Minya is the capital of the Minya Governorate in Upper Egypt. It is located 245 km south of Cairo on the western bank of the Nile River, which flows north through the city; the name of the city is derived from its Ancient Egyptian name Men'at Khufu, meaning the nursing city of Khufu, linking it to the Pharaoh Khufu or Cheops, builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza. The name Minya may have originated from the city's name in Sahidic Coptic Tmoone and in Bohairic Thmonē, meaning "the residence", in reference to an early monastery in the area, it is the city. Minya is dubbed by the locals "Bride of Upper Egypt", in reference to its strategic location in Middle Egypt as a vital link between the north and the south of Egypt. Minya has one of the highest concentration of Coptic Christians in Egypt, it is the home city of the Minya University, Suzanne Mubarak Center for Arts, the new Minya Museum, the regional North of Upper Egypt Radio and Television. During the Predynastic Period, the area encompassing modern day Minya and its surrounding lands formed the 16th nome.
It remained an autonomous city-state until the ruler Menes unified Egypt around 3200 BC. At the time of its unification, Egypt was divided into 42 nomes; the 16th nome was called the Oryx nome due to the prevalence of the Oryx, one of the antelope species that inhabited the area. After the unification of Egypt, the provincial capital of the 16th nome emerged as an important center of trade, it was opposite a trade route to the Red Sea along which the Levantine traders carrying their goods from Sinai and Canaan travelled. During times of the Old Kingdom, the name of the city was changed to Men'at Khufu, linking it to the Pharaoh Khufu or Cheops founder of the Great Pyramid at Giza as it was believed that he was born there; the city of Men'at Khufu has not been located but it is thought to be located on the west bank of the Nile in the vicinity of the modern day Minya. Following the collapse of the Old Kingdom, during the First Intermediate Period, rulers of Men'at Khufu became wealthy and powerful and enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy in relation to the central power of Pharaohs.
The princes of the Oryx nome remained neutral during the long struggle that dominated the First Intermediate Period between the Herakleopolitan and Theban kingdoms, but during the reign of Baqet III they formed an alliance with the Thebans in the time of Mentuhotep II. This pro-Theban policy worked to their advantage in that power over the Oryx nome continued to be wielded by the same family after the Theban conquest; the power of the rulers of Men'at Khufu reached its height during the 11th Dynasty. Like Pharaohs, rulers of the Oryx nome were concerned with their lives after death; because the pyramid building age was over or maybe because they could not afford to construct their own pyramids, the rulers of Mena'at Khufu chose the limestone cliffs of the eastern desert overlooking a gentle curve in the Nile as an ideal spot on which to carve their tombs. These chapel-tombs at Beni Hasan are the only remnant of the era when Minya rulers wielded power and wealth. Today these thirty nine rock-cut tombs can be visited in the limestone cliffs above the modern day village of Beni Hasan.
Though not as great and magnificent as other monuments of ancient Egypt, the Beni Hasan tombs are important as their walls reveal more information about life in Egypt 4,000 years ago more than any other monument in Egypt. In fact these tombs provide more insight about daily life in Egypt than about the rulers who constructed them. With the rise of the 12th Dynasty, the powers of Minya rulers were forcibly reduced by the Pharaoh Amenemhat II. By the end of the 12th dynasty, the role and the power of the rulers of Minya were functionally eliminated. During the Second Intermediate Period, Minya with the rest of Lower and Middle Egypt fell under the control of the Hyksos, it appears that Minya's rulers supported the Hyksos 15th Dynasty rulers against the native Egyptian pharaohs of the 16th and 17th dynasties. Towards the end of the Second Intermediate Period when the Theban Pharaohs started their struggle to expel the Hyksos out of Egypt, Minya was the site where the first major battle of this conflict took place.
