Rugby union, known in some parts of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using a ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts on each try line. Historically an amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, World Rugby, originally the International Rugby Football Board and from 1998 to 2014 the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886. Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland, early exponents of the sport included Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand, Tonga, Rugby union is played in over 100 countries across six continents, there are 101 full members and 18 associate members of World Rugby.
The Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place four years with the winner of the tournament receiving the Webb Ellis Cup. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are major annual competitions. The origin of football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895, despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first football team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with pupils from Rugby. Other important events include the Blackheath Clubs decision to leave the Football Association in 1863, despite the sports full name of rugby union, it is known simply as rugby throughout most of the world.
The first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England, by 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, and in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby tournament, the Melrose Sevens. During the early history of union, a time before commercial air travel. The first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe, All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, and were far more successful than critics had expected. After Morgan began singing, the crowd joined in, the first time a national anthem was sung at the start of a sporting event, in 1905 France played England in its first international match
Rocky Elsom is a former Australian rugby union player. He plays the position of flanker, and won 75 caps for Australia and he is the most capped Australian blindside flanker and was the Wallabies 76th test captain, having replaced Stirling Mortlock in 2009. He holds the record for most tries by a Wallaby forward and is one of only a handful of Australians to win a Heineken Cup medal twice, Elsoms post rugby career started in spectacular fashion, taking over RCNM Racing Club Narbonne Mediterranean in 2013. Elsoms low-cost, lightly-staffed, profitable model attracted the attention of the Qatar Investment Fund, Elsom has had an international career spanning 75 matches along with 64 Super Rugby Caps and 21 caps for Dublin-based province Leinster. Elsom was awarded the Waratah Medal for outstanding contribution to NSW Rugby in 2007. Elsom is one of only a handful of Australian players that have won a European Cup and is the current top class test player to have been in the starting XV for every one of his 40 test caps.
Elsoms career has not been without controversy with a couple of suspensions one of which was overturned, a drawn-out feud with the ARU over the terms of his contract led to an unusual early release on compassionate grounds to join Leinster in 2008. This resulted in Elsom being deemed unavailable 2008 Wallaby Spring tour despite being named Wallaby of the Year 1 month earlier. Elsom was born in Melbourne and was educated at St. Josephs Nudgee College in Brisbane where he was captain of the union side. He was a fast, agile forward for a man of his size. He was nearly 100 kg when he finished in the Australian Schoolboys side and they resided in a Bulldogs-owned cottage called the ‘Dog House’ in Belmore. He returned to union in 2003, making his debut in Super Rugby against the Auckland Blues for the Waratahs. He co-captained of the Australian Under 21s at the 2003 under-21 World Cup and he continued to progress in the Australian rugby scene, featuring in 12 of the Waratahs 13 games during the 2005 season.
A good Waratahs season which saw the side make it to the final, only to be defeated by the Crusaders, making his debut against Samoa along with Hugh McMeniman and hooker Stephen Moore. Elsom scored the try of the match and went on to hold his place as Australias first choice number six despite strong competition. In 2005, Elsom re-signed with the Tahs, which saw him stay at the New South Wales franchise until the end of the 2008 Super 14 season. In 2007 Elsom was named captain of the Waratahs for their week 12 clash with the Highlanders in Sydney, in 2007, Elsom was named the most valuable flanker in Australia. In his world cup debut, he scored a hat-trick of tries, setting a record for the fastest hat-trick by a forward in World Cup history
Ben Alexander (rugby union)
Ben Alexander is an Australian Rugby Union player. He plays first-tier, professional rugby for the Greater Sydney Rams in the Australian domestic National Rugby Championship competition, Alexander has played for the Australian national rugby union team, the Wallabies. Alexander attended Knox Grammar in Sydney until 2002, he was involved in drama and arts and he played his colts rugby with the UC Owls in Canberra where he was selected to play for the Australian U21 and the Brumby Runners. Alexander played for the Western Sydney Rams in the now defunct Australian Rugby Championship, alexanders competition team mates included Kurtley Beale, Tatafu Polota-Nau, Lachie Turner and Josh Holmes. Alexander played for the Bedford Blues in what was National Division 1 in England during the 2006–07 season and he went on to play six games off the bench in that season. When the Wallaby squad was named by new coach Robbie Deans Alexander was a surprise inclusion after playing six games for the Brumbies. He made his test debut against France in Sydney, in 2009, he played in all 13 games for the Brumbies and in all 14 games for the Wallabies.
