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Nahuas

The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador also present in parts of Guatemala and Nicaragua. The Nahuas comprise second largest group in El Salvador; the Aztec and Toltec cultures were of Nahua ethnicity. Their Nahuan languages, or Nahuatl, consist of many dialects, several of which are mutually unintelligible. About 1.5 million Nahuas speak another million speak only Spanish. Less than 1,000 native speakers of Nahuatl remain in El Salvador, it is suggested that the Nahua peoples originated in Aridoamerica, in regions of the present day northwestern Mexico. They split off from the other Uto-Aztecan speaking peoples and migrated into central Mexico around 500 CE; the Nahua settled in and around the Basin of Mexico and spread out to become the dominant people in central Mexico. However, Nahuatl-speaking populations were present in smaller populations throughout Mesoamerica. No unified Nahua identity existed in the Pre-Columbian period, people instead identified based on tribe and altepetl.

The name Nahua derives from the name of the language. For these reasons, it may be useful to view the Nahua people as a collection of ethnicities speaking similar languages, rather than one monolithic group; the name Nahua is derived from the Nahuatl word-root nāhua-, which means "audible, clear" with different derivations including "language". It was used in contrast with popoloca, "to speak unintelligibly" or "speak a foreign language". Another, related term is Nāhuatlācatl or Nāhuatlācah "Nahuatl-speaking people"; the Nahuas are sometimes referred to as Aztecs. Using this term for the Nahuas has fallen out of favor in scholarship, though it is still used for the Aztec Empire, they have been called Mēxihcatl, Mēxihcah or in Spanish Mexicano "Mexicans", after the Mexica, the Nahua tribe which founded the Aztec Empire. At the turn of the 16th century, Nahua populations occupied territories ranging across Mesoamerica as far south as Panama. However, their core area was Central Mexico, including the Valley of Mexico, the Toluca Valley, the eastern half of the Balsas River basin, modern-day Tlaxcala and most of Puebla, although other linguistic and ethnic groups lived in these areas as well.

They were present in large numbers in El Salvador, southeastern Veracruz, Colima and coastal Michoacan. Classical Nahuatl was a lingua franca in Central Mexico before the Spanish conquest due to Aztec hegemony, its role was not only preserved but expanded in the initial stage of colonial rule, encouraged by the Spaniards as a literary language and tool to convert diverse Mesoamerican peoples. There are many Nahuatl place names in regions where Nahuas were not the most populous group, due to pre-Hispanic Aztec expansion, Spanish invasions in which Tlaxcaltecs served as the main force, the usage of Nahuatl as a lingua franca; the last of the southern Nahua populations today are the Pipil of El Salvador. Nahua populations in Mexico are centered in the middle of the country, with most speakers in the states of Puebla, Hidalgo and San Luis Potosí. However, smaller populations are spread throughout the country due to recent population movements within Mexico. Within the last 50 years, Nahua populations have appeared in the United States in New York City, Los Angeles, Houston.

Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest that the Nahuas came from the deserts of northern Mexico and migrated into central Mexico in several waves. The presence of the Mexicanero people in this area until the present day affirms this theory. Before the Nahuas entered Mesoamerica, they were living for a while in northwestern Mexico alongside the Cora and Huichol peoples; the first group of Nahuas to split from the main group were the Pochutec who went on to settle on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca as early as 400 BCE. From c. 600 BCE the Nahua rose to power in central Mexico and expanded into areas earlier occupied by Oto-Manguean and Huastec peoples. Through their integration in Mesoamerican the Mesoamerican cultural area the Nahuas adopted many cultural traits including maize agriculture and urbanism, religious practices including a ritual calendar of 260 days and the practice of human sacrifices and the construction of monumental architecture and the use of logographic writing. Around 1000 CE the Toltec people assumed to have been of Nahua ethnicity, established dominion over much of central Mexico which they ruled from Tollan Xicocotitlan.

From this period on the Nahua were the dominant ethnic group in the Valley of Mexico and far beyond, migrations kept coming in from the north. After the fall of the Toltecs a period of large population movements followed and some Nahua groups such as the Pipil and Nicarao arrived as far south as Nicaragua, and in central Mexico different Nahua groups based in their different "Altepetl" city-states fought for political dominance. The Xochimilca, based in Xochimilco ruled an area south of Lake Texcoco. One of the last of the Nahua migrations to arrive in the valley settled on an island in the Lake Texcoco and proceeded to subjugate the surrounding tribes; this group were the Mexica who during the nex

PlayStation 2 online functionality

Selected games on Sony's PlayStation 2 video game console offer online gaming or other online capabilities. Games that enable the feature provide free online play through the use of a broadband internet connection and a PlayStation 2 Network Adaptor. Since the service has no official name, it is sometimes referred as either PS2 Network Play, PS2 Network Gaming, or PS2 Online; the service was launched in July 2001 in Japan, August 2002 in North America, in June 2003 in Europe. On "slimline" models, a network adapter is integrated into the hardware; some games allowed online gameplay using a dial-up connection, or LAN play by connecting two network adapters/slimline consoles together directly with an Ethernet cable or through the same router network. Instead of having a unified online service like SegaNet or Xbox Live, online multiplayer on the PS2 was the responsibility of the game publisher and was run on third-party servers; however PS2 online games required the console to be authorized through Sony's Dynamic Network Authentication System before connecting to the server.

