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Nanda Empire

The Nanda dynasty ruled in northern part of the Indian subcontinent during the 4th century BCE, during the 5th century BCE. The Nandas overthrew the Shaishunaga dynasty in the Magadha region of eastern India, expanded their empire to include a larger part of northern India. Ancient sources differ regarding the names of the Nanda kings, the duration of their rule, but based on the Buddhist tradition recorded in the Mahavamsa, they appear to have ruled during c. 345-322 BCE, although some theories date the start of their rule to 5th century BCE. Modern historians identify the ruler of the Gangaridai and the Prasii mentioned in ancient Greco-Roman accounts as a Nanda king; the chroniclers of Alexander the Great, who invaded north-western India during 327-325 BCE, characterize this king as a militarily powerful and prosperous ruler. The prospect of a war against this king led to a mutiny among the soldiers of Alexander, who had to retreat from India without waging a war against him; the Nandas built on the successes of their Haryanka and Shaishunaga predecessors, instituted a more centralized administration.

Ancient sources credit them with amassing great wealth, a result of introduction of new currency and taxation system. Ancient texts suggest that the Nandas were unpopular among their subjects because of their low status birth, their excessive taxation, their general misconduct; the last Nanda king was overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, the latter's mentor Chanakya. Both Indian and Greco-Roman traditions characterize the dynasty's founder as of low birth. According to Greek historian Diodorus, Porus told Alexander that the contemporary Nanda king was thought to be the son of a barber. Roman historian Curtius adds that according to Porus, this barber became the former queen's paramour thanks to his attractive looks, treacherously assassinated the king, usurped the supreme authority by pretending to act as a guardian for the princes, killed the princes; the Jain tradition, as recorded in the Avashyaka Sutra and Parishishta-parvan, corroborates the Greco-Roman accounts, stating that the first Nanda king was the son of a barber.

According to the 12th century text Parishishta-parvan, the mother of the first Nanda king was a courtesan. However, the text states that the daughter of the last Nanda king married Chandragupta, because it was customary for Kshatriya girls to choose their husbands; the Puranas name the dynasty's founder as Mahapadma, claim that he was the son of the Shaishunaga king Mahanandin. However these texts hint at the low birth of the Nandas, when they state that Mahapadma's mother belonged to the Shudra class, the lowest of the varnas. Since the claim of the barber ancestry of the dynasty's founder is attested by two different traditions - Greco-Roman and Jain, it appears to be more reliable than the Puranic claim of Shaishunaga ancestry; the Buddhist tradition calls the Nandas "of unknown lineage". According to Mahavamsa, the dynasty's founder was Ugrasena, "a man of the frontier": he fell into the hands of a gang of robbers, became their leader, he ousted the sons of the Shaishunaga king Kalashoka.

There is little unanimity among the ancient sources regarding the total duration of the Nanda reign or their regnal period. For example, the Matsya Purana assigns 88 years to the rule of the first Nanda king alone, while some scripts of the Vayu Purana state the total duration of the Nanda rule as 40 years; the 16th century Buddhist scholar Taranatha assigns 29 years to the Nandas. It is difficult to assign other early dynasties of Magadha. Historians Irfan Habib and Vivekanand Jha date the Nanda rule from c. 344-322 BCE, relying on the Sri Lankan Buddhist tradition which states that the Nandas ruled for 22 years. Historian Upinder Singh dates the Nanda rule from 364/345 BCE to 324 BCE, based on the assumption that Gautama Buddha died in c. 486 BCE. According to another theory, based on astronomical calculations, the first Nanda king ascended the throne in 424 BCE. Proponents of this theory interpret the Hathigumpha inscription to mean that "Nandaraja" flourished in year 103 of the Mahavira Era, that is, in 424 BCE.

