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Napoleon Diamond Necklace

The Napoleon Diamond Necklace is a diamond necklace commissioned by Napoleon I of France c. 1811–1812. It is on display in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. United States; the Napoleon Diamond Necklace consists of 28 mine cut diamonds set into a single thread, with a fringe of alternating pendeloque and briolettes diamond cuts. The five pear-shaped pendeloques are each mounted below a small brilliant cut diamond; the four oval pendeloques are mounted above designs which incorporate 23 brilliant cut diamonds each. Each briolette mounting is set with 12 rose cut diamonds. While the gems of the Napoleon Diamond Necklace have never been professionally graded by a lapidary, infrared spectroscopic analysis of the diamonds has shown that they are Type Ia. However, 13 of the 52 largest diamonds in the necklace are of the rare Type IIa variety. A number of the Type Ia diamonds show indications of sulfide crystal imperfections. In 1810, Napoleon I of France divorced the Empress Joséphine, as she proved to be incapable of producing an heir.

He re-married two months to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. Within a year, Marie Louise bore a son. To celebrate, in June 1811 Napoleon I commissioned the Napoleon Diamond Necklace from the Parisian jewellery firm Nitot et Fils, at a cost of 376,274 French francs; this sum was the equivalent of the Empress's entire annual household budget. There are several contemporary portraits of Marie Louise wearing the Napoleon Diamond Necklace, including a number by the artists François Gérard and Giovan Battista Borghesi. Several years in 1815, Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena. Marie Louise owned it until her death. Upon the death of Marie Louise in 1847, the necklace passed to Archduchess Sophie of Austria, the wife of her brother Archduke Franz Karl of Austria. Two diamonds were removed from the necklace to shorten it, at the request of Princess Sophie; these diamonds were fitted to a pair of earrings, the location of, now unknown. Following the death of Sophie in 1872, the Napoleon Diamond Necklace was jointly inherited by her three surviving sons, Archdukes Karl Ludwig, Ludwig Viktor, Franz Joseph of Austria.

Karl Ludwig acquired his brothers' stakes in the necklace, upon his death in 1914 passed it to his third wife, Maria Theresa of Portugal. At the start of the Great Depression in 1929, Maria Theresa engaged two people presenting themselves as "Colonel Townsend" and "Princess Baronti" to sell the necklace for US$450,000. Realising that the current economic conditions would make it impossible to reach the asking price, the pair began offers at $100,000, signing on Archduke Leopold of Habsburg, the destitute grandnephew of Maria Theresa, to vouch for the necklace's authenticity. Deals were negotiated with the jewelers Harry Winston and Harry Berenson, but the pair sold the necklace to David Michel of New York City for $60,000, of which the pair claimed $53,730 as expenses; when informed of the sale, Maria Theresa took the matter to court resulting in the recovery of the necklace, the jailing of Archduke Leopold, the flight of Townsend and Baronti from the authorities. After resolving the incident, Maria Theresa held the necklace until her death in 1944.

Four years the Habsburg family sold it to the French industrialist Paul-Louis Weiller. In 1960, Weiller sold the Napoleon Diamond Necklace to Harry Winston, who believed that the historical value of the piece would make it more valuable than if the stones were removed and resold individually, as was common practice at the time; as such, he kept reselling it the same year to Marjorie Merriweather Post. Post donated the necklace to the Smithsonian Institution in 1962, it has since remained on display at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D. C. United States

Francis Trigge Chained Library

The Francis Trigge Chained Library is a chained library in Grantham, England, founded in 1598. Located in the parvise, over the south porch of St Wulfram's Church, it has been claimed to be "the first public library" in Britain. In 1598 Francis Trigge, Rector of Welbourn, near Leadenham in Lincolnshire, arranged for a library to be set up in the room over the south porch of St Wulfram's Church, Grantham for the use of the clergy and the inhabitants of the town and Soke; the borough was responsible for furnishing the porchroom and Trigge undertook to supply books to the value of "one hundred poundes or thereaboutes". The two vicars of North and South Grantham, together with the master of the local grammar school were to control the use of the library, took an oath to abide by the rules; the original documents still are deposited within the Lincolnshire Archives. The library was the first in England to be endowed for use outside an institution such as a school or college, it is slightly misleading to call it "the first public library" but its use was not the prerogative of a private group.

