Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya. The name comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nairobi, which translates to "cool water", a reference to the Nairobi River which flows through the city; the city proper had a population of 4,397,073 in the 2019 census, while the metropolitan area has a population of 9,354,580. The city is popularly referred to as the Green City in the Sun. Nairobi was founded in 1899 by the colonial authorities in British East Africa, as a rail depot on the Uganda Railway; the town grew to replace Mombasa as the capital of Kenya in 1907. After independence in 1963, Nairobi became the capital of the Republic of Kenya. During Kenya's colonial period, the city became a centre for the colony's coffee and sisal industry; the city lies on the River Athi in the southern part of the country, has an elevation of 1,795 metres above sea level. According to the 2019 census, in the administrative area of Nairobi, 4,397,073 inhabitants lived within 696 km2. Home to thousands of Kenyan businesses and over 100 major international companies and organizations, including the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Office at Nairobi, Nairobi is an established hub for business and culture.

The Nairobi Securities Exchange is one of the largest in Africa and the second-oldest exchange on the continent. It is Africa's fourth-largest exchange in terms of trading volume, capable of making 10 million trades a day. Nairobi is found within the Greater Nairobi Metropolitan region, which consists of 5 out of 47 counties in Kenya, which generates about 60% of the entire nation's GDP; the counties are: Source: NairobiMetro/ Kenya Census The site of Nairobi was part of an uninhabited swamp. The name Nairobi itself comes from the Maasai expression meaning "cool waters", referring to the cold water stream which flowed through the area. With the arrival of the Uganda Railway, the site was identified by Sir George Whitehouse for a store depot, shunting ground and camping ground for the Indian labourers working on the railway. Whitehouse, chief engineer of the railway, favoured the site as an ideal resting place due to its high elevation, temperate climate and being situated before the steep ascent of the Limuru escarpments.

His choice was however criticised by officials within the Protectorate government who felt the site was too flat, poorly drained and infertile. In 1898, Arthur Church was commissioned to design the first town layout for the railway depot, it constituted two streets – Victoria Street and Station Street, ten avenues, staff quarters and an Indian commercial area. The railway arrived at Nairobi on 30 May 1899, soon Nairobi replaced Machakos as the headquarters of the provincial administration for Ukamba province. On the arrival of the railway, Whitehouse remarked that "Nairobi itself will in the course of the next two years become a large and flourishing place and there are many applications for sites for hotels and houses; the town's early years were however beset with problems of malaria leading to at least one attempt to have the town moved. In the early 1900s, Bazaar Street was rebuilt after an outbreak of plague and the burning of the original town. Between 1902 and 1910, the town's population rose from 5,000 to 16,000 and grew around administration and tourism in the form of big game hunting.

In 1907, Nairobi replaced Mombasa as the capital of the East Africa Protectorate. In 1908, a further outbreak of the plague led to Europeans concluding that the cause was unhygienic conditions in the Indian Bazaar; the government responded by restricting lower class Indians and African natives to specific quarters for residence and trade setting a precedent for racial segregation in the commercial sphere. By the outset of the First World War, Nairobi was well established as a European settler colony through immigration and land alienation. In 1919, Nairobi was declared to be a municipality. In 1921, Nairobi had 24,000 residents; the next decade would see a growth in native African communities into Nairobi, where they would go on to constitute a majority for the first time. In February 1926, colonial officer Eric Dutton passed through Nairobi on his way to Mount Kenya, said of the city: Maybe one day Nairobi will be laid out with tarred roads, with avenues of flowering trees, flanked by noble buildings.

And it is fair to say that the Government and the Municipality have bravely tackled the problem and that a town-plan ambitious enough to turn Nairobi into a thing of beauty has been worked out, much has been done. But until that plan has borne fruit, Nairobi must remain what she was a slatternly creature, unfit to queen it over so lovely a country; the continuous expansion of the city began to anger the Maasai, as the city was devouring their land to the south. It angered the Kikuyu people, who wanted the land returned to them. After the end of World War II, this friction developed into the Mau Mau rebellion. Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya's future president, was jailed for his involvement though there was no evidence linking him to the rebellion; the pressure exerted from the locals onto the British resulted in Kenyan independence in 1963, with Nairobi as the capital of the new republic. After independence, Nairobi grew and this growth put pressure on the city's infrastructure. Power cuts and water shortages were a common occurrence, though in the past few years better city planning has helped to put some of these problems in check.

