Palazzo della Cancelleria
The Palazzo della Cancelleria is a Renaissance palace in Rome, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori, in the rione of Parione. It was built between 1489–1513 by Donato Bramante as a palace for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, is regarded as the earliest Renaissance palace in Rome; the Palazzo houses the Papal Chancellery, is an extraterritorial property of the Holy See, is designated as a World Heritage Site. As of 2015, it was the residence of retired Cardinal Bernard Law of United States; the Cancelleria was built for Cardinal Raffaele Riario who held the post of Cardinal Camerlengo to his powerful uncle, Pope Sixtus IV. The rumor was; the edifice has traditionally been attributed to Andrea Bregno. Current opinion of the architect's identity is divided, with Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Baccio Pontelli suggested as having been involved in the early stages of its design. In 1517, the newly completed Palazzo was seized by the first Medici Pope, Leo X, who had not forgotten the complacency of Pope Sixtus IV at the time of the murderous Pazzi conspiracy intended to replace the Medici in Florence, Italy with a Della Rovere regime.
From 1753 the vice chancellor was the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, Henry Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York, the Jacobite Henry IX of England and Ireland, I of Scotland. During the late 17th century former Queen Kristina of Sweden resided here. During the Roman Republic of 1849 the parliament sat here; the Palazzo della Cancelleria was the first palazzo in Rome to be erected from the ground up in the new Renaissance style. Its long facade engulfs the small Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso, the Cardinal's titular church, to its right, with the palatial front continuing straight across it; the entrance to the Basilica is on the right side of the facade. The 5th-century basilica sits, like the Basilica di San Clemente among others, on a pagan Roman mithraeum. Excavations beneath the cortile from 1988 to 1991 revealed the 4th- and 5th-century foundations of the grand Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso, founded by Pope St. Damasus I, one of the most important early churches of Rome.
A cemetery in use from the 8th century until shortly before the construction of the Palazzo was identified. The facade, with its rhythm of flat doubled pilasters between the arch-headed windows, is Florentine in conception, comparable to Leone Battista Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai; the overall pattern of drafted masonry, cut with smooth surfaces and grooves around the edges, is ancient Roman in origin. The grand portal was added in the 16th century by Domenico Fontana on the orders of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese; the bone-colored travertine of the Palazzo was spolia from the nearby ancient ruins of the Theatre of Pompey, for Rome was a field of ruins, built for a city of over one million that housed a mere 30,000. The 44 Egyptian granite columns of the inner courtyard are from the porticoes of the theatre's upper covered seating, however they were taken from the theatre to build the old Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso. Filippo Brunelleschi's cloisters of the Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, which may have inspired the courtyard of Luciano Laurana's Palazzo Ducale in Urbino has been suggested as a possible source of inspiration.
It is more probable that the form of the courtyard is derived from that of the Palazzo Ducale in Urbino, because the individuals involved in the early planning of the Palazzo had come from Urbino. In the Palazzo is a vast mural that Giorgio Vasari completed in a mere 100 days, therefore named the Sala dei Cento Giorni, he boasted of this accomplishment to Michelangelo, who responded "Si vede". In the Palazzo a little, private theatre was installed by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, in the 17th century the Palazzo became a center of musical performance in Rome. Cancelleria Reliefs Palazzo della Cancelleria Apostolica The Vatican: spirit and art of Christian Rome, a book from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on the Palazzo
Henry C. Turner Prize for Innovation in Construction Technology
The Henry C. Turner Prize for Innovation in Construction Technology is awarded annually by the National Building Museum to recognize outstanding leadership and innovation in the field of construction methods and processes, including engineering design and construction techniques and practices. Created in 2002 by an endowment established by the Turner Construction Company and named after the company's founder, the prize carries a cash award of $25,000. Past honorees include individuals and organizations such as architect I. M. Pei, for encouraging construction and engineering innovation with his designs; when Frank Gehry accepted the prize on behalf of Gehry Partners in 2007, he stated, "I've gotten a lot of awards from the artsy side of the profession, but this one's from the meat-and-potatoes side, that's pretty special." In addition to the Turner Prize, the National Building Museum awards the Vincent Scully Prize, which honors exemplary practice, scholarship, or criticism in architecture, historic preservation, urban design, the Honor Award for individuals and organizations who have made important contributions to the U.
