Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures; the size of nanomaterials is similar to that of structures. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, drug delivery vehicles. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future; the National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, in vivo imaging.
Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institutes of Health Common Fund program, supporting four nanomedicine development centers. Nanomedicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with a minimum of $3.8 billion in nanotechnology R&D being invested every year. Global funding for emerging nanotechnology increased by 45% per year in recent years, with product sales exceeding $1 trillion in 2013; as the nanomedicine industry continues to grow, it is expected to have a significant impact on the economy. Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles; the overall drug consumption and side-effects may be lowered by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. Targeted drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of drugs with concomitant decreases in consumption and treatment expenses. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time.
This can be achieved by molecular targeting by nanoengineered devices. A benefit of using nanoscale for medical technologies is that smaller devices are less invasive and can be implanted inside the body, plus biochemical reaction times are much shorter; these devices are more sensitive than typical drug delivery. The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is based upon: a) efficient encapsulation of the drugs, b) successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, c) successful release of the drug. Drug delivery systems, lipid- or polymer-based nanoparticles, can be designed to improve the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the drug. However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nanomedicine is variable among different patients; when designed to avoid the body's defence mechanisms, nanoparticles have beneficial properties that can be used to improve drug delivery. Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed, including the ability to get drugs through cell membranes and into cell cytoplasm.
Triggered response is one way for drug molecules to be used more efficiently. Drugs are placed in the body and only activate on encountering a particular signal. For example, a drug with poor solubility will be replaced by a drug delivery system where both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments exist, improving the solubility. Drug delivery systems may be able to prevent tissue damage through regulated drug release. However, the biodistribution of these nanoparticles is still imperfect due to the complex host's reactions to nano- and microsized materials and the difficulty in targeting specific organs in the body. A lot of work is still ongoing to optimize and better understand the potential and limitations of nanoparticulate systems. While advancement of research proves that targeting and distribution can be augmented by nanoparticles, the dangers of nanotoxicity become an important next step in further understanding of their medical uses. Nanoparticles are under research for their potential to decrease antibiotic resistance or for various antimicrobial uses.
Nanoparticles might be used to circumvent multidrug resistance mechanisms. Advances in lipid nanotechnology were instrumental in engineering medical nanodevices and novel drug delivery systems, as well as in developing sensing applications. Another system for microRNA delivery under preliminary research is nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of two different microRNAs deregulated in cancer. One potential application is based on small electromechanical systems, such as nanoelectromechanical systems being investigated for the active release of drugs and sensors for possible cancer treatment with iron nanoparticles or gold shells; some nanotechnology-based drugs that are commercially available or in human clinical trials include: Abraxane, approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration to treat breast cancer, non-small- cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, is the nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel. Doxil was approved by the FDA for the use on HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, it is now being used to treat ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma.
The drug is encased in liposomes, which helps to extend the life of the drug, being distributed. Liposomes are self-assembling, closed colloidal structures that are composed of lipid bilayers that surround an aqu
"Easy Breezy" is Utada's debut English single. It is the first single from Exodus, in which it appears. For this release, she is using Island Def Jam as her label, under the name of Utada, rather than Hikaru Utada, used for her Japanese releases; this was released as an exclusive download single, though was released as a DVD single in Japan. This song has been used in several Nintendo DS endorsements featuring Utada. There was a promo single for Easy Breezy, sent to radio stations that features an exclusive radio edit of the song; the cover is the same as for the DVD single. The single sold 2,731 copies in Korea; the video for "Easy Breezy", directed by Jake Nava, depicts Utada in various locations, including a pool, her bedroom, in a car, all while celebrating her freedom from her former romantic interest. Fans and Utada alike have criticized the make up artist for Patrick Tumey; the Ultimix version is found on Ultimix 108 as track 3, remixed by Stacy Mier. "Easy Breezy" - Oricon Sales Chart Nintendo DS Commercials on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Love Is The Message is the second album by Philadelphia International Records houseband MFSB. Includes the number one pop, R&B and adult contemporary hit and winner of the 1974 Grammy for Best R&B Instrumental Performance, "TSOP"; the song became the theme song for the television show Soul Train. Bobby Eli, Norman Harris, Reggie Lucas, Roland Chambers, T. J. Tindall - guitar Anthony Jackson, Ron Baker - bass Leon Huff, Lenny Pakula, Eddie Green, Harold "Ivory" Williams - keyboards Earl Young, Karl Chambers, Norman Farrington - drums Larry Washington - percussion Vincent Montana, Jr. - vibraphone Zach Zachery, Tony Williams - saxophone Don Renaldo and his Strings and Horns The Three Degrees - Vocals List of number-one R&B albums of 1974 Love Is the Message at Discogs
MyTalk was a Fairfax Media television channel available to viewers of digital television in Australia. The datacast channel, launched on 13 April 2007, was designed to supplement the Southern Cross Ten and Southern Cross Television digital television services and the online portal; the channel was localised for thirty markets to include international and local news, as well as weather updates. MyTalk began transmissions on 11 April 2007. On 13 April 2007, the datacast channel began operations. In 2007, Fairfax Media bought the radio assets of Southern Cross Broadcasting including MyTalk. Macquarie Media Group purchased Southern Cross for A$1.35 billion and onsold these assets to the Fairfax Group. Following this on 25 February 2008, MyTalk ceased broadcasting. Became local 576pProgrames from 25 February 2008. MyTalk featured a twenty-four-hour television guide for the programming of Southern Cross Ten or Southern Cross Television, localised for each broadcast market; the channel provided realtime news twenty-four hours a day, which included local and international news, as well as current affairs.