In 1552 BC, the last Pharaoh of the 17th dynasty marched his Medjay troops north to Nefrusy few miles to the south of Minya and there he defeated the army of a man called Teti son of Pepi, said to have transformed Minya into a "nest of the Asiatics". This was the first major defeat for the Hyksos which would encourage Ahmose I, the younger brother of Kamose, to march north and expel the Hyksos out of Egypt for good around 1540 BC; as for the Beni Hasan tombs, most of them were ravaged. Some were defaced by rulers. Mutilation of the tomb chamber was the fate of many monuments during the centuries following the demise of Pharaonic Egypt. Tombs were converted into dwellings, quarried as a ready source of stone, or deliberately damaged by early Christians and Muslims. During the Ptolemaic Era Middle Egypt was settled extensively by Greek settlers and hosted settlements with populations of 20,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Following the Roman conquest of Egypt Minya became a hub of Egyptian cotton trade and was inhabited by Greek and Roman cotton barons and traders.
El Ashmunein was the capital of the region during this period. It was the main center of worship of the god Thoth. Today, the ruins of a Greek temple, similar to the Parthenon, can be still found; the tomb and chapel of Petosiris are found n
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
Damietta known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta branch, an eastern distributary of the Nile, 15 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. In Ancient Egypt, the city was known as Tamiat, but in the Hellenistic period it was called Tamiathis. Mentioned by the 6th-century geographer Stephanus Byzantius, the town became known as Damiata and as Damietta, which derived from an ancient Egyptian word "Damt" that means the ability, since Damietta had the ability to combine the salt water of the Mediterranean Sea and the fresh water of the Nile in one place. Other historians note that the city was called "Tam Heet" which means the city of the water or the city of the running water. Another derivation of the name might be meaning city of North. Under Caliph Omar, the Arabs took the town and resisted the attempts by the Byzantine Empire to recover it in 739, 821, 921 and 968.
The Abbasids used Alexandria, Damietta and Siraf as entry ports to India and the Tang Empire of China. Damietta was an important naval base during the Abbasid and Fatimid periods; this led to several attacks by the Byzantine Empire, most notably the sack and destruction of the city in May 853. Damietta was again important in the 13th centuries during the time of the Crusades. In 1169, a fleet from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, with support from the Byzantine Empire, attacked the port, but it was defeated by Saladin. During preparations for the Fifth Crusade in 1217, it was decided that Damietta should be the focus of attack. Control of Damietta meant control of the Nile, from there the crusaders believed they would be able to conquer Egypt. From Egypt they could attack Palestine and recapture Jerusalem; when the port was besieged and occupied by Frisian crusaders in 1219, Francis of Assisi arrived to peaceably negotiate with the Muslim ruler. The siege devastated the population of Damietta. In October 1218 reinforcements arrived including the Papal Legate Pelagius with the English earls Ranulf of Chester, Saer of Winchester and William Aubigny of Arundel, together with Odonel Aubigny, Robert Fitzwalter, John Lacy of Chester, William Harcourt and Oliver, the illegitimate son of King John.
In 1221 the Crusaders attempted to march to Cairo, but were destroyed by the combination of nature and Muslim defences. Damietta was the object of the Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France, his fleet arrived there in 1249 and captured the fort, which he refused to hand over to the nominal king of Jerusalem, to whom it had been promised during the Fifth Crusade. However, having been taken prisoner with his army in April 1250, Louis was obliged to surrender Damietta as ransom. Hearing that Louis was preparing a new crusade, the Mamluk Sultan Baibars, in view of the importance of the town to the Crusaders, destroyed it in 1251 and rebuilt it with stronger fortifications a few kilometres from the river in the early 1260s, making the mouth of the Nile at Damietta impassable for ships. Hellenistic Tamiathis became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the Metropolitan see of Pelusium, the capital of the Roman province of Augustamnica Prima, to which Tamiathis belonged, its bishop Heraclius took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Helpidius was a signatory of the decree of Patriarch Gennadius of Constantinople against simony in 459. Bassus was at the Second Council of Constantinople. In a letter from Patriarch Michael I of Alexandria read at the Photian Council of Constantinople, mention is made of Zacharias of Tamiathis, who had attended a synod that Michael had convened in support of Photius. Bishops too of Tamiathis are named in other documents. In 1249, when Louis IX of France captured the town, it became for a short time the seat of a Latin Church bishop; the Latin bishopric, no longer residential, is today listed by the Catholic Church twice as a titular see under the names Tamiathis and Damiata, each at time of episcopal or archiepiscopal]] rank, of the Latin and Melkite Catholic Churches, for the Catholic Church, having been until the early 20th century an important centre for that church. The diocese was nominally restored in the 17th century when established as Latin Titular archbishopric of Tamiathis of the Romans and had the following incumbents of the intermediary rank: Bernardino Spada Cardinal Cesare Facchinetti Neri Corsini Angelo Maria Ranuzzi Ercole Visconti Marco Antonio Ansidei Raffaele Cosimo De Girolami Paul Alpheran de Bussan, Sovereign Military Order of Malta Vincenzo Maria de Francisco e Galletti, Dominican Order Bonaventura Prestandrea, Conventual Franciscans Bartolomeo Pacca Giovanni Francesco Compagnoni Marefoschi Giovanni Giacomo Sinibaldi * Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci Diego Planeta Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano Eugène-Louis-Marie Lion, O.
