The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the agency was tasked with conducting regular police work and overseeing the country's prisons and labor camps, it was disbanded in 1930, with its functions being dispersed among other agencies, only to be reinstated as an all-union ministry in 1934. The functions of the OGPU were transferred to the NKVD in 1934, giving it a monopoly over law enforcement activities that lasted until the end of World War II. During this period, the NKVD included both ordinary public order activities, as well as secret police activities; the NKVD is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. It was led by Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria; the NKVD undertook mass extrajudicial executions of untold numbers of citizens, conceived and administered the Gulag system of forced labour camps.

Their agents were responsible for the repression of the wealthier peasantry, as well as the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country. They oversaw the protection of Soviet borders and espionage, enforced Soviet policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, most notably the repression and massacres in Poland. In March 1946 all People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries, the NKVD became the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsarist police and set up the People's Militsiya; the subsequent Russian October Revolution of 1917 saw a seizure of state power led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Provisional Government's Ministry of Internal Affairs under Georgy Lvov and under Nikolai Avksentiev and Alexei Nikitin, turned into NKVD under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya staffed by proletarians was inexperienced and unqualified.

Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR established a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if, deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution"; the Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR. In 1922 the USSR formed, with the RSFSR as its largest member; the GPU became the OGPU, under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, various other responsibilities. In 1934 the NKVD of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD, the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD as the Main Directorate for State Security; as a result, the NKVD took over control of all detention facilities as well as the regular police. At various times, the NKVD had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye.

ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Firefighting Services ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of Highways ГУЖД– железных дорог, of Railways ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans. Following its establishment in 1934, the NKVD underwent many organizational changes.

During Yezhov's time in office, the Great Purge reached its height from the years 1937 and 1938 alone, at least 1.3 million were arrested and 681,692 were executed for'crimes against

List of state leaders in 1531

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1531. Kingdom of Baguirmi – Birni Besse Ethiopian EmpireDawit II Kingdom of KongoAlfonso I, Manikongo Sennar SultanateAmara Dunqas Songhai EmpireAskia Musa, Askia of the Songhai Empire Askia Mohammad Benkan, Askia of the Songhai Empire Inca EmpireHuáscar Muisca Confederation zipa - Tisquesusa zaque - Quemuenchatocha Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Burhan Shah I Ahom KingdomSuhungmung Ayutthaya KingdomBorommarachathirat IV China - Jiajing Emperor Kingdom of Cochin – Unniraman Koyikal II Japan Monarch – Emperor Go-Nara Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshiharu Kengtung – Hpaya Kiao, ruled JoseonJungjong MoghulistanSultan Said Khan Mughal EmpireHumayun Sultanate of MaguindanaoSharif Kabungsuwan Persia - Tahmasp I Ryukyu KingdomShō Sei Sultanate of Sulu – Muizzul-Mutawadi-in Tibet – Ngawang Tashi Drakpa Vijayanagara EmpireAchyuta Deva Raya Astrakhan Khanate – Qasim II of Astrakhan Crimean KhanateSaadet I Giray Kingdom of BohemiaFerdinand I Kingdom of Denmark–NorwayFrederick I Duchy of SchleswigChristian III and Frederick I in condominial rule Kingdom of EnglandHenry VIII Kingdom of FranceFrancis I Holy Roman EmpireCharles V Duchy of Holstein – Christian III and Frederick I in condominial rule Duchy of MantuaFederico II Duchy of MilanFrancesco II Sforza Duchy of SavoyCharles III MaltaPhilippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller Duchy of the ArchipelagoJohn IV Crispo Polish–Lithuanian union – Sigismund I the Old, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Ottoman EmpireSuleiman the Magnificent Kingdom of Portugal and the AlgarvesJohn III Grand Duchy of MoscowVasili III Kingdom of ScotlandJames V Kingdom of SpainCharles I Kingdom of SwedenGustav I Vasa Republic of VeniceAndrea Gritti, Doge of Venice

Caroline, or Change

Caroline, or Change is a through-composed musical with book and lyrics by Tony Kushner and score by Jeanine Tesori that combines spirituals, Motown, classical music, Jewish klezmer and folk music. The show on Broadway as well as in London; the musical was first workshopped in May 1992 at New York's Off-Broadway Public Theater. Director George C. Wolfe continued to workshop the musical at the Public Theater, where it opened on November 30, 2003 and closed on February 1, 2004, it transferred to Broadway at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre on May 2, 2004 and closed on August 29, 2004 after 136 performances and 22 previews. The musical starred Tonya Pinkins in the title role, Anika Noni Rose as Emmie Thibodeaux, Harrison Chad as Noah Gellman, Veanne Cox as Rose Stopnick Gellman and Chandra Wilson as Dotty Moffett; the choreographer was Hope Clarke. Despite its short run, it was critically acclaimed and nominated for six Tony Awards, including Best Musical. Opening in October 2006, a London production at the National Theatre on the Lyttelton stage directed by Wolfe, ran in repertory with Marianne Elliot's production of Thérèse Raquin to January 2007.