The 14th century Jain writer Merutunga, in his Vichara-shreni, states that king Chandra Pradyota of Avanti died on the same night as the Jain leader Mahavira. He was succeeded by his son Palaka. After that, the Nandas captured the Avanti capital Ujjayini; the Nanda rule, spanning the reigns of nine kings, lasted for 155 years, after which the Mauryas came to power. According to the Shvetambara Jain tradition, Mahavira died in 527 BCE, which would mean that the Nanda rule - according to Merutunga's writings - lasted from 467 BCE to 312 BCE. According to historian R. C. Majumdar, while all the chronological details provided by Merutunga cannot be accepted without corroborative evidence, they cannot be dismissed as unreliable unless contradicted by more reliable sources; the Buddhist and Puranic traditions all state that there were 9 Nanda kings, but the sources differ on the names of these kings. According to the Greco-Roman accounts, the Nanda rule spanned two generations. For example, the Roman historian Curtius suggests that the dynasty's founder was a barber-turned-king, that his son was the dynasty's last king, overthrown by Chandragupta.

The Greek accounts name only one Nanda king - Agrammes or Xandrames -, a contemporary of Alexander. "Agrammes" may be a

Iron Man (Minnesota statue)

The Iron Man statue is a figure of an iron miner located at the entrance to the Minnesota Discovery Center 1.28 kilometres outside of Chisholm, Minnesota. It is 85-foot tall including the 36-foot tall figure, was completed in 1987 out of iron ore by Jack E. Anderson; the brass and copper 36' Iron Man is balanced atop a 49' structure of steel and is a tribute to the men who labored in the open pit mines when the mining industry boomed on the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. The work is titled The Emergence of Man Through Steel; the statue was created by Jack E. Anderson of Lake Linden, who created a Bishop Baraga sculpture in L'Anse, Michigan. Anderson said that the iron worker's posture represented the weariness of a day spent working in mines; the shaping of the Ironman's face was life long miner Daniel Tolonen an immigrant from Finland who resided in and is buried in Chisholm MN. Daniel Tolonen was present with five generations of his family on the day the statue was dedicated July 4, 1987, along with Governor Rudy Perpich and U.

S. Representative James Oberstar among the day's speakers, it measures 85 feet tall, from the base to the top of the helmet. Vulcan, the world's largest cast iron statue, in Birmingham, Alabama known as Iron Man Iron: Man, a statue in Birmingham England List of statues by height List of the tallest statues in the United States Chisholm's Iron Man Statue

Lightweight Java Game Library

The Lightweight Java Game Library is an open-source Java software library for video game developers. It exposes high performance cross-platform libraries used in developing video games and multimedia titles, such as Vulkan, OpenGL, OpenAL and OpenCL, it further provides access to controllers such as gamepads, steering wheels and joysticks in a platform-neutral way. The primary goal of the project is to provide a way for Java developers to get access to resources that are otherwise unavailable or poorly implemented on the existing Java platform; the main philosophy is to expose underlying technology as a thin wrapper, thus creating an API close to the original. It is the basis of many high-level Java game engines and libraries, such as libGDX or the jMonkeyEngine. LWJGL is available under a BSD license. On 13 November 2014 version 3 was announced, released in alpha version on 27 April 2015 and is a complete rewrite of LWJGL. Many new bindings, including GLFW, EGL and Objective-C, were added. Support for Oculus Rift development was added with LibOVR bindings.

The new version was released on 4 June 2016, after a half years in development. The library accesses native C code through the Java Native Interface. Bindings to each of the native libraries exist as different modules so developers can make custom builds with only the things they need in a certain program. While utility classes are written in pure Java, most of the binding classes are automatically generated by a custom generator implemented in Kotlin. Since version 3.1 LWJGL is split into around 20 modules that can be downloaded and used separately. To make this process easier, the project provides an online build configurator, which allows users to download custom combinations of modules and automatically generates Maven and Gradle configuration files to ease their use with existing projects. Minecraft Official website

Rodrigo de Osona

Rodrigo de Osona Rodrigo de Osona the Elder, was a Spanish Renaissance painter. His initial period of training may have taken place in Ferrara and Venice, he may have had a stay in Italy. His works include the altarpiece of Calvary church of San Nicolas de Valencia, signed in 1476 and through which they have been able to attribute other works like the Pietà, now in the Museu de Belles Arts de València, performed between 1485 and 1490. There has been some confusion between his son Francisco de Osona. Father and son worked together in their workshop in Valencia, therefore works are attributed to both, although some assumptions are made that Francisco was more open to what was newer styles and forms in Italy. However, while the activity of Rodrigo ended with his death in 1518, Francisco died before him much younger in 1514; the second table of the Epiphany, preserved in London, is signed by "The teacher's son Rodrigo", in which, on the contrary, there seems to have more traditional trend seen in the works of the father.