S.'s building heritage. National Building Museum's information on the Turner Prize Turner Construction's information on the Turner Prize
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, lawyer and public speaker. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U. S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, as the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election, the first woman nominated by a major party. Born in Chicago and raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married future president Bill Clinton in 1975. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Families, she was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year. As First Lady of Arkansas, she led a task force whose recommendations helped reform Arkansas's public schools.
As First Lady of the United States, Clinton advocated for healthcare reform. Her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal, which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage. In 2000, Clinton was elected as the first female Senator from New York, she was reelected to the Senate in 2006. Running for president in 2008, she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate, but lost the Democratic nomination to Barack Obama. During her tenure as U. S. Secretary of State in the Obama Administration from 2009 to 2013, Clinton responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya, she helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and a regime of international sanctions against Iran in an effort to force curtailment of that country's nuclear program. Upon leaving her Cabinet position after Obama's first term, she wrote her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements. Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016.
She received the most votes and primary delegates in the 2016 Democratic primaries and formally accepted her party's nomination for President of the United States on July 28, 2016, with vice presidential running mate Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine. She lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the Electoral College, despite winning a plurality of the popular vote, she received more than 65 million votes, the 3rd-highest count in a U. S. presidential election, behind Obama's victories in 2008 and 2012. Following her loss, she wrote her third memoir, What Happened, launched Onward Together, a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups. Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 1947, at Edgewater Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois, she was raised in a United Methodist family. When she was three years old, her family moved to the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, her father, Hugh Rodham, was of English and Welsh descent, managed a small but successful textile business, which he had founded.
Her mother, Dorothy Howell, was a homemaker of Dutch, French Canadian and Welsh descent. Clinton has two younger brothers and Tony; as a child, Rodham was a favorite student among her teachers at the public schools that she attended in Park Ridge. She earned numerous badges as a Brownie and a Girl Scout, she has told a story of being inspired by U. S. efforts during the Space Race and sending a letter to NASA around 1961 asking what she could do to become an astronaut, only to be informed that women were not being accepted into the program. She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in the student council, the school newspaper and was selected for the National Honor Society, she was elected class vice president for her junior year, but lost the election for class president for her senior year against two boys, one of whom told her that "you are stupid if you think a girl can be elected president". For her senior year and other students were transferred to the new Maine South High School, where she was a National Merit Finalist and was voted, "most to succeed".
She graduated in 1965 in the top five percent of her class. Rodham's mother wanted her to have an independent, professional career, her father, otherwise a traditionalist, felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender, she was raised in a politically conservative household, she helped canvass Chicago's South Side at age 13 after the close 1960 U. S. presidential election. She saw evidence of electoral fraud against Republican candidate Richard Nixon, volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the U. S. presidential election of 1964. Rodham's early political development was shaped by her high school history teacher, who introduced her to Goldwater's The Conscience of a Conservative and by her Methodist youth minister, with whom she saw and afterwards met, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. at a 1962 speech in Chicago's Orchestra Hall. In 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College. During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans.
As the leader of this "Rockefeller Republican"-oriented group, she supported the elections of moderate Republicans John Lind
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Seal of the President of the United States
The Seal of the President of the United States is used to mark correspondence from the U. S. president to the U. S. Congress, is used as a symbol of the presidency itself; the central design, based on the Great Seal of the United States, is the official coat of arms of the U. S. presidency and appears on the presidential flag. The presidential seal developed by custom over a long period before being defined in law, its early history remains obscure; the use of presidential seals goes back to at least 1850, much earlier. The basic design of today's seal originated with Rutherford B. Hayes, the first to use the coat of arms on White House invitations in 1877; the precise design dates from 1945, when President Truman specified it in Executive Order 9646. The only changes since were in 1959 and 1960, which added 49th and 50th stars to the circle following the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii as states; the current seal is defined in Executive Order 10860, made by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on February 5, 1960, effective since July 4, 1960.
