Glenn Research Center
NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park and Cleveland between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation of Cleveland Metroparks, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio, its director is Janet L. Kavandi. Glenn Research Center is one of ten major NASA field centers, whose primary mission is to develop science and technology for use in aeronautics and space; as of May 2012, it employed about 1,650 civil servants and 1,850 support contractors located on or near its site. In 2010, the on-site NASA Visitors Center moved to the Great Lakes Science Center in the North Coast Harbor area of downtown Cleveland; the installation was established in 1942 as part of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and was incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as a laboratory for aircraft engine research. It was first named the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory after funding was approved in June 1940.
It was renamed the Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory in 1947, the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in 1948, the NASA Lewis Research Center in 1958. On March 1, 1999, the center was renamed the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. John Glenn was an American fighter pilot and politician; as early as 1951, researchers at the LFPL were studying the combustion processes in liquid rocket engines. The 6,400-acre Plum Brook Field Station near Sandusky, Ohio is part of Glenn, it is located about 50 miles from the main campus. It specializes in large scale tests that would be hazardous on the main campus; as of 2015, the station consisted of five major facilities: B-2 Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility: not functional Combined Effects Chamber: never used and unusable Cryogenic Components Laboratory: slated for demolition Hypersonic Test Facility Space Power FacilityThe Plum Brook Reactor was decontaminated and decommissioned under a 2008 cost-plus-fee contract valued at more than $33.5 million.
The B-2 Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility is the world's only facility capable of testing full-scale, upper-stage launch vehicles and rocket engines under simulated high-altitude conditions. The Space Power Facility houses the world's largest space environment vacuum chamber. An icing tunnel is capable of simulating atmospheric icing condition to test the effect of ice accretion on aircraft wings and body as well as to test anti-icing systems for aircraft; the Zero Gravity Research Facility is a vertical vacuum chamber used for microgravity experiments. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985; the facility uses vertical drop tests in a vacuum chamber to investigate the behavior of components, liquids and combustion in such circumstances. The facility consists of a concrete-lined shaft, 28 feet in diameter, that extends 510 feet below ground level. An aluminum vacuum chamber, 20 feet in diameter and 470 feet high, is contained within the concrete shaft; the pressure in this vacuum chamber is reduced to 13.3 newtons per square meter before use.
After the closing of the Japan Microgravity Centre, the NASA Zero-G facility is the largest microgravity facility in the world. Another, smaller drop tower remains in use; that tower has a free fall time of 2.2 seconds, the Dropping In Microgravity Environment program is conducted there. NASA Glenn does significant research and technology development on jet engines, producing designs that reduce energy consumption and noise; the chevrons it invented for noise reduction appear on many commercial jet engines today, including the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The Glenn Research Center, along with its partners in industry, are credited with the following: The liquid hydrogen rocket engine, which Wernher von Braun credited as being the critical technology leading to the Apollo moon landing The Centaur upper stage rocket The gridded ion thruster, a high-efficiency engine for spaceflight. A Glenn-derived ion engine was used on the successful NASA probe Deep Space 1; the Electrical Power System for Space Station Freedom, except for minor modifications, is used on the International Space Station.
NASA Glenn's core competencies are: Air-breathing propulsion Communications technology and development Space propulsion and cryogenic fluids management Power, energy storage, conversion Materials and structures for extreme environments The Glenn Research Center is home to the Lewis' Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program. It provides internships for high school teachers; the high school program is an eight-week internship for sophomores and juniors with interests in science, engineering, math, or professional administration. The college level is open to college students at all levels. Only residents of the Cleveland area are eligible for high school LERCIP, but college LERCIP is open to students nationwide. Interns work with their NASA mentors and are involved in the daily activities of the Center, they are expected to be available to work 40 hours a week for the duration of the internship. The LERCIP Teacher program is a 10-week internship for educators in STEM fields; the Dropping In Microgravity Environment is an annual contest held yearly by the center.