MyTalk provided realtime local weather reports. A live video preview of promotions for programming on Southern Cross Ten or Southern Cross Television was available on MyTalk; the live preview rebroadcast regional current affairs program, State Focus. The live video preview was accompanied by a Now and Next television guide. MyTalk advertised television programs from Southern Cross Ten or Southern Cross Television via a small billboard loop; the advertising contained billboards of the online portals features, as well as current and upcoming promotions. MyTalk was broadcast in 576i standard definition, in Regional Queensland, Regional New South Wales, Regional Victoria and Darwin; the channel was carried via Southern Cross Television and Southern Cross Ten owned-and-operated stations, these included GLV Eastern Victoria, BCV Western Victoria, CTC Southern New South Wales, NRN Northern New South Wales, TNQ Queensland, TNT Tasmania, TND Darwin, SGS Spencer Gulf and SCN Broken Hill. Southern Cross Broadcasting announced its intention to provide MyTalk via Nine Adelaide, however after selling the station to the WIN Corporation these plans were ceased.
MyTalks' on-air look has been constant since April 2007. The datacast channel featured a Yellow and White theme; the channel features a small 4:3 ratio video feed at the top right of the screen. The on-air identity of MyTalk was consistent with its online portal. Fairfax Media Nine Network
Silvio Tendler is a Brazilian filmmaker. With more than 40 films released by 2014, including feature and short films, Tendler is one of the most respected Brazilian documentarist. Due to his focus on people like Juscelino Kubitschek, João Goulart, Carlos Marighella, he is known as "the filmmaker of the defeated" or "the filmmaker of interrupted dreams". Born in Rio de Janeiro in 1950, Tendler is graduated in History at the Paris Diderot University, majored in Cinema and History at the École pratique des hautes études in Sorbonne, especialized in Documentary Cinema Applied to Social Sciences at the Musée Guimet in Sorbonne. During his stay in France, he worked on the collaborative documentary La spirale in 1975 with several directors, among them Chris Marker; the acquaintanceship with Marker and other filmmakers, including Jean Rouch, Wladimir Carvalho, Santiago Álvarez and Joris Ivens is remarked by Tendler. He returned from France to Brazil, decided to make a film about Juscelino Kubitschek.
It resulted in Os Anos JK -- a box office success with 800,000 viewers. In 1981, he directed a film about Os Trapalhões, O Mundo Mágico dos Trapalhões, which became the most watched Brazilian documentary of all time with over 1.8 million viewers. In that same year, he created Caliban Produções Cinematográficas, a production company focused on historical biographies. Os Anos JK – Uma Trajetória Política O Mundo Mágico dos Trapalhões Jango Castro Alves - Retrato Falado do Poeta Glauber o Filme, Labirinto do Brasil Encontro com Milton Santos: O Mundo Global Visto do Lado de Cá Utopia e Barbárie Tancredo, a Travessia O veneno está na mesa O veneno está na mesa 2 Silvio Tendler on IMDb
Count Mihály Viczay de Loós et Hédervár was a Hungarian numismatist, amateur archaeologist, collector. He was a member of the old noble Viczay family, his parents were Sr. and Countess Terézia Draskovich. At first, he studied law, but interested in archeology, so he retired to Hédervár, where antiques and had accumulated a collection of coins. One of the most beautiful museum was his private collection in his birthplace, where a large number of foreign scientists visited. Among others, like the Italian Sestini and English writer Robert Towns commemorated those collections, he married Countess Mária Anna Grassalkovich de Gyarak on June 15, 1775. They had three children: Mihály: he married Countess Mária Zichy de Zich et Vásonkeő. Ferenc: his wife was Countess Amália Zichy de Zich et Vásonkeő. One of their children was Count Héder Viczay. Karolina: her husband was Count Antal II Khuen de Belás, their grandchild was Károly Khuen-Héderváry who served as Prime Minister of Hungary twice. Hungarian Biographical Lexicon