The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Ahab was the seventh king of Israel since Jeroboam I, the son and successor of Omri, the husband of Jezebel of Sidon, according to the Hebrew Scriptures. The Hebrew Bible presents Ahab as a wicked king, he is criticised for following the ways of his wife Jezebel, killing his subject Naboth, leading the nation of Israel into idolatry. The existence of Ahab is supported outside the Bible. Shalmaneser III documented 853 BC that he defeated an alliance of a dozen kings in the Battle of Qarqar. Ahab became king of Israel in the thirty-eighth year of Asa, king of Judah, reigned for twenty-two years, according to 1 Kings. William F. Albright dated his reign to 869–850 BC, while E. R. Thiele offered the dates 874–853 BC. Most Michael D. Coogan has dated Ahab's reign to 871–852 BC. Omri seems to have been a successful military leader. During Ahab's reign, conquered by his father, remained tributary. Ahab was allied by marriage with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. Only with Aram Damascus is he believed to have had strained relations.
Ahab married the daughter of the King of Tyre. 1 Kings 16–22 tells the story of Ahab and Jezebel, indicates that Jezebel was a dominant influence on Ahab, inciting him to abandon Yahweh and worship and institute the religion of Baal in Israel. Ahab lived in Samaria, the royal capital established by Omri, built a temple and altar to Baal there, he was succeeded by Ahaziah and Jehoram, who reigned over Israel until Jehu's revolt of 842 BC. The Battle of Qarqar is mentioned in extra-biblical records, was at Apamea, where Shalmaneser III of Assyria fought a great confederation of princes from Cilicia, Northern Syria, Israel and the tribes of the Syrian desert, including Ahab the Israelite and Hadadezer. Ahab's contribution was estimated at 10,000 men. In reality, the number of chariots in Ahab's forces was closer to a number in the hundreds. If, the numbers are referring to allies it could include forces from Tyre, Judah and Moab; the Assyrian king claimed a victory, but his immediate return and subsequent expeditions in 849 BC and 846 BC against a similar but unspecified coalition seem to show that he met with no lasting success.
According to the Tanakh, Ahab with 7,000 troops had overthrown Ben-hadad and his thirty-two kings, who had come to lay siege to Samaria, in the following year obtained a decisive victory over him at Aphek in the plain of Sharon at Antipatris. A treaty was made whereby Ben-hadad restored the cities which his father had taken from Ahab's father, trading facilities between Damascus and Samaria were granted. Jezreel has been identified as Ahab's fortified cavalry base. In the Biblical text, Ahab has five important encounters with prophets: The first encounter is with Elijah, whom Ahab refers to as "the troubler of Israel", in which Elijah predicts a drought; this encounter ends with Elijah victorious over the official Baal prophets of Israel in a contest held for the sake of the Israelites and their king, Ahab. The contest ends when Elijah's God consumes the offering which the Baal worshipers could not induce their god to touch, after which Elijah slaughters the Baal prophets; the second encounter is between Ahab and an unnamed prophet in 1 Kings 20:22.
The third is again between Ahab and an unnamed prophet who condemns Ahab for his actions in a battle that had just taken place. The fourth is when Elijah confronts Ahab over Ahab's and Jezebel's execution of Naboth and usurpation of the latter's ancestral vineyard. Upon the prophet's remonstration, Ahab displayed sincere remorse; the fifth encounter is with Micaiah, the prophet who, when asked for advice on a military campaign, first assures Ahab he will be successful and gives Ahab a glimpse into God's plan for Ahab to die in battle. Three years war broke out east of the Jordan River, Ahab with Jehoshaphat of Judah went to recover Ramoth-Gilead from the Arameans. During this battle, Ahab disguised himself; the Hebrew Bible says. But the Septuagint adds that pigs licked his blood, symbolically making him unclean to the Israelites, who abstained from pork. Ahab was succeeded by his sons and Jehoram. Jezebel's death, was more dramatic than Ahab's; as recorded in 2 Kings 9:30-34, Jezebel was confronted by Jehu who had her servants throw her out the window, causing her death.
1 Kings 16:29 through 22:40 contains the story of Ahab's reign. This reign is one which faces opposition from several prophets of Yahweh throughout as well as various consequences because of his marriage to Jezebel, because of his worship of Baal, disobedience to prophetic warnings and words, because of the murder of Naboth; the murder of Naboth, an act of royal encroachment, stirred up popular resentment just as the new cult aroused the opposition of the Israelite prophets, including Elijah and Micaiah. Indeed, he is referred to, for this and other things, as
Legal plunder, is the act of appropriating, under the laws, the property of others. This was coined by Frédéric Bastiat, most famously in his 1850 book The Law, it has since become a concept in libertarian thought, has been used by others, including Daniel Lord Smail. Today it is the appropriation of the assets of another person by power groups through rules of public law that violate the principle of equality and the Constitution. Throughout history there are many examples of legal plunder as the political and economic regimes that have followed: partial legal plunder are the result of tyranny and protectionism or universal legal plunder the result of socialism or communism. Frédéric Bastiat thought that the law can only implement the individual rights: personality and property. So, if the law goes against the person, property, it becomes perverse as it goes against the rights that should be protected. For him The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. So he prefers a government that intervenes as little as possible in the sphere of people and property.