Unofficial servers exist which could be connected by setting up the DNS settings to connect to an unofficial DNS server. Most recent PS2 online games have been developed to support broadband internet access; the last official online server, for Final Fantasy XI, was shut down on March 31, 2016, with the DNAS following it a couple of days on April 4, indirectly shutting down several remaining unofficial servers, with the exception of ones that support non-DNAS PS2 titles such as Tribes: Aerial Assault and Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 3. Despite the DNAS shutdown, several fan created. For the older models of the PlayStation 2 console, a network adapter was needed to play online and use a hard drive. All versions of the Network Adapter provide an Ethernet port, while some North American versions featured a phone-line port for dial-up connection; the newer slimline versions, have an Ethernet port built into them, making the Network Adapter unnecessary and hard drive use nearly impossible, as well as ruling out any need to keep the network adapter in production.

Playing online games requires that users set up the system's network connection configuration, saved to a memory card. This can be done with the network Startup Disk that came with the network adapter or using one of the many games that had the utility built into them, such as Resident Evil Outbreak, to set up the network settings; the new slimline PlayStation 2 came with a disk in the box by default. The last version of the disk was network startup disk 5.0, included with the newer SCPH 90004 model released in 2009. However, as of December 31, 2012, the PlayStation 2 has been discontinued, the servers for most games have all since been shut down. Released in 2002, Final Fantasy XI is the first console game to offer cross-platform play, connecting PlayStation 2 and personal computer. SOCOM: U. S. Navy SEALs, released in August of the same year, was one of the first video games that allowed voice chat on a console. PAL games that supported online gaming display a WITH NET PLAY logo on their cover.

North American games feature an "Online" icon in the lower right corner of the cover. Over time, most game servers have been shut down. However, computer programs such as XBSlink, SVDL and XLink Kai allow users to achieve online play for some PS2 games by using a network configuration that simulates a worldwide LAN. PlayStation Network XLink Kai List of PlayStation 2 online games

Mfantsiman Municipal District

The Mfantseman Municipal is one of the 17 districts in the Central Region of Ghana. Its capital is Saltpond. In 2008, the Mfantseman District achieved municipal status; the Mfantseman Municipal is located along the Atlantic coastline of the Central Region of Ghana and extends from latitudes 5° to 5°20’ north of the equator and longitudes 0°44’ to 1°11’ west of the Greenwich Meridian, stretching for about 21 kilometers along the coastline and for about 13 kilometers inland and constituting an area of 612 square kilometers. The municipal capital is Saltpond; the Municipal is bounded to the west and Northwest by Abura-Asebu-Kwamankese District, to the east by Ekumfi District and to the south by the Atlantic Ocean. Ekumfi District was created out of Mfantseman district; the District as of 2012 starts from Mankessim to Yamoransa. The inhabitants are employed through fishing, farming or tradings; the capital Saltpond was the birthplace of Convention People's Party, the party of Osagyefo Dr Kwame Nkrumah.

Kwame Nkrumah planted a palm tree. The palm tree is found in the centre of saltpond; the first tarred road in Ghana is found in Saltpond. The municipality houses the Akanland Ceramics factory but now a paper producing company and known to be the first place to begin off-shore oil-drilling in Ghana. Mr Abakah-Quansah 1992–1996 Mr Jacob Arthur 1996–2000, 2000–2004 Mr Stephen Asamoah Boateng 2004–2008 Mr Aquainas Tawiah Quansah 2008–2012, 2012–2016 Mr Ekow Kwansah Hayford, Current Some popular people who hail from Mfantseman Municipality are: Prof. Francis K. A. Allotey Prof. Paul Archibald Vianey Ansah Prof. William Otoo Ellis- Vice Chancellor, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana Prof. Kwesi Andam – Former Vice Chancellor, KNUST, Ghana King Peggy Dr. James Kwegyir Aggrey John Mensah Sarbah Kobina Arku Korsah Ama Ata Aidoo William Ansah Sessarakoo George Ekem Ferguson K. B. Anann Isaac Dadzie Honny Lawyer Kweku Yamoah Painstil Mr Isaac Kwegyir Essel CSOP Prince Essel- Nana Osreko Yamoah Ponko I Mrs Agnes Ama Bentsiwaa Botchway Daasebre Kwebu Ewusi VII Mr Hariom Ewusie Anan "Mfantsiman Municipal".

Statoids. District: Mfantseman Municipal