P. Eugenio Lachat, Missionaries of the Precious Blood (18
Ismailia is a city in north-eastern Egypt. Known in Egypt as "The City of Beauty and Enchantment", Ismailia is situated on the west bank of the Suez Canal, it is the capital of the Ismailia Governorate; the city has a population of 366,669 as of 2012. It is located halfway between Port Said to the north and Suez to the south; the Canal widens at that point to include one of the Bitter Lakes linked by the Canal. Ismailia was founded in 1863, during the construction of the Suez Canal, by Khedive Ismail the Magnificent, after whom the city is named. Following the Battle of Kafr-el-Dawwar in 1882 the British established a base there; the head office of the Suez Canal Authority is located in Ismailia at the shore of Lake Timsah. It has a large number of buildings dating from French involvement with the Canal. Most of these buildings are used by Canal employees and officials. During World War I the British had an air base there and the Battle of Romani took place nearby. Ismailia War Cemetery was designed in 1919 by Sir Robert Lorimer marking the casualties of the battle.
In 1973 the Battle of Ismailia took place in the city. The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Ismailia by Hassan al-Banna in March 1928. An underground paramilitary wing was established in the 1940s to fight British occupation forces. In the early 1950s, Ismailia hosted the British Military HQ and the Civilian Administration Centre of the Canal Zone. British suppression of an uprising by rebellious Egyptian police there on 25 January 1952 was a key event leading to the overthrow of King Farouk I that year and the Egyptian Revolution that followed. British forces pulled out of Ismailia in 1954. On 1982.12.17 an Eparchy of Ismayliah was established on territory split off from the Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria, which remains its Metropolitan. Its episcopal see. Suffragan Eparchs (Bishops of Ismayliah Athanasios Abadir Titular Bishop of Appia and Patriarchal Vicar of Alexandria of the Copts Youhannes Ezzat Zakaria Badir Eparch of Luqsor of the Copts Makarios Tewfik Ismailia has several public and private schools.
They face the same educational problems. Private tutoring is accessible and is an unofficial requirement for all students. Two international schools, Manar Language School and Educational Language Complex School offer American Diploma and IGCSE teaching systems. Ismailia is the home of the Suez Canal University, established in 1976 with the help of the Chinese Government to serve the region of Suez Canal and Sinai. Suez Canal University now is one of the fastest growing educational institutions in Egypt with many students studying abroad. Ismailia hosts two important festivals each year; the first is the International Film Festival for Documentaries and Shorts, held in June. In June 2014 the 17th consecutive festival was organized; the second is the Ismailia International Folklore Arts Festival, held in September. In this festival folkloric troupes from all around the globe meet in Ismailia, where they perform folkloric dances representing the culture of their countries. A major attraction is the Ismailia Museum, built in 1932.
