The National Cartoonists Society is an organization of professional cartoonists in the United States. It presents the National Cartoonists Society Awards; the Society was born in 1946. They decided to meet on a regular basis. NCS members work in many branches of the profession, including advertising, newspaper comic strips and syndicated single-panel cartoons, comic books, editorial cartoons, gag cartoons, graphic novels, greeting cards and book illustration. Only has the National Cartoonists Society embraced web comics. Membership is limited to established professional cartoonists, with a few exceptions of outstanding persons in affiliated fields; the NCS is not a labor union. The organization's stated primary purposes are "to advance the ideals and standards of professional cartooning in its many forms", "to promote and foster a social and intellectual interchange among professional cartoonists of all types" and "to stimulate and encourage interest in and acceptance of the art of cartooning by aspiring cartoonists and the general public."
The National Cartoonists Society had its origins during World War II when cartoonists Gus Edson, Otto Soglow, Clarence D. Russell, Bob Dunn and others did chalk talks at hospitals for the USO in 1943. Edson recalled, “We played two spots. Fort Hamilton and Governor’s Island, and we quit the USO.” They were lured away by former Rockette Toni Mendez. When she learned of these chalk talks, she recruited the cartoonists to do shows for the Hospital Committee of the American Theatre Wing. Beginning with a performance emceed by humor columnist Bugs Baer at Halloran Hospital on Staten Island, these shows were produced and directed by Mendez; the group expanded to junkets on military transport planes, flying to military bases along the southeastern seaboard. On one of those flights, Russell proposed a club to Rube Goldberg and others so the group could still get together after WWII ended. Mendez recalled: He said, "Everybody has a club or an association or some kind—lumber jacks, rug weavers garbage collectors—so I don’t see why we can’t have one, too."
All during the flight, Rube kept saying, "No—leave us alone. C. D. turned to me and he said, "And no girls. Only boys." And he went down the aisle of the plane, repeating that this club would be just for boys. The Society was organized on a Friday evening, March 1, 1946, when 26 cartoonists gathered at 7pm in the Barberry Room on East 52nd Street in Manhattan. After drinks and dinner, they voted to determine a name for their new organization, it was known as The Cartoonists Society. Goldberg was elected president with Russell Patterson as vice president, C. D. Russell as secretary and Milton Caniff, treasurer. Soglow was added as second vice president. Mendez functioned as the Society's trouble-shooter and became an agent representing more than 50 cartoonists; the 26 founding members came from the group of 32 members who had paid dues by March 13, including strip cartoonists Wally Bishop, Martin Branner, Ernie Bushmiller, Milton Caniff, Gus Edson, Ham Fisher, Harry Haenigsen, Fred Harman, Bill Holman, Jay Irving, Stan MacGovern, Al Posen, Clarence Russell, Otto Soglow, Jack Sparling, Raeburn Van Buren, Dow Walling and Frank Willard.
Among the early 32 members were syndicated panel cartoonists Dave Breger, George Clark, Bob Dunn and Jimmy Hatlo. Yardley. More members joined by mid-May 1946, including Harold Gray and the Society’s first animator, Paul Terry, followed in the summer by letterer Frank Engli, Bela Zaboly, Al Capp and Ray Bailey. By March 1947, the NCS had 112 members, including Bud Fisher, Don Flowers, Bob Kane, Fred Lasswell, George Lichty, Zack Mosley, Alex Raymond, Cliff Sterrett and Chic Young, plus editorial cartoonists Reg Manning and Fred O. Seibel and sports cartoonist Willard Mullin. Marge Devine Duffy, a secretary in King Features public relations department, had been helping Russell handle correspondence to the NCS, in 1948, she was installed as the official NCS secretary and given the title Scribe of the Society, her name was on all the Society’s publications, her address was the permanent mailing address of the NCS for more than 30 years. As the organizing secretary, she handled agendas and publicity.