The production did win the Olivier Award for Best New Musical. The opening night cast in London starred Tonya Pinkins as Caroline. Other cast members included Pippa Bennett-Warner as Emmie Thibodeaux, Anna Francolini as Rose Stopnick Gellman, Hilton McRae as Mr. Stopnick, Perry Millward, Jonny Weldon and Greg Bernstein alternating as Noah and Clive Rowe as the dryer/bus. A revival was produced at the Minerva Theatre, Chichester as part of Daniel Evans' inaugural season as artistic director of Chichester Festival Theatre, running from 6 May to 3 June 2017; the production was directed by Michael Longhurst, starred Sharon D. Clarke as Caroline and received critical acclaim earning five star reviews; the production transferred with Clarke to the Hampstead Theatre, London from 12 March to 21 April 2018. The production transferred to the West End at the Playhouse Theatre, where it began playing on 20 November 2018, ran until 2 March 2019, once again starring Clarke. A revival, based on the Chichester production, is expected to open on Broadway on March 13, 2020 in previews, April 7, 2020 at Studio 54.

Direction is by Michael Longhurst with choreography by Ann Yee and starring Sharon D. Clarke and Samantha Williams. Pinkins and Anika Noni Rose reprised their roles in late 2004 at the Ahmanson Theatre, Los Angeles, California and in January to February 2005 at the Curran Theatre, San Francisco, California, its premiere in The Washington DC area at The Studio Theatre in 2006, starring Julia Nixon and Max Talisman, received rave reviews, won The Helen Hayes Awards for Outstanding Lead Actress, Resident Musical, Outstanding Resident Musical. The Chicago premiere at the Court Theatre in fall 2008 earned four Jeff awards for director Charles Newell, Musical Director Doug Peck, star E. Faye Butler, best production of a musical at a large scale theater. Other regional productions have included Center Stage, Maryland, in December 2008 to January 2009 with E. Faye Butler. Y. January to February 2010, The Human Race Theatre Company, Ohio November 4–20, 2011, Syracuse Stage February 1-February 26, 2012.

In 2017, the Round House Theatre in Bethesda, Maryland staged it as part of a season with a focus on Tony Kushner plays. Its Colorado regional premiere took place April 5 to May 5, 2019, at the Aurora Fox Arts Center, directed by Kenny Moten and starring Mary Louise Lee as Caroline. A 2012 production by Acting Up Stage Company in Toronto, Ontario garnered Dora Mavor Moore Awards for Outstanding Production of a Musical, Sterling Jarvis, Arlene Duncan and Outstanding Musical Direction. A new production by Acting Up Stage Company, now called The Musical Stage Company, in Toronto, Ontario will play January 31 to February 16, 2020 starring Jully Black as Caroline and Canadian soprano Measha Brueggergosman as The Moon at the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres. Act OneOn a hot day in 1963 in Lake Charles, Caroline, a black maid who works for the Gellman family for $30 a week, launders clothes in the basement. Caroline keeps herself sane in the basement by imagining the items in the basement as people.

The Gellmans' 8-year-old son Noah, whose mother has died of cancer, is attracted to Caroline, a no-nonsense single parent Caroline allows Noah to light her one cigarette each day, a secret they can share. Caroline puts the laundry in the dryer and sings about her four kids and cleaning houses for 22 years. Noah's new stepmother Rose cannot give Caroline a raise, but tells her to take some extra food home to her kids. Noah's father despondent since his wife's death, tells Noah he has lost his faith. Noah confesses. Rose confesses to Mr. Stopnick, that she is unhappy as well. After work, Caroline argues with her friend Dotty about each other's lifestyles; the moon rises. They discuss the recent mysterious destruction of a statue of a Confederate soldier at the courthouse; the bus arrives with devast