Visitors will find a variety of significant archaeological finds from sites in the Ismailia governorate such as Tell el-Maskhuta, from North Sinai, from Upper Egypt. Ismailia does get tourists from within Egypt, but is not a major tourism destination for international tourists; the city is a ninety-minute automobile drive from Cairo. From Ismailia it is a four-hour drive to Sharm el-Sheikh in South Sinai. Driving to the Taba Border Crossing at Taba and the Rafah Border Crossing at Rafah are both four hour drives. Ismailia owns the third most successful club in Egypt in the field of Football, Ismaily SC; the club's performance is considered a major political issue, can tend to dictate the city's mood. The team enjoys brief stints of competition for local and international competition, but its financial situation prevents these stints from extending beyond a few years; the team has won the Egyptian League three times, the Egyptian Cup twice, the African Champions League once as a first Egyptian Arab Club team won this league.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert. The hottest recorded temperature was 47 °C on June 14, 1944 while the coldest recorded temperature was 0.2 °C on January. Ali Gabr, footballer Osman Ahmed Osman, a famous and influential Egyptian engineer, contractor and politician, was born in this town on 6 April 1917. Tahiya Karioka, a famous Egyptian belly dancer and film actress, was born in this town on 22 February 1919. Claude François, a famous French pop singer and songwriter, was born in this town on 1 February 1939. Ahmed Hegazy, footballer Louis Chedid, a famous French singer and songwriter son of writer Andrée Chedid and father of Matthieu Chedid was born in this town on 1 January 1948. List of cities and towns in Egypt Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Al Ismailiyah, Egypt". Archived from the original on September 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-23. Ismaïlia governorate official website Diocese of Ismailia Suez Canal University official web
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Obour is a city in the Qalyubia Governorate, about 35 kilometers north-east of Cairo. The city has 250,000 residents, it is named to honor the crossing of the Bar Lev line by the army of Egypt in the Yom Kippur War in 1973. It is one of 16 new urban areas in Greater Cairo, it is designated as an industrial zone and houses a number of factories. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert, similar to its neighboring area in Cairo and the rest of Egypt. Greater Cairo 10th of Ramadan Photo of Obour City
Shubra El Kheima
Shubra El Kheima, is the fourth largest city in Egypt. It is located in the Qalyubia Governorate around 30°7′43″N 31°14′32″E and along the northern edge of the Cairo Governorate, it forms part of the Greater Cairo agglomeration. Shubra El Kheima was inhabited by workers, who have worked in surrounding factories since the 1940s; however it contains the great expansion of Greater Cairo towards the north as a consequence of migration from rural areas. Its population was 1,016,722 at the 2006 Census, it is administered as two kism: Shubra El Kheima 1 10.41 km2, 461,689 people, borders Nile River, with city railway station Shubrā El Kheima 2 17.27 km2, 563,880 people, includes BahtimSince the national 2017 census, there is a 3rd kism within the governorate. It is unknown if this will be rolled into Shubra El Kheima or be considered a separate city, as municipal designations appears informal in Egypt. Using 2018 data, population of the two is 1,187,747 and 42,910 people per km2; the 3 kisms combined have 1,655,941 people with 46,764 people per km2.
Shubra El Kheima is an important link point to many of other Governorates like the capital Cairo, Giza and Manofia. For instance it's a link to the Egyptian capital Cairo through many roads e.g. Cornish El-Nile road if someone want to go to downtown, Ahmed Helmi street if someone want to go to Ramses area and another way to downtown, as well as Shubra El Kheima has the northern terminus of Line 2 of the Cairo Metro. Shubra El Kheima hosts the Palace of the founder of modern Egypt, he chose an isolated palace or an official residence away from the Citadel in the district called Shubra, the construction of the palace began in 1808 and it was completed in 1821. The Palace of Mohammad Ali or Shubra Palace is distinguished by its style of decoration that mixes between the Islamic style of decoration and the European one. Mohammed Ali's Palace is the first flourishing structures in Shubra; this palace was once involving about 13 building but the only remaining parts of it are the reception area, the fountain kios, the basin area and the garden, provided with a collection of rare plants and some of them still exist and it is now a museum.
The palace came under the authority of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in 1978. The most remarkable one is the drawing room, used a dining room, a small garden was planted in each step of this scalar hill, irrigated the waterwheel tower, constructed to provide the gardens and the villa with fresh water. Media related to Shubra El-Kheima at Wikimedia Commons