“She ran the damn thing,” Caniff recalled. “A real autocrat, everyone was delighted to have her be an autocrat because that’s what we needed.”In the fall of 1949, the NCS cooperated with Treasury Department to sell savings bonds, engaging in a nationwide tour to 17 major cities with a team of 10 to 12 cartoonists and a traveling display, 20,000 Years of Comics, a 95-foot pictorial history of the comic strip. Despite the contributions of Duffy and Mendez, there were no female
Senegambia the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal and its neighbour The Gambia, completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981, it was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia refused to move closer toward union. The Senegambia Confederation should not be confused with the historic Senegambia region shortened to Senegambia; as a political unit, Senegambia was created by duelling French and English colonial forces in the region. Competition between the French and the English started in the 16th century when both started to establish trading centres. Although there was some overlap in their areas of influence, French trade centred on the Senegal River and in the Cap-Vert region and English trade on the Gambia River.
The region became more important for both growing empires because West Africa allowed a convenient waystation for trade between Europe and the respective American colonies. As colonialism became more lucrative after the development of the Thirteen Colonies, New France, sugar plantations in the Caribbean and France took greater measures to define their spheres of influence in West Africa. From 1500 to 1758, the two powers used their naval power to try to remove each other from the region. In 1758, during the Seven Years' War based in Europe, the British captured major French trading bases along the Senegal River area and formed the first Senegambia as a crown colony; the unified region collapsed in 1779. With the British occupied by the American War of Independence in North America, the French recaptured Saint Louis and burned the major British settlement in the Gambia region; the unified region ended in 1783 in the aftermath of the British defeat by and independence of the United States. The Treaty of Versailles created a balance between France and Britain: Saint Louis, l'île de Gorée and the Senegal River region were restored to France, the Gambia was left to the British.
In the 1860s and 1870s, both nations began to consider a land-trading proposal to unify the region, with the French trading another West African holding for the Gambia, but the exchange was never completed. Although the areas were ruled by separate, competing powers, they did not determine an official border between the French and British Senegambian colonies until 1889. At the time, France agreed to accept the current border between the two countries and remove its border trading posts; this decision resulted in the future Senegal and The Gambia sharing a large problem: how to maintain two separate countries in a region with shared yet diverse cultural values, one nation surrounded by another. For each country, the lock and key border situation has posed unique problems for international relations in trade and control of regions surrounding the Senegal–Gambia border. One of the greatest problems for both countries is the ease with which violence could spread through the region. With shared ethnic communities on both sides of the border, a successful coup in one country could lead to a group of sympathizers in the other, bringing danger to the democratic regimes of both countries.
This fear was realized during the 1981 coup attempt to oust President Dawda Jawara of the Gambia. Senegal's pro-Western stance increased its security worries since its neighboring countries might use the Gambia, secessionists in the Casamance region, or other dissident groups to destabilize the Senegalese government. Specific threats came from Kwame Nkrumah's Ghana, Moussa Traoré's Mali, Ahmed Sekou Touré's Guinea, João Bernardo Vieira's Guinea-Bissau, Muammar al-Gaddafi's Libya. While the Senegalese government speculated about some dangers, in the late 1980s it had border skirmishes with Mauritania. After the coup attempt, the government realized that its military forces were not adequate to stop, or prevent, political upheaval. Security of the region was becoming more difficult to maintain. Since the end of colonization, the Senegalese government had maintained trade barriers that provided preferential treatment for French goods imported into the country, while the Gambia had no trade barriers.
The opposing trade policies fueled a large black market around the Senegal–Gambia border, which brought cheaper manufactured goods into Senegal. The black market attracted an export drain into the Gambia; the Senegalese government began to institute a delayed payment system with its groundnut farms. When farmers sold their harvest to the Senegalese government, they would get a voucher, known as a chit, which they could turn into cash after a three-month waiting period. Not wanting to wait for the Senegalese marketing system to pay them, more farmers began to smuggle their goods to Banjul, where the Gambian government paid in cash. In the short term, the Senegambia Confederation was a pragmatic union based on a mutual security interest; as noted, the Senegalese government feared national instability caused by uprisings in either the Gambia or the Casamance region. This fear nearly became reality on 30 July 1981. At the request of President Jawara, the Senegalese army entered th
Advanced steam technology reflects an approach to the technical development of the steam engine intended for a wider variety of applications than has been the case. Particular attention has been given to endemic problems that led to the demise of steam power in small- to medium-scale commercial applications: excessive pollution, maintenance costs, labour-intensive operation, low power/weight ratio, low overall thermal efficiency; the only steam installations that are in widespread use are the efficient thermal power plants used for generating electricity on a large scale. In contrast, the proposed steam engines may be for stationary, rail or marine use. Although most references to "Modern Steam" apply to developments since the 1970s, certain aspects of advanced steam technology can be discerned throughout the 20th century, notably automatic boiler control along with rapid startup. In 1922 Abner Doble developed an electro-mechanical system that reacted to steam temperature and pressure and stopping the feed pumps whilst igniting and cutting out the burner according to boiler pressure.