Every citizen is therefore responsible for his failures. Frédéric Bastiat to defend his idea of what should be the purpose of the law, has set a specific definition of "legal plunder". First he defines "extra-legal plunder" "such as theft, or swindling, defined and punished by the penal code. In that case, "magistracy, gendarmerie, prisons and scaffolds" are the instrument of the State used against the plunderer and to defend the plundered party. Legal plunder is when the law "takes from some persons that which belongs to them, to give to others what does not belong to them." Examples of legal plunder include protectionist tariffs, redistributive taxation, crony capitalism, etc. which Bastiat terms, "socialism:" Now, legal plunder may be exercised in an infinite multitude of ways. Hence come an infinite multitude of plans for organization, and it is all these plans, taken as a whole, with what they have in common, legal plunder, that takes the name of socialism. Now socialism, thus defined, forming a doctrinal body, what other war would you make against it than a war of doctrine?
You find this doctrine false, abominable. Refute it; this will be all the easier, the more false and abominable it is. Above all, if you wish to be strong, begin by rooting out of your legislation every particle of socialism which may have crept into it—and this will be no light work. In that case, "magistracy, gendarmerie, prisons and scaffolds" are the instrument of the State to defend the plunderer and treat the plundered party that tries to defend his property as a criminal. Bribery Parable of the broken window or Broken window fallacy Cartel Civil forfeiture in the United States Client politics Competition law Crony capitalism Cybersquatting Eminent domain For-profit education Landed gentry Law of rent Occupational licensing Patent troll Political corruption Political economy Public choice theory Regulatory capture Rent-seeking Patent The Logic of Collective Action White elephant Frédéric Bastiat; the Law. Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 978-1-933550-14-5
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
Easton's Bible Dictionary, Christian Classics Ethereal Library Igor Apps, Bible Dictionary, Google Play Store Android app. Igor Apps, Bible Dictionary, iTunes Store iOS app
First Baptist Church in America
The First Baptist Church in America is the First Baptist Church of Providence, Rhode Island known as the First Baptist Meetinghouse. It is the oldest Baptist church congregation in the United States, founded by Roger Williams in Providence, Rhode Island in 1638; the present church building was erected in 1774–75 and held its first meetings in May 1775. It is located at 75 North Main Street in Providence's College Hill neighborhood and is a National Historic Landmark. Roger Williams had been holding religious services in his home for nearly a year before he converted his congregation into a Baptist church in 1638; this followed his founding of Providence in 1636. For the next sixty years, the congregation met outside in congregants' homes. Baptists in Rhode Island through most of the 17th century declined to erect meetinghouses because they felt that buildings reflected vanity. However, they came to see the utility of some gathering place, they erected plain-style meetinghouses like the Quakers.
Roger Williams was a Calvinist, but within a few years of its founding, the congregation became more Arminian, was a General Six-Principle Baptist church by 1652. It remained a General Baptist church until it switched back to a Calvinist variety under the leadership of James Manning in the 1770s. Following Williams as pastor of the church was Rev. Chad Brown, founder of the famous Brown family of Rhode Island. A number of the streets in Providence bear the names of pastors of First Baptist Church, including Williams, Gregory Dexter, Thomas Olney, William Wickenden and Stephen Gano. In 1700 Reverend Pardon Tillinghast built the first church building, a 400-square-foot structure, near the corner of Smith and North Main Streets. In 1711 he donated the building and land to the church in a deed describing the church as General Six-Principle Baptist in theology. In 1736 the congregation built its second meetinghouse on an adjoining lot at the corner of Smith and North Main Streets; this building was about 40 × 40 feet square.
When it was built in 1774–75, the current Meeting House represented a dramatic departure from the traditional Baptist meetinghouse style. It was the first Baptist meetinghouse to have a steeple and bell, making it more like Anglican and Congregational church buildings; the builders were part of a movement among Baptists in the urban centers of Boston, New York, Philadelphia to bring respectability and recognition to Baptists. Central to the movement for greater recognition and growth was the creation of an educated ministry and the founding of a college; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches sent Dr. James Manning to Rhode Island to found the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1764. Beginning in Warren, the college relocated to Providence in 1770; the college president, the Reverend Manning was called to be the pastor of the Providence church in 1771, during his ministry the present Meeting House was erected "for the publick worship of Almighty God and for holding commencement in."
Subsequent Brown presidents Maxcy and Wayland served as ministers at the church. The Brown family that soon gave its name to the University were prominent members of the Church, descendants of founders of the Church, as well as, the Rhode Island Colony. Although the university is now secular, in honor of its history and tradition, the Meeting House continues, as it has since 1776, to be the site for Brown University's undergraduate commencement. Construction began on the building in the summer of 1774, it was the biggest building project in New England at the time. Due to the closure of the Massachusetts ports by the British as punishment for the Boston Tea Party, out-of-work ship builders and carpenters came to Providence to work on the Meeting House; the main portion of the Meeting House was dedicated in mid-May 1775, the steeple erected in just three days in the first week of June. Notable additions to the Meeting House have included a Waterford crystal chandelier given by Hope Brown Ives, a large pipe organ given by her brother Nicholas Brown, Jr. the younger, the creation of rooms for Sunday school, fellowship hall, offices on the lower level, an addition to the east end of the Meeting House to accommodate an indoor baptistery.
The building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. In addition to weekly worship services, the Meeting House hosts concerts and lectures by world-renowned artists, performers and elected officials. Brown University holds commencement services at The Meeting House. In 2001, History professor J. Stanley Lemons wrote a history of the church, entitled First: The History of the First Baptist Church in America The First Baptist Church in America is affiliated with the American Baptist Churches of Rhode Island and the American Baptist Churches/USA; the church supports the Rhode Island State Council of Churches, the National Council of Churches, the Baptist World Alliance, the Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty. Many members have served in various denominational and divinity school positions, including the presidency of Brown University. List of tallest buildings in Providence, Rhode Island Oldest churches in the United States List of National Historic Landmarks in Rhode Island National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence, Rhode Island Official website Meeting House info Historic American Buildings Survey No.
RI-38, "First Baptist Meetingho