Alexander became the top try scorer for the Brumbies in 2010, although injury hindered his test season that year, he recovered to play all 5 tests in the Spring Tour. As of 25 July 2016 Brumbies Profile scrum. com Profile
Tatafu Polota-Nau is an Australian rugby union player. Polota-Nau was born in Sydney, New South Wales and he played rugby league with the Guildford club, and attended the Granville South Creative & Performing Arts High School. Polota-Nau is the cousin of professional wrestler Tonga Fifita, better known by the ring names Haku. At 20 years of age, Polota-Nau achieved the feat of Test selection before playing a match at Super 14 level. His performances in his Test debut against England at Twickenham and in the win over Ireland at Lansdowne Road were impressive. Signed to the New South Wales Waratahs shortly after the end of the 2005 Super 12, he made his debut against Auckland in July. He is a strong and powerful hooker who has worked hard in recent times to improve his set piece in partnership with hooking partner. Polota-Nau was named in the Greater Sydney Rams squad for the 2014 and 2015 National Rugby Championship seasons but did not play for the team due to being required for the Australian national side
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Phillip Waugh is a retired Australian rugby union footballer who played 124 matches in Super Rugby for the NSW Waratahs, and in 79 Test matches for the Wallabies. His usual position was openside flanker, waughs career as a rugby player began at the Shore school, playing in the First XV in his final 3 years and captaining the team in 1997. He was selected to represent the Australian Schoolboys team in 1996 and 1997, waughs campaign continued in 1998, as he was named in the Australian under 19s Rugby team, and subsequently the under 21s from 1999 to 2000. Waugh continued receiving game time with the team until early 2002, after his recovery, Waugh returned to the field to be named vice captain of the 2003 Rugby World Cup team, who were ultimately runners-up. He was rewarded for his performance in 2003 by winning the John Eales Medal for the Wallabies Best and Fairest Player, Waugh was named captain of the Waratahs in 2007, but was injured for most of the Super 14 season. Rocky Elsom and Adam Freier deputised in his absence, during the 2008 Super 14 season, he led the Waratahs from second last to second on the ladder
James Horwill is an Australian rugby union player, who has played for the Australian national side, with 61 caps to his name. He captained the Wallabies a number of times, including during the 2011 Rugby World Cup and he now plays in London for Harlequin FC. Before September 2015 he played for the Queensland Reds and he plays in the Second Row. Horwill was born in Brisbane and educated at Brisbane Boys College, as of February 2016 he was living in south west London, with his wife. Horwill made his Super 14 debut against arch rivals the New South Wales Waratahs in the first game of the 2006 season, when his departure was announced the Queensland Rugby CEO Jim Carmichael described him as one of the great modern-day sporting treasures of Queensland. On 17 December 2014, it was announced that Horwill had signed a contract with English Premiership side Harlequins. He made his debut in Quins season opener against Wasps FC on 16 October 2015. He scored his debut points with a try in the match against Saracens F. C.
on January 9,2016 and he has captained the side in the absence of Quins England players. Horwill proved to be the find of the 2006 season, forcing his way into the line up and earning a place in the Wallabies spring tour. In 2007 Horwill made his debut for the Wallabies in a test match against Fiji playing the entire game,2008 was a successful year for Horwill, as he broke into the starting Wallabies team and played 9 games in 2008, starting against New Zealand in the Bledisloe Cup. In August 2011, Robbie Deans named James Horwill as captain for the 2011 Rugby World Cup in New Zealand and he debuted as captain in the deciding match of the 2011 Tri Nations series on 27 August 2011 and led the Wallabies to a series victory. Horwill was captain of the Wallabies for the British and Irish Lions tour to Australia in 2013, after an appeal by the IRB, Horwill was cleared of allegedly stamping on Alun-Wyn Jones face during the first test. He played his game for the Wallabies in The Rugby Championship game against the All Blacks in Auckland on August 15.