Teams of high school students write proposals for experiments to be performed in the Drop Tower. The winners travel to the Center, perform their experiments, submit a research report to NASA. After 2004, NASA had been shifting its focus towards space exploration as manda
Meudon is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is in the département of Hauts-de-Seine, it is located 9.1 km from the center of Paris. The town of Meudon is built on the valleys of the Seine; the wood of Meudon lies for the most part to the west of the town. The northwest part of Meudon, overlooking the Seine, is known as Bellevue. At Meudon, the argile plastique clay was extensively mined in the 19th century; the first fossil of the European diatryma Gastornis parisiensis was discovered in these deposits by Gaston Planté. Archaeological sites show; the Gauls called the area Mol-Dum, the Romans Latinized the name as Moldunum. The handsome Galliera Institutions, on the hill of Fleury, were founded by the duchess of Galliera for the care of aged persons and orphans; the buildings were completed in 1885. The old castle of Meudon was rebuilt in Renaissance style in the mid-sixteenth century, it was bought by Louis XIV as a residence for Louis, le Grand Dauphin, under whom Meudon became a center of aristocratic life.
After the death of le Grand Dauphin in 1711 the château was neglected, emptied in the Revolutionary sales, burned at the close of the Franco-Prussian War, 1871, while it was occupied by Prussian soldiers. A branch of the Paris Observatory was founded in 1877 on the ruins; the Meudon town hall is about 43 m in altitude above that of Paris and the climb from there to the observatory offers some rewarding views of Paris. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, the inventor of the'world's first automobile', is reported to have carried out some early trials at Meudon in the early 1770s. Chalais-Meudon was important in the pioneering of aviation balloons and airships, but the early heavier-than-air machines. A Corps d'Aérostatiers under the command of Jean-Marie-Joseph Coutelle was established in 1794, its balloons being used at the Battle of Fleurus.'Hangar Y' was built in 1880 at the request of the military engineer Captain Charles Renard, for the construction of balloons and airships. The building is 24 m wide and around 26 m high.
The airship La France, designed by Renard and Arthur Krebs, was built in Hangar Y in 1884 and was the first airship, controllable during flight and which could return to its starting point. Although a choice residential district, access to the railway and the Seine river have made Meudon a manufacturing center since the 1840s. Metal products and military explosives have been continuously produced there since then. In addition to the Observatory, what is today ONERA, a national aerospace research institute and wind tunnel has been present since the military opened its aerostatic field in the Chalais park in 1877. From 1921 to 1981 the Air Museum was located here. CNRS has a campus in Bellevue. Meudon is well served by public transports operated jointly by the SNCF and the RATP. Meudon is served by the line C of the RER by the Meudon – Val Fleury station. Meudon is served by the transilien line N through the Meudon station and the Bellevue station; the T2 tramway line links the Pont de Bezons station to the Porte de Versailles station.
It stops by La Défense. Meudon is served by the Meudon-sur-Seine station; the T6 tramway line runs from Châtillon to Viroflay. Meudon is served by the Meudon la Forêt stations. Meudon is served by twelve lines of the RATP bus network, that have numerous stops in the city: Line 162 runs from Arceuil – Cachan RER station to Villejuif Louis Aragon. Line 169 runs from Pont de Sèvres to the Georges Pompidou hospital. Line 179 runs from Pont de Sèvres to the Robinson RER station. Line 190 runs from Petit Clamart to Mairie d'Issy. Line 289 runs from Porte de Saint-Cloud to Clamart – Cité de la Plaine. Line 290 runs from Le Plessis-Robinson to Issy-Val-de-Seine. Line 291 runs from Pont de Sèvres to Vélizy Europe Sud. Line 379 runs from Vélizy 2 to Antony – La Croix de Berny RER station. Line 389 runs from Pont de Sèvres to Meudon-la-Forêt. Line 390 runs from Vélizy Villacoublay to the Bourg-la-Reine RER station; the area was once served by the Bellevue funicular, a model of, in the local Museum of Art and History.
Public schools: Three groups of preschools and elementary schools Nine standalone preschools Six standalone public elementary schools Three junior high schools: Collège Armande Béjart, Collège Bel Air, Collège Rabelais Two senior high schools: Lycée Rabelais and Lycée des métiers Les Côtes de VillebonPrivate schools: One junior and senior high school Institut Notre-Dame One elementary school through junior high school Three preschools-elementary schools Meudon is twinned with: Mazkeret Batia, Israel Celle, Germany Borough of Rushmoor England Brezno, Slovakia Ciechanów, Poland Émilie Ambre, the French opera singer, lived on an estate in Meudon bought for her by her then-lover William III of the Netherlands in 1877 Madame de Pompadour lived in the Château de Bellevue, built for her by Louis XV in 1750. Sculptor Auguste Rodin's villa "des Brillants", now a museum of his art, is located here, as is his grave. Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia lived here in exile in Château Sans-Souci, from 1920.
