line beyond Princes Risborough to Oxford was given on 28 June 1861. Thame was reached by 31 July 1862, a regular service from Paddington via Maidenhead began the next day. By 1933, passenger numbers were dropping as a result of increased bus competition which led the Great Western Railway to introduce railmotors as an economy measure between Princes Risborough and Thame.

A wooden halt was opened to the south of the small village of Towersey on the up side of an embankment on the western side of a level crossing spanning the Thame - Towersey - Chinnor road. No more than 100 feet long, the halt was supervised by the station master at Thame; as with similar GWR structures, Towersey Halt had basic facilities: a small wooden pagoda-style passenger waiting shelter, two oil lamps and a running in board showing the station's name on both sides. To the east of the halt, Penn Farm had its own siding from the line's opening until 1939. On the basis of an estimated saving of £34,372, passenger services were withdrawn between Oxford and Princes Risborough from January 1963. However, the track remained in use down to handle oil trains serving the BP depot at Thame; the depot closed in October 1991 and the track was dismantled. Nothing remains of the halt, but the trackbed running through it has been incorporated into the Phoenix Trail, a long-distance footpath and cycleway.

As part of its preparations for its bid to run the Chiltern Railways franchise, Chiltern Railways announced in 2000 that it was looking into the possibility of reinstating passenger services on the line between Oxford and Risborough, the cost of which it estimated at £250m. It was decided instead to build a 0.75 miles link between the Oxford to Bicester Line and the Chiltern Main Line in order to run through services between Oxford and London via High Wycombe. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Clinker, C. R.. Clinker's Register of Closed Passenger Stations and Goods Depots in England and Wales 1830-1977. Bristol: Avon-Anglia Publications & Services. ISBN 0-905466-19-5. Mitchell, Vic. Branch Lines to Princes Risborough from Aylesbury and Watlington. Midhurst, West Sussex: Middleton Press. ISBN 1-904474-05-5. Oppitz, Leslie. Lost Railways of the Chilterns.

Newbury: Countryside Books. ISBN 1-85306-643-5. Potts, C. R.. Oxford to Princes Risborough: A GWR Secondary Route. Usk, Mon.: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-629-9. Simpson, Bill. A History of the Railways in Oxfordshire. Witney, Oxon: Lamplight Publications. ISBN 978-1-899246-06-9. Station on navigable 1946 O. S. map

Singleton railway station, New South Wales

Singleton railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located on the Main Northern line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Singleton, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The station opened on 7 May 1863; the original, listed 1863 John Whitton brick station building remains. It opened as the terminus of the Great Northern Railway. In 1869, Singleton lost its terminus status, it had a freight yard including locomotive servicing facilities. The line from Whittingham was duplicated in 1951. Singleton was the stabling point for the last regular steam locomotive passenger service in Australia, a peak hour service to Newcastle that ceased in July 1971. Singleton has one platform, it is serviced by NSW TrainLink Hunter Line services travelling between Newcastle and Muswellbrook/Scone. For a number of years in the 1980s, the passenger services were replaced by road coaches while the line was upgraded. Rail services were restored on 14 March 1988.

It is served by NSW TrainLink Xplorer services from Sydney to Armidale and Moree. Hunter Valley Buses operate four routes via Singleton station: 180: Stockland Green Hills to Singleton Heights via Maitland 180x: Maitland station express 401: Singleton Town Circuit 402: to Darlington & Hunterview 403: to Singleton Heights The station complex consists of the second-class brick station buildings and pre-cast concrete type K signal box; the platforms are brick, with early use of ramped beds, pre-cast concrete at the north end. A jib crane remains within the station precinct. Singleton is significant as the oldest surviving station building in the Hunter Valley fronting a major civic square in the town, displaying fine brickwork and detailing; the scale of the building is large in comparison to the buildings of similar period in the area. The awning is a addition c. 1910. The pre-cast concrete signal box being a late addition is typical of its time and came due to upgrading of signalling. Singleton railway station was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

This Wikipedia article contains material from Singleton Railway Station group, entry number 1246 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 13 October 2018. Media related to Singleton railway station at Wikimedia Commons Singleton station details Transport for New South Wales