A match that the Wallabies lost 41 -13, on 21 August 2015, Australian coach Michael Cheika decided to leave Horwill out of his 31 man squad for the 2015 Rugby World Cup, a move which surprised some observers. Media related to James Horwill at Wikimedia Commons Wallabies Profile Queensland Reds Profile itsrugby. co. uk Profile ESPN Profile
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.06 million living in Greater Perth. The first areas settled were on the Swan River, with the central business district. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the centre of the Swan River Colony. It gained city status in 1856, and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city is named after Perth, due to the influence of Sir George Murray, Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. The citys population increased substantially as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century, largely as a result of emigration from the eastern colonies of Australia. During Australias involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for operating in the Pacific Theatre. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, Aboriginal people have inhabited the Perth area for 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan.
The Noongar people occupied the southwest corner of Western Australia and lived as hunter-gatherers, the wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were particularly important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food. The Noongar people know the area where Perth now stands as Boorloo, Boorloo formed part of Mooro, the tribal lands of Yellagongas group, one of several based around the Swan River and known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk were part of a group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar. The judgment was overturned on appeal, the first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. The British colony would be officially designated Western Australia in 1832, Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was as beautiful as anything of this kind I had ever witnessed. On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the ship, Sulphur. The only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantles diary entry for 12 August, Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons.
The town was named after the Scottish Perth, in Murrays honour, the racial relations between the Noongar people and the Europeans were strained due to these happenings. Because of the amount of building in and around Boorloo
Salesi Maafu, is an Australian professional rugby union footballer. Maafu was educated at Granville and Ashfield Boys High Schools in Sydney and played rugby league as a youngster in the Balmain district before starting up with rugby, aged 11. Maafu first made his mark at representative level in the NSW Under-19 side in 2001 and 2002 and he signed with the ACT Brumbies in 2006 and made his Super Rugby debut in 2007. Maafu made the Australia A squad the same year, ending his year with an appearance for the British Barbarians club during its 22-5 win over the new Rugby World Cup holders. In the NSW club competition, after spending two years with Warringah, in 2009 Maafu returned to West Harbour, where he played alongside his brother Campese, in 2011, Maafu signed to join the Perth-based Western Force, to commence 2012. He is the ambassador for local club, Joondalup Brothers RUFC, for whom himself. Before the commencement of the 2013 Super Rugby season Maafu signed with the English Premiership side Northampton Saints ahead of the 2013/2014 season, Maafu became a regular in the side, helping them to victory in both the Premiership and the European Challenge Cup.
On 13 June 2015, Maafu would join top French club Toulon in the Top 14 on a two-year contract, Maafu parted ways with Toulon by mutual agreement after being convicted of assault earlier this year. Instead, Maafu was signed to Welsh region Cardiff Blues, following his release from Toulon, the pair became just the fourth set of brothers to oppose each other in Tests, and the first to achieve this feat when both were on debut. Subsequent tests in 2010 against England and South Africa completed a year for the prop. In 2011 Maafu was selected in the Wallabies squad for the Rugby World Cup, media related to Salesi Maafu at Wikimedia Commons Western Force Profile itsrugby. co. uk profile
Radike Samo is an Australian rugby union player. He plays lock, number 8 and can play on the wing. Between 2000 and 2006 Samo played 35 games for the ACT Brumbies and he played with the Fiji Under-19s national team before winning 6 caps for the Wallabies in 2004. In the summer of 2006, he signed a contract with French giants Stade Français after rejecting an offer from Cardiff Blues. He started off slowly but after several games he was dubbed outstanding by Reds coach Ewen Mckenzie and he continued with the Reds in 2011, playing in the teams Super Rugby final triumph on his 35th birthday. The following day it was announced he had called up to the Wallabies 40-man squad for the Test against Samoa. He scored his first test try for the Wallabies during the final Tri-Nations and this try was selected as the IRPA Try of the Year 2011. At 35 years old, Samo is the oldest player to play for Australia in a Tri-Nations match and he, played on the wing for the Wallabies 2011 Rugby World Cup match with Russia, in place of the injured Drew Mitchell.