The contraflow monotube boiler had a working pressure of 750 psi to 1,200 psi but contained so little water in circulation as to present no risk of explosion. This type of boiler was continuously developed in the US, Britain and Germany throughout the 1930s and into the 1950s for use in cars, trucks, shunting locomotives, a speedboat and in 1933, a converted Travel Air 2000 biplane. In the UK, Sentinel Waggon Works developed a vertical water-tube boiler running at 275 psi, used in road vehicles, shunting locomotives and railcars. Steam could be raised much more than with a conventional locomotive boiler. Trials of the Anderson condensing system on the Southern Railway took place between 1930 and 1935. Condensing apparatus has not been used on steam locomotives, because of the additional complexity and weight, but it offers four potential advantages: Improved thermal efficiency Reduced water consumption Reduced boiler maintenance for limescale removal Reduced noiseThe Anderson condensing system uses a process known as mechanical vapor recompression.
It was devised by Harry Percival Harvey Anderson. The theory was that, by removing around 600 of the 970 British thermal units present in each pound of steam, it would be possible to return the exhaust steam to the boiler by a pump which would consume only 1-2% of the engine's power output. Between 1925 and 1927 Anderson, another Glasgow engineer John McCullum, conducted experiments on a stationary steam plant with encouraging results. A company, Steam Heat Conservation, was formed and a demonstration of Anderson's system was arranged at Surbiton Electricity Generating Station. SHC was interested in applying the system to a railway locomotive and contacted Richard Maunsell of the Southern Railway. Maunsell requested that a controlled test be carried out at Surbiton and this was done about 1929. Maunsell's technical assistant, Harold Holcroft, was present and a fuel saving of 29% was recorded, compared to conventional atmospheric working; the Southern Railway converted SECR N class locomotive number A816 to the Anderson system in 1930.
The locomotive underwent initial results were encouraging. After an uphill trial from Eastleigh to Litchfield Summit, Holcroft is reported as saying: "In the ordinary way this would have created much noise and clouds of steam, but with the condensing set in action it was all absorbed with the ease with which snow would melt in a furnace! The engine was as silent as an electric locomotive and the only faint noises were due to slight pounding of the rods and a small blow at a piston gland; this had to be experienced to be believed. The trials continued until 1934 but various problems arose and the project went no further; the locomotive was converted back to standard form in 1935. The work of French mechanical engineer Andre Chapelon in applying scientific analysis and a strive for thermal efficiency was an early example of advanced steam technology. Chapelon's protégé Livio Dante Porta continued Chapelon's work. Postwar in the late 1940s and 1950s some designers worked on modernising steam locomotives.
The Argentinian engineer Livio Dante Porta in the development of Stephensonian railway locomotives incorporating advanced steam technology was a precursor of the'Modern Steam' movement from 1948. Where possible, Porta much preferred to design new locomotives, but more in practice he was forced to radically update old ones to incorporate the new technology. In Britain the SR Leader class of c. 1949 by Oliver Bulleid and the British Rail ‘Standard’ class steam locomotives of the 1950s by Robert Riddles the BR Standard Class 9F, were used to trial new steam locomotive design features, including the Franco-Crosti boiler. On moving to Ireland, Bulleid designed CIÉ No. CC1 which had many novel features; the Sir Biscoe Tritton Lecture, given by Roger Waller, of the DLM company to the Institute of Mechanical Engineers in 2003 gives an idea of how problems in steam power are being addressed. Waller refers to some rack and pinion mountain railway locomotives that were newly built from 1992-98, they were developed for three companies in Switzerland and