It states: The Coat of Arms of the President of the United States shall be of the following design: SHIELD: Paleways of thirteen pieces argent and gules, a chief azure. CREST: Behind and above the eagle a radiating glory Or, on which appears an arc of thirteen cloud puffs proper, a constellation of thirteen mullets argent; the whole surrounded by white stars arranged in the form of an annulet with one point of each star outward on the imaginary radiating center lines, the number of stars conforming to the number of stars in the union of the Flag of the United States as established by chapter 1 of title 4 of the United States Code. The Seal of the President of the United States shall consist of the Coat of Arms encircled by the words "Seal of the President of the United States." The blazon is the same as the obverse of the Great Seal of the United States as defined in 1782, although with some extra colors specified, a different arrangement of the stars and glory than is seen in modern versions of the Great Seal.
The only purely distinct element is the ring of 50 stars. The symbolism follows that of the Great Seal: The stripes on the shield represent the 13 original states, unified under and supporting the chief; the motto alludes to the same concept. The arc of thirteen clouds, the thirteen stars refer to the original 13 states; the olive branch and arrows denote the powers of war. The actual seal die is only used on correspondence from the President to the United States Congress, closing the envelopes with wax seals; this has been the primary use throughout the seal's history, though isolated uses have been made for correspondence with other members of government. Documents signed by the President when representing the nation are instead sealed with the Great Seal of the United States. Speaking, the brass die used at the White House is the only actual seal of the president — other versions are technically "facsimiles"; the Bureau of Engraving and Printing has other dies, used to produce such facsimiles on documents and invitations as requested by the White House.
Other versions of the seal are used as a visual symbol to represent the president, are most seen: on the lectern at presidential press conferences on the sides of presidential transports Air Force One, Marine One, the presidential limousine at the center of the ceiling in the Oval Office of the White House affixed to the balcony of the South Portico during a State Arrival CeremonyThe presidential coat of arms has wider usage. It appears: on the presidential flag on the reverse of the Kennedy half dollar. For the United States Bicentennial, a depiction of Independence Hall was used on the reverse of the coin; the seal returned to the reverse starting in 1977. At the center of the iconic oval rug in the Oval Office of the White House; the coat of arms is incorporated into the Presidential Service Badge issued to US Military personnel. On many versions of presidential china, such as the Wilson or Reagan china, used at state dinners at the White House. At the burial sites of former Presidents. In general, commercial use of the seal is prohibited by 18 USC 713 of the United States Code, further defined by Executive Orders 11916 and 11649.
The United States Secret Service is authorized to use the seal in conjunction with fund raising sales for its charitable benefit fund. Unofficial use of the seal is regulated by the White House Graphics and Calligraphy Office and monitored by the office of the White House Counsel. On September 28, 2005, Grant M. Dixton, associate counsel to George W. Bush, requested that the satirical newspaper The Onion remove the presidential seal from its website; the Graphic and Calligraphy Office will approve of the seal's use in application of official gifts, an example being its application to a silver cigarette box presented as a gift to Franklin Roosevelt. The seal is sometimes used in modified form as a marketing tool; the punk rock group the Ramones used a personal variation of the seal as their logo, replacing the arrows with a baseball bat and the inscripti
National Geographic Traveler
National Geographic Traveler is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society in the United States. It was launched in 1984. Local-language editions of National Geographic Traveler are published in Armenia, Belgium/the Netherlands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Latin America, Poland, Russia and Spain. A UK edition launched in December 2010. National Geographic Traveler's main competitors are Condé Travel + Leisure. Keith Bellows was the editor-in-chief until October 2014. Executive editor Norie Quintos was named acting editor-in-chief before Maggie Zackowitz was appointed editor-in-chief in May 2015. Longtime contributor George Stone was named editor-in-chief on January 27, 2016. Other contributors include Christopher Elliott, Deena Guzder, Carl Hoffman, Boyd Matson, Andrew McCarthy. Official website Official National Geographic Traveller website