Central Bank of Argentina
The Central Bank of the Argentine Republic is the central bank of Argentina. Established by six Acts of Congress enacted on May 28, 1935, the bank replaced Argentina's currency board, in operation since 1899, its first president was Ernesto Bosch, who served in that capacity from 1935 to 1945. The Central Bank's headquarters on San Martín Street, was designed in 1872 by architects Henry Hunt and Hans Schroeder. Completed in 1876, the Italian Renaissance-inspired building housed the Mortgage Bank of the Province of Buenos Aires; the Central Bank's offices were transferred to an adjacent address upon its establishment, were expanded to their present size by the purchase of the Mortgage Bank building in 1940, as well as by the construction of a twin building behind it. Drawing from a 1933 study on Argentine finance by Bank of England director Sir Otto Niemeyer, the institution's charter was drafted by Argentine economist Raúl Prebisch; the Central Bank was a private entity during its first decade, British Empire interests held a majority stake.
Pursuant to the Roca–Runciman Treaty of 1933, Central Bank reserves accrued from Argentine trade surpluses with the United Kingdom were deposited in escrow at the Bank of England, this clause, which had led to nearly US$1 billion in inaccessible reserves by 1945, prompted the BCRA's nationalization by order of Juan Perón on March 24, 1946. Subordinate to the Economy Ministry in matters of policy, the Central Bank took a more prominent role during the Latin American debt crisis when, in April 1980, it enacted Circular 1050; this measure, enacted to shield the financial sector from the cost of receiving payments in devalued pesos, bankrupted thousands of homeowners and businesses by indexing mortgages to the value of the US dollar locally, which had risen around fifteenfold by July 1982 when Central Bank President Domingo Cavallo rescinded the policy. During the years of Cavallo's Convertibility Law, which established a 1:1 fixed exchange rate between the Argentine peso and the United States dollar on April 1, 1991, the BCRA was in charge of keeping foreign currency reserves in synch with the monetary base.
The policy deprived the Central Bank of exchange-rate flexibility and ended at the depth of a record economic crisis a decade later. The repeal of the Convertibility Law in January 2002 was accompanied by a 70% devaluation and depreciation of the peso to nearly 4 pesos, the Central Bank's role afterward was the accumulation of reserves in order to gain a measure of control of the exchange rate; the BCRA buys and sells dollars from the market as needed to absorb large foreign trade surpluses and keep the official exchange rate at internationally competitive levels for Argentine exports and to encourage import substitution. As part of a wider debt restructuring effort that brought Argentina out of its default three years earlier, in December 2005 President Néstor Kirchner announced the payment of Argentina's IMF debts in a single, anticipated disbursement; the payment was effected on January 2006, employing about US$9.8 billion from BCRA reserves. This decreased the amount of reserves by one third, but did not cause adverse monetary effects, save from an increased reliance on the local bond market, which requires somewhat higher interest rates.
The BCRA continued to intervene in the exchange market buying dollars, though selling small amounts. Its reserves reached US$28 billion in September 2006, recovering the levels prior to the IMF payment, rose to US$32 billion at the close of the year; the exchange rate was maintained undervalued, prompted by the BCRA's market intervention as a buyer. While fiscal policy remained tight, monetary policy was expansionary with growth in Argentina's money supply of over 23% annually from 2003 to 2007. Citing its disapproval of this policy, the influential Global Finance magazine gave Martín Redrado, President of the Central Bank, a D grade in its October 2006 survey of global central bankers; the magazine held that Redrado "missed the opportunity to act to curb inflation when the economy was expanding at its fastest, with inflation expected to reach 12% in 2006, up from 7.7% in 2005 and 4.4% in 2004." Price controls helped keep inflation that year to 9.8%, though the public's perception of it was higher due to the sample composition used to measure the index.
The BCRA, obtained exceptionally high returns on investment funded by its reserves, for a total of US$1.4 billion in 2006, continued to do so in subsequent years. Fallout from the 2008 financial crisis forced President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's administration to seek domestic financing for growing public spending, as well as for foreign debt service obligations; the president ordered a US$6.7 billion account opened at the Central Bank for the latter purpose in December 2009, implying the use of the Central Bank's foreign exchange reserves, drawing direct opposition from Redrado. He was dismissed by presidential decree on January 7, 2010
Inauguration of Mauricio Macri
The inauguration of Mauricio Macri as president of Argentina took place on December 10, 2015. It followed a rocky presidential transition and a dispute over ceremonial protocol between outgoing president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner and president-elect Mauricio Macri. Macri was elected president in the 2015 general elections, defeating Kirchnerist candidate Daniel Scioli, he met President Kirchner at the Quinta de Olivos a few days later. The meeting was focused on discussing the oath of office ceremony. In a part of that ceremony, the outgoing president hands the presidential sash and staff to the new president, as symbols of his presidential authority. Macri said. A few days it was announced that the whole ceremony would take place in the Argentine Congress, arguing that the Argentine Constitution orders that the oath of office must take place there. Macri agreed to make the oath of office in the Congress, but thought that he should move to the Casa Rosada across the Avenida de Mayo and receive the sash and staff from Cristina at the White Hall, as was traditionally done.
