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Namib

The Namib is a coastal desert in southern Africa. The name Namib is of Khoekhoegowab origin and means "vast place". According to the broadest definition, the Namib stretches for more than 2,000 kilometres along the Atlantic coasts of Angola and South Africa, extending southward from the Carunjamba River in Angola, through Namibia and to the Olifants River in Western Cape, South Africa; the Namib's northernmost portion, which extends 450 kilometres from the Angola-Namibia border, is known as Moçâmedes Desert, while its southern portion approaches the neighboring Kalahari Desert. From the Atlantic coast eastward, the Namib ascends in elevation, reaching up to 200 kilometres inland to the foot of the Great Escarpment. Annual precipitation ranges from 2 millimetres in the most arid regions to 200 millimetres at the escarpment, making the Namib the only true desert in southern Africa. Having endured arid or semi-arid conditions for 55–80 million years, the Namib may be the oldest desert in the world and contains some of the world's driest regions, with only western South America's Atacama Desert to challenge it for age and aridity benchmarks.

The desert geology consists of sand seas near the coast, while gravel plains and scattered mountain outcrops occur further inland. The sand dunes, some of which are 300 metres high and span 32 kilometres long, are the second largest in the world after the Badain Jaran Desert dunes in China. Temperatures along the coast are stable and range between 9–20 °C annually, while temperatures further inland are variable—summer daytime temperatures can exceed 45 °C while nights can be freezing. Fogs that originate offshore from the collision of the cold Benguela Current and warm air from the Hadley Cell create a fog belt that envelops parts of the desert. Coastal regions can experience more than 180 days of thick fog a year. While this has proved a major hazard to ships—more than a thousand wrecks litter the Skeleton Coast—it is a vital source of moisture for desert life; the Namib is completely uninhabited by humans except for several small settlements and indigenous pastoral groups, including the Ovahimba and Obatjimba Herero in the north, the Topnaar Nama in the central region.

Owing to its antiquity, the Namib may be home to more endemic species than any other desert in the world. Most of the desert wildlife is arthropods and other small animals that live on little water, although larger animals inhabit the northern regions. Near the coast, the cold ocean water is rich in fishery resources and supports populations of brown fur seals and shorebirds, which serve as prey for the Skeleton Coast's lions. Further inland, the Namib-Naukluft National Park, the largest game park in Africa, supports populations of African Bush Elephants, Mountain Zebras, other large mammals. Although the outer Namib is barren of vegetation and succulents are found in coastal areas, while grasses and ephemeral plants thrive near the escarpment. Several types of trees are able to survive the arid climate; the Namib Desert is one of the 500 distinct physiographic provinces of the South African Platform physiographic division. It occupies an area of around 80,950 km2, stretching from the Usiab River to the town of Lüderitz and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Namib Escarpment.

It is about 1,000 miles long from north to south and its east-west width varies from 30 to 100 miles. To the north, the desert leads into the Kaokoveld. To the south, the Namib borders on the South African Karoo semi-desert. Southern Namib comprises a vast dune sea with some of the tallest and most spectacular dunes of the world, ranging in color from pink to vivid orange. In the Sossusvlei area, several dunes exceed 300 meters in height; the complexity and regularity of dune patterns in its dune sea have attracted the attention of geologists for decades, but it remains poorly understood. The source of the unconsolidated sand has been shown to be dominantly from the Orange River, which drains into the Atlantic south of the Namib Sand Sea, with minor contributions in the east from the rivers that drain into the sand sea. For this reason the Namib Sand Sea has been referred to as the "wind displaced delta of the Orange River."Moving north from Sossusvlei, the sand gives way to a rocky desert that extends all the way from Sossusvlei to the Swakop river.

This area is traversed by the Tropic of Capricorn and is flat, although some scenic canyons and elevations are found in some areas, for example in the Moon Valley system. While most of the soil is rocky, sand dunes are still found in this region; the Namib desert is an important location for the mining of tungsten and diamonds. Several rivers and streams run through the Namib, although all of the rivers south of the Cunene River and north of the Orange River are ephemeral and or never reach the ocean; these rivers flow after summer rain storms. The Namib's aridity is caused by the descent of dry air of the Hadley Cell, cooled by the cold Benguela current along the coast, it has less than 10 mm of rain annually and is completely barren. Besides rain being scarce, it is hardly predictable; the western Namib gets

Taneti Maamau

Taneti Maamau is an I-Kiribati politician, the current President of Kiribati. He began his term on 11 March 2016, he was the single opposition candidate for the 2016 presidential election, where he was supported by the new coalition of the Tobwaan Kiribati Party. He received the support of the former president the predecessor of Anote Tong. Maamau was re-elected a member of the Maneaba ni Maungatabu in December 2015 in Onotoa, his hometown, he was the Finance Minister under President Tito. He was installed as the Chancellor of the University of the South Pacific on 3 August 2018. Politics of Kiribati Cabinet of Kiribati List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers

Mighty Dougla

Cletus Ali, better known as Mighty Dougla, was a Trinidadian calypsonian who won the island's Calypso King title in 1961. From the Hell Yard area of Port of Spain, Ali was a popular calypsonian in the late 1950s and early 1960s of Dougla descent, born to a Muslim Indian father and an African mother.'Dougla' is a pejorative term used for someone of mixed Afro-Trinidadian and Indo-Trinidadian descent and as well as adopting this as his stage name he referred to this in one of his best known calypsos, "Split Me In Two", dealing with the dougla's position in the Black/Indian political division on the island and proposed repatriation. This was one of the songs, he finished in third place behind Mighty Sparrow and Lord Kitchener. Another of his calypsos, "Man Nicer Than Woman" was a humorous tale of an argument between a gay man and his straight friend, he performed for six days at the 1963 Virgin Islands carnival as part of a Trinidadian package along with Mighty Sparrow and Lord Cristo