Richard Wagner was a resident, here composed The Flying Dutchman. Louis-Ferdinand Céline lived here until his death, is buried in Bas Meudon; the 20th-century French lawyer and Islamologist Georges-Henri Bousquet was born in Meudon. Painter May Alcott lived here until her death. Jean Robiquet, art histo
Wind tunnels are large tubes with air moving inside. The tunnels are used to copy the actions of an object in flight. Researchers use wind tunnels to learn more about. NASA uses wind tunnels to test scale models of spacecraft; some wind tunnels are big enough to hold full-size versions of vehicles. The wind tunnel moves air around an object, making it seem like the object is flying. Most of the time, powerful fans move air through the tube; the object to be tested is fastened in the tunnel. The object can be a small model of a vehicle, it can be just a piece of a vehicle. It can be spacecraft, it can be a common object like a tennis ball. The air moving around the still object shows what would happen if the object were moving through the air. How the air moves can be studied in different ways. Smoke or dye can be seen as it moves. Threads can be attached to the object to show. Special instruments are used to measure the force of the air on the object; the earliest wind tunnels were invented towards the end of the 19th century, in the early days of aeronautic research, when many attempted to develop successful heavier-than-air flying machines.
The wind tunnel was envisioned as a means of reversing the usual paradigm: instead of the air standing still and an object moving at speed through it, the same effect would be obtained if the object stood still and the air moved at speed past it. In that way a stationary observer could study the flying object in action, could measure the aerodynamic forces being imposed on it; the development of wind tunnels accompanied the development of the airplane. Large wind tunnels were built during World War II. Wind tunnel testing was considered of strategic importance during the Cold War development of supersonic aircraft and missiles. On, wind tunnel study came into its own: the effects of wind on man made structures or objects needed to be studied when buildings became tall enough to present large surfaces to the wind, the resulting forces had to be resisted by the building's internal structure. Determining such forces was required before building codes could specify the required strength of such buildings and such tests continue to be used for large or unusual buildings.
Still wind-tunnel testing was applied to automobiles, not so much to determine aerodynamic forces per se but more to determine ways to reduce the power required to move the vehicle on roadways at a given speed. In these studies, the interaction between the road and the vehicle plays a significant role, this interaction must be taken into consideration when interpreting the test results. In an actual situation the roadway is moving relative to the vehicle but the air is stationary relative to the roadway, but in the wind tunnel the air is moving relative to the roadway, while the roadway is stationary relative to the test vehicle; some automotive-test wind tunnels have incorporated moving belts under the test vehicle in an effort to approximate the actual condition, similar devices are used in wind tunnel testing of aircraft take-off and landing configurations. Wind tunnel testing of sporting equipment has been prevalent over the years, including golf clubs, golf balls, Olympic bobsleds, Olympic cyclists, race car helmets.
Helmet aerodynamics is important in open cockpit race cars. Excessive lift forces on the helmet can cause considerable neck strain on the driver, flow separation on the back side of the helmet can cause turbulent buffeting and thus blurred vision for the driver at high speeds; the advances in computational fluid dynamics modelling on high speed digital computers has reduced the demand for wind tunnel testing. However, CFD results are still not reliable and wind tunnels are used to verify CFD predictions. Air velocity and pressures are measured in several ways in wind tunnels. Air velocity through the test section is determined by Bernoulli's principle. Measurement of the dynamic pressure, the static pressure, the temperature rise in the airflow; the direction of airflow around a model can be determined by tufts of yarn attached to the aerodynamic surfaces. The direction of airflow approaching a surface can be visualized by mounting threads in the airflow ahead of and aft of the test model. Smoke or bubbles of liquid can be introduced into the airflow upstream of the test model, their path around the model can be photographed.
Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured with beam balances, connected to the test model with beams, strings, or cables. The pressure distributions across the test model have been measured by drilling many small holes along the airflow path, using multi-tube manometers to measure the pressure at each hole. Pressure distributions can more conveniently be measured by the use of pressure-sensitive paint, in which higher local pressure is indicated by lowered fluorescence of the paint at that point. Pressure distributions can be conveniently measured by the use of pressure-sensitive pressure belts, a recent development in which multiple ultra-miniaturized pressure sensor modules are integrated into a flexible strip; the strip is attached to the aerodynamic surface with tape, it sends signals depicting the pressure distribution along its surface. Pressure distributions on a test model can be determined by performing a wake survey, in which either a single pitot tube is used to obtain multiple readings downstream of the test model, or a multiple-tube manometer is mounted downstream and all its readings are taken.
The aerodynamic properties of an object can not all remain the same for a
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo
Carnegie Institution for Science
The Carnegie Institution of Washington, known for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science, is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research. The institution is headquartered in Washington, D. C. Beginning during 1895, Andrew Carnegie donated his vast fortune to establish over 20 organizations around the world that now feature his surname and perform work involving topics as diverse as art, international affairs, world peace, scientific research; the organizations are related by name only. In 2007, the institution adopted the public name "Carnegie Institution for Science" to distinguish itself better from other organizations established by and named for Andrew Carnegie; the institution remains and the Carnegie Institution of Washington, but now has a public identity that describes its work more precisely. "It is proposed to found in the city of Washington, an institution which...shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage investigation and discovery show the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind..."
— Andrew Carnegie, January 28, 1902 Beginning during 1895, Andrew Carnegie contributed his vast fortune toward the establishment of 22 organizations that presently feature his surname and perform work in such topics as art, international affairs and scientific research. During 1901, Andrew Carnegie retired from business to begin his career in philanthropy. Among his new enterprises, he considered establishing a national university in Washington, D. C. similar to the great centers of learning in Europe. Because he was concerned that a new university could weaken existing universities, he opted for an independent research organization that would increase basic scientific knowledge. Carnegie communicated with President Theodore Roosevelt and declared his readiness to endow the new institution with $10 million, he added $2 million more to the endowment during 1907, another $10 million during 1911. By some estimates, the value of his endowment in current terms was $500 million; as ex officio members of the first board of trustees, Carnegie chose the President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and the president of the National Academy of Sciences.
In all, he selected 27 men for the institution's original board. Their first meeting was held in the office of the Secretary of State on January 29, 1902, Daniel Coit Gilman, president of Johns Hopkins University, was elected president; the institution was incorporated by the U. S. Congress during 1903; the president and trustees devoted much of the institution's budget to individual grants for various topics, including astronomy, literature, economics and mathematics. Among the researchers who received individual grants were American physicist Albert A. Michelson, paleontologist Oliver Perry Hay, botanist Janet Russell Perkins, Thomas Hunt Morgan and his "fly group", geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin, historian of science George Sarton, rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard and botanist Luther Burbank; the institution funded archaeological research by Sylvanus Morley at Chichen Itza. As directed by Robert Woodward, who became president during 1904, the board changed its practice, deciding to provide major funding to departments of research rather than to individuals.
This allowed them to concentrate on fewer topics and fund groups of researchers in related areas over many years. Starting in 1907 the Institution maintained the Tortugas Laboratory on Garden Key, under the direction of Alfred G. Mayer. Since the beginning, the Carnegie Institution has made discoveries but left the development to others; this philosophy has resulted in unexpected results, including the development of hybrid corn, the technology that led to Pyrex ® glass, novel techniques to control genes known as RNA interference. Some of Carnegie's researchers from the early and middle years of the 20th century are well known: Edwin Hubble, who revolutionized astronomy with his discovery that the universe is expanding and that there are galaxies other than our own Milky WayCharles Richter, who created the earthquake measurement scale; when the United States joined World War II, Vannevar Bush was president of the Carnegie Institution. Several months before, on June 12, 1940, Bush had been instrumental in persuading President Franklin Roosevelt to create the National Defense Research Committee to mobilize and coordinate the nation's scientific war effort.