On 11 September 1973, the Kenyatta International Conference Centre K

Labour hire

Labour hire is the term applied to provision of outsourced skilled and unskilled workers hired for short- or long-term positions. It is known by other names such as labour supply or temping; the workers, known as contractors, field employees, temps, on-hired employees or just employees, are employed by the labour hire organisation. They are not employed by the company; this is an important distinction for the purposes of Occupational Healthy and Safety purposes, in particular who has legislative responsibility for ensuring a safe working environment. This has been tested in court. A lot of the time builders have their own interpretation of a schedule of rates. An essential component of any labour hire organisation are the two fundamental concepts of pay and charge rates; the pay rate is the per-hour wage paid to the employees. The charge rate is the fee. Although this sounds basic, many factors must be considered when calculating these two items; the following items have a bearing on the determination of pay rates: Industrial agreements Statutory on-costs Worker's compensation levies Comparable pay rates for employees of the clientsThe following items have a bearing on the determination of charge rates: Personal protective equipment supplied Payment terms Superannuation Payroll tax Casual loading Gross margin Preferred supplier agreements CompetitionThe gross margin is calculated as a percentage value of the pay rate.

In certain circumstances, it may be calculated as a specific dollar markup. A schedule of rates is quoted to the client which includes Charge rate for each hour of ordinary time Charge rate for each hour of overtime Charge rate for applicable allowances which will be paid to the employee in various circumstances The charge rates for physical hours of time are quoted for the position at discrete classification increments, for example, level 1, level 2, etc. Most legal proceedings against labour hire companies fall into one of two broad categories; the first is unfair dismissal. There are few successful such cases because of the nature of the industry and because organisations are careful to emphasise that the work is casual and periodic and cannot be guaranteed. Many labour hire companies are careful to avoid terminology on their staffing systems that may imply an employee has been "terminated" because that can corrupt a defence against unfair dismissal, namely that the employee has not been terminated, there has just been no recent placement opportunities.

There is an argument that labour hire firms ought to be calling their employees "contractors" which makes more explicit that such workers are providing subcontracted services. The second broad category is a major issue for labour hire companies, namely workplace safety, it may have been considered in times past that the client of the labour hire company, i.e. the workplace where the labour is performed, were responsible for the safety of their site. However, Drake Personnel Ltd trading as Drake Industrial v WorkCover Authority 90 IR432 was a significant court case which established that because the worker is an employee of the labour hire company itself, a joint burden of safety is imposed upon the labour hire company. In this case, the NSW Industrial Commissions full session judged A labour hire agency does not employ people to work for itself but to work for a client, it does not directly on a day to day basis supervise the tasks carried out by the employee and it is not in control of the workplace where the work is done.

However, these circumstances do not diminish, the obligation of the employer under the. Indeed... an employer who sends its employees into another workplace over which they exercise limited control is, for that reason, under a particular positive obligation to ensure that those premises, or the work done, do not present a threat to the health, safety or welfare of those employees. There is no basis to consider that such an employer has a lesser liability or obligation under.… A labour hire company cannot escape liability because the client to whom an employee is hired out is under a duty to ensure that persons working at their workplace are not exposed to risks to their health and safety or because of some alleged implied obligation to inform the labour hire company of the work to be performed. In our view, a labour hire company is required by the OH&S Act to take positive steps to ensure that the premises to which its employees are sent to work do not present risks to health and safety This obligation would, in appropriate circumstances, require it to ensure that its employees are not instructed to, do not, carry out work in a manner, unsafe.

In Labour Co-operative Limited v WorkCover Authority of New South Wales 121 IR 78 at 84-85 the Full Bench of the New South Wales Industrial Relations Commission upheld the trial judge’s finding that it was reasonably practicable for the labour hire agency to have ensured against the risks to the worker’s safety by "adopting a positive and pro-active approach with to require steps to be put in place to avoid the risks as a condition of it making available" the services of the worker. The labour hire agency

2014 Arctic Winter Games

The 2014 Arctic Winter Games took place in Fairbanks, United States from March 15 to 22, 2014. The Arctic Winter Games is an international biannual celebration of circumpolar sports and culture, held in Canada, Alaska or Greenland. All nine contingents participated. Alaska, United States Greenland Northern Alberta, Canada Northwest Territories, Canada Nunavik, Canada Nunavut, Canada Sámi people Yamalo-Nenets, Russia Yukon, Canada 20 sports were contested; the 2014 games were held at schools in Fairbanks. Opening and closing ceremonies were held at Carlson Center; the following venues hosted sports events during the games. The following venues hosted other events during the games. 2016 Arctic Winter Games 2012 Arctic Winter Games 2010 Arctic Winter Games 2008 Arctic Winter Games 2006 Arctic Winter Games 2014 Arctic Winter Games Official Site Arctic Winter Games Official Site