The library has always been in the parvise over the south porch the dwelling chamber of one of the vicars, with a fireplace, a small sink and an oriel window that provides a view of the nave of the church. A list of books made up in 1608 and still extant, contains 228 titles, but some of these prove to be works bound together. There are now 356 separate items catalogued; some of these have been added over the years, including the works of the Cambridge Platonist and Cartesian Henry More, given by him during the 17th century. He was a native of Grantham and attended The King's School where, some forty years Isaac Newton was a pupil. Most of the books were chained, the chains made to a standard pattern by a local smith, they were riveted to the fore-edge of the front covers and many of them have been pulled away and lost. The 82 remaining chains run on rings along bars attached to the shelves. Many of the volumes, which at that date were in a poor condition, were repaired locally between 1893 and 1894.

Canon Hector Nelson, who retired as Principal of the Lincoln Training College and came to live in Grantham until his death in 1896, directed the 1893 restoration. The original books seem to have been bought in Cambridge, since there are some second-hand volumes whose provenance has been traced to that town and a number whose bindings have been linked to Cambridge binders of the 16th century. One of them, Garrett Godfrey, used his initials in the design he stamped on the leather, he added two of the books, which have Trigge's signature in a neat italic hand, at the time. Twenty volumes were added to the library from his own books under the terms of his will when he died in 1606; the books were collected without much discrimination by an agent sent down to Cambridge by carrier's cart. 14th-century legal cases under Roman law decided in central Italy and printed in Venice before 1500 cannot have been of much use to a provincial vicar in the Soke of Grantham in the early 17th century, although such works are now among some of the rarest items.

One, printed in Naples in 1476, is the only copy recorded in any library. The volumes were bought in the first place because they were offered cheaply; the theological mix is indiscriminate. There are Lutheran propaganda, Calvinistic preaching, bitter attacks on papistry and bitter refutation of Protestant heresies. What survives is the whole history of the Reformation, set out in the writings of the men who brought it about or set themselves to oppose it, it is a remarkable collection for students of religious beliefs. The collection includes: Medical works of Celsus and others, printed from early manuscripts in 1528; the four books of the Sentences of Peter Lombard. This was the work that began the systematic attempt to correlate faith and reason in the Middle Ages; the Commentaries on the Sentences, by Duns Scotus. They were written in Oxford c.1300, argued the limitations of reason in matters of theology. This copy was printed in Venice in 1497. Two multivolume Histories of the Church, one from a Lutheran viewpoint and printed in Basel, the other by the Oratorian Caesar Baronius.

The second was written expressly to confute the conclusions of the first. The library, staffed by volunteers, is open to the end of September. Chetham's Library Kedermister Library Plume's Library The Trigge Library 19th century photo of the library

Kiriti Roy (2016 film)

Kiriti Roy is a Bengali thriller drama film directed by Aniket Chattopadhyay and produced by Ashok Dhanuka. This film was released on 30 December 2016 in the banner of Eskay Movies, it is based on Setarer Sur. The film revolves around a story of love and murder mystery. While walking in a street of Kolkata, Detective Kiriti Roy and his assistant Subrata save Sunil, administered a lethal dose of morphine. Kiriti thinks that there is a link between this incident and the recent murder case of Basabi. Basabi was a beautiful young woman, about to marry Brajesh but, before the wedding, she was found dead. Kiriti suspects Brajesh along including Sunil. Chiranjit as Kiriti Roy Locket Chatterjee as Krishna Sujan Mukhopadhyay as Subrato Swastika Mukherjee as Junifer Kaushik Ganguly as Inspector Rathin Sikdar Joy Badlani Saayoni Ghosh Kanchana Moitra Krishnokishore Mukherjee Ankita Chakraborty Joy Badlani Debranjan Nag Soumyajit Majumdar Kiriti Roy on IMDb