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A nanowire is a nanostructure, with the diameter of the order of a nanometer. It can be defined as the ratio of the length to width being greater than 1000. Alternatively, nanowires can be defined as structures that have a thickness or diameter constrained to tens of nanometers or less and an unconstrained length. At these scales, quantum mechanical effects are important—which coined the term "quantum wires". Many different types of nanowires exist, including superconducting, metallic and insulating. Molecular nanowires are composed of repeating molecular units either organic or inorganic. Typical nanowires exhibit aspect ratios of 1000 or more; as such they are referred to as one-dimensional materials. Nanowires have many interesting properties that are not seen in 3-D materials; this is because electrons in nanowires are quantum confined laterally and thus occupy energy levels that are different from the traditional continuum of energy levels or bands found in bulk materials. Peculiar features of this quantum confinement exhibited by certain nanowires manifest themselves in discrete values of the electrical conductance.

Such discrete values arise from a quantum mechanical restraint on the number of electrons that can travel through the wire at the nanometer scale. These discrete values are referred to as the quantum of conductance and are integer multiples of 2 e 2 h ≃ 77.41 μ S They are inverse of the well-known resistance unit h/e2, equal to 25812.8 ohms, referred to as the von Klitzing constant RK. Since 1990, a fixed conventional value RK-90 is accepted. Examples of nanowires include inorganic molecular nanowires, which can have a diameter of 0.9 nm and be hundreds of micrometers long. Other important examples are based on semiconductors such as InP, Si, GaN, etc. dielectrics, or metals. There are many applications where nanowires may become important in electronic, opto-electronic and nanoelectromechanical devices, as additives in advanced composites, for metallic interconnects in nanoscale quantum devices, as field-emitters and as leads for biomolecular nanosensors. There are two basic approaches to synthesizing nanowires: bottom-up.

A top-down approach reduces a large piece of material to small pieces, by various means such as lithography, milling or thermal oxidation. A bottom-up approach synthesizes the nanowire by combining constituent adatoms. Most synthesis techniques use a bottom-up approach. Initial synthesis via either method may be followed by a nanowire thermal treatment step involving a form of self-limiting oxidation, to fine tune the size and aspect ratio of the structures. Nanowire production uses several common laboratory techniques, including suspension, electrochemical deposition, vapor deposition, VLS growth. Ion track technology enables growing segmented nanowires down to 8 nm diameter; as nanowire oxidation rate is controlled by diameter, thermal oxidation steps are applied to tune their morphology. A suspended nanowire is a wire produced in a high-vacuum chamber held at the longitudinal extremities. Suspended nanowires can be produced by: The chemical etching of a larger wire The bombardment of a larger wire with energetic ions Indenting the tip of a STM in the surface of a metal near its melting point, retracting it A common technique for creating a nanowire is vapor-liquid-solid method, first reported by Wagner and Ellis in 1964 for silicon whiskers with diameters ranging from hundreds of nm to hundreds of µm.

This process can produce high-quality crystalline nanowires of many semiconductor materials, for example, VLS–grown single crystalline silicon nanowires with smooth surfaces could have excellent properties, such as ultra-large elasticity. This method uses a source material from a feed gas such as silane. VLS synthesis requires a catalyst. For nanowires, the best catalysts are liquid metal nanoclusters, which can either be self-assembled from a thin film by dewetting, or purchased in colloidal form and deposited on a substrate; the source begins to saturate them. On reaching supersaturation, the source grows outward from the nanocluster. Turning off the source can adjust the final length of the nanowire. Switching sources while still in the growth phase can create compound nanowires with super-lattices of alternating materials. A single-step vapour phase reaction at elevated temperature synthesises inorganic nanowires such as Mo6S9−xIx. From another point of view, such nanowires are cluster polymers.

VSS Growth Similar to VLS synthesis, VSS synthesis of nanowires proceeds through thermolytic decomposition of a silicon precursor. Unlike VLS, the catalytic seed remains in solid state when subjected to high temperature annealing of the substrate; this such type of synthesis is used to synthesise metal silicide/germanide nanowires through VSS alloying between a copper substrate and a silicon/germanium precursor. Solution-phase synthesis refers to techniques, they can produce nanowires of many types of materials. Solution-phase synthesis has the advantage that it can produce large quantities, compared to other methods. In one technique, the polyol synthes

Christian Oberstolz

Christian Oberstolz is an Italian luger who has competed since 1997. He won seven medals at the FIL World Luge Championships with five bronzes. At the FIL European Luge Championships, Oberstolz won nine medals with two golds, four silvers and three bronzes. Oberstolz has competed in three Winter Olympics, earning his best finish of fourth in the men's doubles event at Vancouver in 2010, he won the overall men's doubles Luge World Cup title in 2004–05. Oberstolz is married to fellow Russian-Italian luger Anastasia Oberstolz-Antonova who sat out the 2006–07 Luge World Cup season to pregnancy, giving birth to a daughter, Alexandra, on 14 May 2007. FIL-Luge profile Hickok sports information on World champions in skeleton. "List of European luge champions". Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "List of men's doubles luge World Cup champions since 1978". Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2008. Christian Oberstolz at the International Luge Federation Christian Oberstolz at the International Olympic Committee Christian Oberstolz at Olympics at