It was announced on 16 January 2015 that he had signed with the Melbourne Rebels, in 2015 he played for Melbourne Rebels in Super Rugby and Queensland Country in National Rugby Championship. IRB try of the year award 2011 Recalled into the wallabies 30-man squad for the 2012 Bledisloe cup, Queensland Reds profile Wallabies profile itsrugby. co. uk profile
Kurtley Beale is an Australian professional rugby union football player of Aboriginal descent. He has signed to play for Wasps in the English Premiership for the 2016–17 season, Beale has played for the New South Wales Waratahs and the Melbourne Rebels in Super Rugby, and he represents Australia in international matches. He mainly plays at centre or fly-half but can play at or fullback or on the wing. In 2011 he received the John Eales Medal, awarded to Australian rugbys best player of the year, Beale made his Wasps debut in the European Champions Cup in a game against Connacht, scoring a try and receiving a yellow card in the first half. Beale was born in Blacktown, New South Wales, and grew up at Mount Druitt in Western Sydney, in his early years Kurtley played junior rugby league for Western City Tigers, Mt Druitt before converting to Rugby union. He gained a scholarship to attend St Josephs College at Hunters Hill, known as Joeys, Beale was selected to represent the NSW and Australian Schoolboys rugby teams between 2004 and 2006.
In 2006 Beale captained both the Joeys first fifteen and the Australian Schoolboys teams, and regularly attended training sessions with the NSW Waratahs from the age of 15 and he signed with the Waratahs while still only a 16-year-old. At 17, he attended his first Wallabies training camp, on the invitation of coach John Connolly, Beales first played senior rugby at the Northern Suburbs club alongside then-Waratahs teammates Al Baxter and Sam Norton-Knight. With the launch of the Australian Rugby Championship in 2007, Beale became the starting five-eighth for the Rams and he played every game of the season in which the Rams went on to become minor premiers. One of the top try scorers and leaders in try-assists, he was awarded the 2007 player of the tournament award for the ARC. In June 2013, Beale was named to play for Randwick while on leave from the Melbourne Rebels following a spell in rehabiltation for alcohol related issues and he had previously played for Randwick against Gordon in 2010.
Beale played his first senior game for News South Wales against the ACT in January 2007 for a game in Wollongong. After coming on from the bench, he scored the first of his many memorable tries by chipping around the winger, the game was won by NSW 12–0. Two weeks later, after coming off the bench, Beale made a late break to assist in the winning try against the Crusaders. Coach Ewen McKenzie had stated that Beale would not be rushed into the line up. However, it was no more two weeks that he made his starting debut against the Sharks in South Africa, only to lose 22–9. Beale became the Waratahs first choice fly-half for the start of the 2008 Super 14 season and he assumed the goal-kicking duties from Peter Hewat, but Beales goal kicking was not seen as one of the teams strong points. His defence became the subject of criticism after the Round 2 loss to the Chiefs as NSW were forced to shift him to blindside wing in defence in order to shore up the midfield, Beale moved to fullback for the 2010 season
Australian rules football
The main way to score points is by kicking the oval-shaped ball between the two tall goal posts. The team with the score by the end of the match wins unless a draw is declared. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field, the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled, for example, throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch a ball from a kick are awarded possession, possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when a free kick or mark is paid. Players can tackle using their hands or use their body to obstruct opponents. The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of players and the ball and high scoring. The sports origins can be traced to matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858. Its annual Grand Final is the highest attended club championship event in the world, the sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations.
The games rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFLs Laws of the Game Committee, there is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. The earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England and his letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks later, Wills friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground. This was the first of several kickabouts held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley, trees were used as goalposts and play typically lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles.
Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock. This 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and it is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, and the two schools have competed annually ever since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the worlds oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football