Bush housed the new agency in the Carnegie Institution's administrative headquarters at 16th and P Streets, NW, in Washington, DC, converting its great rotunda and auditorium into office cubicles. From this location, Bush supervised, among the Manhattan Project. Further, Carnegie scientists cooperated with the development of the proximity fuze and mass production of penicillin; as of June 30, 2014, the Institution's endowment was valued at $980 million. Expenses for scientific programs and administration was
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1926 and merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995; the founder, Allan Lockheed, had earlier founded the named but otherwise unrelated Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company, operational from 1912 through 1920. Allan Loughead and his brother Malcolm Loughead had operated an earlier aircraft company, Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company, operational from 1912 to 1920; the company built and operated aircraft for paying passengers on sightseeing tours in California and had developed a prototype for the civil market, but folded in 1920 due to the flood of surplus aircraft deflating the market after World War I. Allan went into the real estate market while Malcolm had meanwhile formed a successful company marketing brake systems for automobiles. In 1926, Allan Lockheed, John Northrop, Kenneth Kay and Fred Keeler secured funding to form the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Hollywood; this new company utilized some of the same technology developed for the Model S-1 to design the Vega Model.
In March 1928, the company relocated to Burbank, by year's end reported sales exceeding one million dollars. From 1926 to 1928 the company produced over 80 aircraft and employed more than 300 workers who by April 1929 were building five aircraft per week. In July 1929, majority shareholder Fred Keeler sold 87% of the Lockheed Aircraft Company to Detroit Aircraft Corporation. In August 1929, Allan Loughead resigned; the Great Depression ruined the aircraft market, Detroit Aircraft went bankrupt. A group of investors headed by brothers Robert and Courtland Gross, Walter Varney, bought the company out of receivership in 1932; the syndicate bought the company for a mere $40,000. Allan Loughead himself had planned to bid for his own company, but had raised only $50,000, which he felt was too small a sum for a serious bid. In 1934, Robert E. Gross was named chairman of the new company, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, headquartered at what is now the airport in Burbank, California, his brother Courtlandt S. Gross was a co-founder and executive, succeeding Robert as chairman following his death in 1961.
The company was named the Lockheed Corporation in 1977. The first successful construction, built in any number was the Vega first built in 1927, best known for its several first- and record-setting flights by, among others, Amelia Earhart, Wiley Post, George Hubert Wilkins. In the 1930s, Lockheed spent $139,400 to develop the Model 10 Electra, a small twin-engined transport; the company sold 40 in the first year of production. Amelia Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan, flew it in their failed attempt to circumnavigate the world in 1937. Subsequent designs, the Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior and the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra expanded their market; the Lockheed Model 14 formed the basis for the Hudson bomber, supplied to both the British Royal Air Force and the United States military before and during World War II. Its primary role was submarine hunting; the Model 14 Super Electra were sold abroad, more than 100 were license-built in Japan for use by the Imperial Japanese Army. At the beginning of World War II, Lockheed – under the guidance of Clarence Johnson, considered one of the best-known American aircraft designers – answered a specification for an interceptor by submitting the P-38 Lightning fighter aircraft, a twin-engined, twin-boom design.
The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day. It filled ground-attack, air-to-air, strategic bombing roles in all theaters of the war in which the United States operated; the P-38 was responsible for shooting down more Japanese aircraft than any other U. S. Army Air Forces type during the war; the Lockheed Vega factory was located next to Burbank's Union Airport which it had purchased in 1940. During the war, the entire area was camouflaged to fool enemy aerial reconnaissance; the factory was hidden beneath a huge burlap tarpaulin painted to depict a peaceful semi-rural neighborhood, replete with rubber automobiles. Hundreds of fake trees, shrubs and fire hydrants were positioned to give a three-dimensional appearance; the trees and shrubs were created from chicken wire treated with an adhesive and covered with feathers to provide a leafy texture. Lockheed ranked tenth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.
All told and its subsidiary Vega produced 19,278 aircraft during World War II, representing six percent of war production, including 2,600 Venturas, 2,750 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers, 2,900 Hudson bombers, 9,000 Lightnings. During World War II, Lockheed, in cooperation with Trans-World Airlines, had developed the L-049 Constellation, a radical new airliner capable of flying 43 passengers between New York and London at a speed of 300 mph in 13 hours. Once the Constellation went into production, the military received the first production models; the Constellations' performance set new standards which transformed the civilian transportation market. Its signature tri-tail was the result of many initial customers not