Kartavya (organization)

Kartavya is an Indian national nonprofit organization. It is run by college alumni, it aims to educate "slum dwelling" students. Its mission is to eradicate illiteracy from society. Kartavya has increased to 12 chapters across India. Kartavya provides employment to people through recruitment directed at college students looking to teach. Vocational training provides training to about 150 people. In terms of women empowerment efforts 65 women are being taught. Kartavya was founded by a 1999 cohort of students of IIT ISM Dhanbad led by Amresh Mishra, an Indian Police Service officer, its classes were held in a temple in Lahbani Basti. It got its own building; this was christened Centre 1 Dhanbad. Its target was childhood education, it expanded to address other problems, including vocational training, woman's empowerment and health. In 2007, the Library of Centre 1 was initiated, it aims to assist children in their homework and studies, as their household condition may be incompatible with studying. In 2008, Centre 2 at Dhanbad was started to extend this mission.

On 27 October 2008, it became a national NGO under the name Kartavaya An effort towards educated India. Each centre aims to eradicate other socioeconomic problems from society. Kartavya mission is to bring metamorphosis to a slum. Parameters decide, it is done with a "deterministic questionnaire" related to educational and other decisive factors. If the parameters match, a one-year development plan is framed. Next is to recruit a team to develop infrastructure and raise funds. After the Centre for Basic Informal Education is established, the next step is establishing the library; the aim of the library is to provide the platform for self-study and self-learning, crucial for the development of the children. The center works to get the children admitted to nearby "good" schools. After this basic setup, other dimensions are explored, including health care, skill development, vocational training, woman's empowerment and awareness. Kartavya receives its funds from the following sources: Newspaper collection from the hostels of colleges.

Voluntary donations by colleges alumni and other philanthropists. Annual minimal collection from college students. "Caution money" by final year students. Child Sponsorship by various individuals and organizations including college alumni and students; the Center and Library are concerned with childhood education. These are locally referred to as "the soul of Kartavya". Classes are held in the evening; these classes are offered by concerned college students. To cover classes during events such as mid-semester and semester exams and vacations, graduates and enthusiasts are recruited; the Library facilitates homework. It provides an infrastructure, it has its own staff besides Kartvaya Volunteer. The Centre and Library are handled by the Library teams, respectively; each team has its own leader. A school team takes care of the affairs of the schools, it works in concordance with the other teams. The Skill Development Cell team manages the development of individual interests and talents among students; these interests have a varied range, with activities such as dancing and gardening.

The Health team attempts to protect children from otherwise unhealthy surroundings. People are made aware about clean environments. A regular medical camp is organized to identify any disease outbreaks. Kartavya is determined to eradicate economic gaps from society; this can be achieved by enhancing the poor's living standard. Vocational training equips destitute people with practical day-to-day skills which make them economically independent and self-reliant. Women's empowerment is considered a recipe to balance the equation of social inequalities, it is done by making women aware about their responsibilities. This is inculcated through education. "Saheli" is the project of Dhanbad extended to Kartavya Dhanbad Chapter. This project is to train women in skills such as hand knitting, painting etc.. Rotary Club has given financial aid including computers and sewing machines; the program serves about 30 women. In a unique survey in 2012 kartavya got 16th position in world's top 20 successful nonprofits started by students.

Two Kartavya students cleared Navodaya entrance examination in 2012. Kartavya Karate team participated in 18th Chhotanagpur Karate Championship held in Doon Public School, Dhanbad on 21–22 January 2012. 12 Kartavya students participated in the 19th National THANG-THA Championship held in Jammu & Kashmir in this September 2012. Abhya Kumari won Sarita Kumari won silver medal. Prathmik Vidyalaya in NCC Colony near ISM again got new life with involvement of Kartavya in 2012. Kartavya was successful in treating various people in Bastis suffering from cataracts and the organization is taking care of a student, at last stage of TB. Kartavya Karate team participated in Dhanbad District Karate Championship on “The K Day” held in Doon Public School on 7 October 2012. Sarita Kumari got the prize from Dhanbad Olympics Association for her excellent performance in Karate in 2012. 5 Students participated in Kolkata National Karate Championship 2012 in November. ISM Dhanbad Community NIFFT Ranchi Kartavya, NIFFT Ranchi Chapter Kartavya Documentary ISM Community Site Page about Kartavya The Kartavya Group

Twelve Symbols national emblem

The Twelve Symbols national emblem was the state emblem of the Chinese Empire and the Chinese Republic from 1913 to 1928. It was based on the ancient Chinese symbols of the Twelve Ornaments; the Empire of China during the Manchu-led Qing dynasty did not have an official state emblem, but the flag featured the azure dragon on a plain yellow field with a red sun of the three-legged crow in the upper left corner. It became the first national flag of China and is referred to as the Yellow Dragon Flag. Following the end of Manchu rule, new national symbols were deemed necessary by the leaders to represent the changed circumstances; the renowned writers Lu Xun, Qian Daosun, Xu Shoushang from the Ministry of Education were tasked with designing a new national emblem. It was presented on August 28, 1912, was adopted as national emblem in February 1913. President-Emperor Yuan Shikai continued its use during his short imperial reign from 1915 to 1916. Coins issued during this time feature the emblem. A variation of the emblem was shown on illustrations.