With basic art training, Rodrigo is considered one of the initiators of Renaissance forms in Spanish painting, coming to a full sense of quattrocento italiano. However, the Italian influences are colored by the knowledge and apply their own formulas of Flemish painting, such as remote expressiveness of idealization. Aspects of kindness and gentleness cater more devotional type reasons that a streamlined and rigorous view of reality. However, his paintings show a concern for the natural and architectural setting of the scenes and superb mastery of oil painting; the work of the father and son artist team, along with Paolo de San Leocadio, form the basis for Spanish classicism in painting. Tramoyeres Blasco, Luis, "The Valencian Quattrocento, Osona Maestro Rodrigo and his son of the same name," Spanish Culture, No. 9, p. 139-156, Madrid, 1908. TORMO Y MONZÓ, E. "Rodrigo de Osona and son, his school," Spanish Archives of Art and Archaeology, t.8, No.23, págs.101-147, Madrid, 1932. TORMO Y MONZÓ, E. "Rodrigo de Osona and son, his school", Spanish Archive of Art and Archaeology, t.9, No.

27, págs.153-210, Madrid, 1933. POST, Chandler R; the Valencian School in the Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance, Cambridge, 1933. ANGLE Iniguez, D. Painting XVI century, Madrid, 1971. Camon Aznar, J; the Spanish sixteenth-century painting, Madrid, 1970. COMPANY, Ximo, La dels Osona painting: A cruïlla d'hispanismes, flamenquismes i italianismes, 2 vols, Lleida, 1991. PEREZ SANCHEZ, AE, restored Art. Barnaba of Modena: Polyptych of the Virgin of the Milk and St. Lucia Cathedral of Murcia. Rodrigo de Osona: Altarpiece of Calvary, St. Nicholas Church, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1993; the món dels. 1540, Museo San Pio Exhibition January 24 to April 3, Valencia, 1994

Palaeomystella fernandesi

Palaeomystella fernandesi is a moth of the family Agonoxenidae. It is found in Atlantic rain forest of Brazil; the length of the forewings is 4.68-6.11 mm. The forewings are covered by dark-brown scales dorsally, with three interconnected white areas that form a longitudinal S-like band. There is a U-shaped band of pale-grey scales following the contours of the tornus; the hindwings are covered in dark brown scales on both sides. Adults are thought to emerge after the winter; the larvae feed on Tibouchina sellowiana. They create a gall on their host plant. Pupation takes place inside the gall, within a cylindrical, longitudinally arranged cocoon made of woven white silk; the species is named in honor of Prof. Dr. Geraldo Wilson Fernandes, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, for his contributions to the development of cecidology in the Neotropics

Adam Drewnowski

Adam Drewnowski is a professor of epidemiology at the University of Washington and the director of the Center for Public Health Nutrition at the University's School of Public Health. Drewnowski received his MA from Oxford PhD from Rockefeller University in psychology. After postdoctoral work at the University of Toronto, Drewnowski became an assistant professor at Rockefeller University a professor of public health and Director of the Program in Human Nutrition at the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan. While there he researched a possible drug to block cravings for chocolate, since these cravings precipitate eating binges, he joined the University of Washington in 1998. In 2008, Drewnowski led the development of the Nutrient Rich Foods Index, which ranks foods based on their nutrient density, he has studied the relationship between poverty and being more to become obese, the relationship between the per-calorie price of food and the amount of key nutrients they contain