The Northern Expedition led by General Chiang Kai-shek and the Kuomintang party led to the overthrow of the fractious but legitimate Beiyang government in 1928. This ushered in a one-party state under the Kuomintang known as the Nanjing decade; the state emblem was therefore replaced with the Kuomintang party symbol Blue Sky with a White Sun. The emblem is based on the ancient symbols of the Twelve Ornaments; these are first mentioned as ancient in the Book of Documents by Emperor Shun, one of the legendary Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Oral tradition holds that he lived sometime between 2294 and 2184 BCE. According to the book, the emperor wished for the symbols to be used on official robes of the state; the symbols were considered most auspicious and therefore as a set were reserved only for the emperor to be shown on his ceremonial robes. The national emblem arranges these symbols in such a way to reflect the order of achievement in western heraldry; the supporter sinister is a dragon, which symbolizes adaptability.

The azure dragon featured on the national flag during the preceding Qing dynasty. On the back of the dragon is fire, which symbolises light and brightness. Behind the head of the dragon is the crescent moon of the moon rabbit, pounding the elixir of life; the supporter dexter is a fenghuang, or pheasant-phoenix, represents peace and refinement. The phoenix brightness. Behind its head are three stars, which could be the Fu Lu Shou stars, which symbolise happiness and longevity. Both creatures hold in one of each claws the zongyi, a sacrificial cup, symbolising devotion and loyalty; the dragon and phoenix represent the natural world. In yin and yang terminology, a dragon is the phoenix a female yin. Therefore, the emperor was identified as the dragon, while the empress was the phoenix; the inclusion of the phoenix into the national symbol, opposite but equal to the dragon, can be seen as a symbol of women being equal to men, a visual and poignant representation of women's rights in the new China. Featuring as the crest on top is an abstract symbol of the sun of the three-legged crow.

In the middle functioning as the escutcheon is the axe head, which symbolises courage and resolution, but executive justice. The blade of the axe head is pointing downwards, the head is shaped like a sloping mountain. Overlaid on the axe head are grains of rice, which symbolise nourishment and the country's agriculture, it can be seen as a symbol of the concept of a moderately prosperous society. In the center of the axe head framed by a pentagon is a simplified symbol of a rice ear, which again stresses the importance of agriculture as the basis of the country's wealth and prosperity; the shape on the emblem is based on a carved stone dating to the Han dynasty. The downward-pointing blade of the axe head features a hardened edge in shape of the four sacred mountains; these represent steadiness. The fifth Center Great Mountain is represented by the axe head; the mountains represent earth, the cups metal, the pondweed water, the rice grains wood, fire, which are all representations of wu xing. The figure 亞 fu underneath the axe represents two animals with their backside together.

This symbolises the capability to make a clear distinction between wrong. The fu sign is in the middle of complex interlacing ribbons, which connect the dragon, the phoenix and the axe to each other; the ribbons could symbolise Harmonious Society. Five Races Under One Union national flag Song to the Auspicious Cloud national anthem

Gordon Binder

Gordon M. Binder is an American businessman. Gordon Binder was born in Missouri, he graduated from Purdue University with a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering and received an M. B. A. from the Harvard Business School as a Baker Scholar. Binder worked in managing position at the Ford Motor Company, he served as Chief Financial Officer at the System Development Corporation. In 1982, he joined Amgen as CFO. From 1988 to 2000, he served as its CEO, he is as the Managing Director of Coastview Capital, a private investment firm. He serves as Chairman of SRU Biosystems, he sits on the Boards of Directors of Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Cellular Genomics, PhRMA and the Biotechnology Industry Organization. Along with Henri Termeer, he is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the California Institute of Technology and the American Enterprise Institute. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001. Science lessons: What the Business of Biotech Taught Me About Management Appearances on C-SPAN

Siphonal notch

A siphonal notch is a feature of the shell anatomy in some sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks. In these particular groups of sea snails the animal has a soft tubular anterior extension of the mantle called a siphon through which water is drawn into the mantle cavity and over the gill and which serves as a chemoreceptor to locate food; this siphonal opening serves for the exit of the water that has entered by the branchial opening. The siphonal notch is a noticeable notch situated at the most posterior part of the aperture of the shell, through which the siphon is extended when the animal is active; the notch at the posterior end of the aperture is called the anal notch, anal sinus, anal canal or posterior canal. Instead of a simple siphonal notch, some gastropods have an elongated siphonal canal, a hard shell tube which extends out from the anterior edge of the aperture. Siphonal canal Stromboid notch