He argued. Kirchner wanted to fill the auditorium of the Congress with her sympathizers, who would jeer at Macri during the ceremony. Emilio Monzó, the incoming president of the Chamber of Deputies, said of the matter, "Historically inauguration day is when the people celebrate the incoming president, not the one who's leaving." The White Hall, a closed hall, was not suitable for that purpose. Additionally, Kirchner, in 2007 and 2011, her late husband Néstor Kirchner in 2003, were sworn in and received the presidential sash and staff in Congress, as was Eduardo Duhalde, selected president in 2002 by Congress. Kirchner associated the White Hall with presidents from Argentina's 1976–83 military dictatorship. Cristina Kirchner proposed to hold the oath of office in the Congress, leave the sash and staff in there, leave; this proposal was not accepted. Macri proposed that, if Kirchner refused to attend the ceremony at the Casa Rosada, he could receive the symbols from Ricardo Lorenzetti, president of the Supreme Court of Argentina.
Macri and Kirchner attempted to come to an agreement, to no avail. Kirchner claimed that Macri was rude and violent with her, stating that at one point during the call, "I had to remind him that beyond our offices, he is a man and I am a woman, I did not deserve to be treated as I was." She went out of her way to remind Macri that "December 10 is not your birthday, but rather the day when you become the president of all Argentines in a democratic system." Incoming vice president Gabriela Michetti cast doubt on her remarks, noting that Macri is a person "whom we've never heard raising his tone of voice". It was claimed that Kirchnerist organizations announced that they would take violent action against Macri supporters in the vicinity of the Plaza during the ceremony. While these rumors were denied within the government, with the security secretary stating that all necessary measures were being taken to prevent confrontations, by Milagro Sala, leader of the Organización Barrial Túpac Amaru, the rumors led to another dispute, as it was unclear who would have command over the police during the event.
Judge María Servini de Cubría ruled that Kirchner's term of office ceased at midnight on December 10. As a result, Federico Pinedo, the provisional president of the Senate, was in charge of the executive branch in the 12 hours between the end of Kirchner's term and Macri's swearing in. Kirchner left Buenos Aires in order to attend the inauguration of her sister-in-law Alicia Kirchner as governor of Santa Cruz Province, which took place the same day. International reaction to the dispute was noteworthy; the Chilean newspaper La Tercera noted that the scandal brought into relief "the weakness of Argentina's institutions", while El Tiempo of Colombia wrote that the dispute developed "in a context of strong political conflict". Macri took office on December 10, 2015, he began the ceremony at his apartment in the neighborhood of Recoleta at the corner of Avenida del Libertador and Cavia at 11:00am. He moved to the National Congress of Argentina with his wife Juliana Awada and his youngest daughter.
At 11:41 he entered the Legislature, taking the oath of office along with Vice President Gabriela Michetti. He delivered a 27-minute address in which he pledged his support for an independent judiciary, the fight against corruption and drug trafficking, universal social services, he greeted his competitors during the presidential elections. He moved to the Casa Rosada, where he received the presidential sash and staff in the White Hall from acting president Pinedo, accompanied by Vice President Michetti, President of the Chamber of Deputies Emilio Monzó, President of the Supreme Court Ricardo Lorenzetti. Present were the former presidents Fernando de la Rúa, Ramón Puerta, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Eduardo Duhalde. Minutes Macri delivered an address from the Casa Rosada's historic balcony to a crowd assembled in the Plaza de Mayo, promising to "always tell the truth, always be honest" and calling on the public to aid him running the country and to let him know if he were to make a mistake. After being declared president, he gave a reception at the San Martín Palace, the headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship, to all the heads of state present: Michelle Bachelet from Chile, Horacio Cartes from Paraguay, Juan Manuel Santos from Colombia, Rafael Correa from Ecuador, Evo Morales from Bolivia, Dilma Rousseff from Brazil, representatives of other countries attending his inauguration.
Juan Carlos I from Spain represented his home country and his son, Felipe VI. Juan C
Workers' Left Front
The Workers' Left Front is an alliance of three Trotskyist parties in Argentina formed to fight a number of elections in 2011, announced at a press conference in April that year. They are the Workers' Party, the Socialist Workers' Party, Socialist Left; these parties had stood separately at the Argentine elections of 2007 and 2009, the PO on its own, the PTS and IS in an alliance with the Movement for Socialism. At these two elections the PO did better than the PTS-IS-MAS alliance, in 2009 both groupings increased their vote in proportion to their vote in 2007. On 12 June they won a provincial deputy in Neuquén Province with 3.60% of the vote. The post will be held in rotation by Alejandro López, Raúl Godoy, Angélica Lagunas and Gabriela Suppicich. On 24 July, in the town of Capitán Bermúdez in Santa Fe Province, the PO had a councillor elected, Jorgelina Signa, with 17% of the vote. On 7 August Liliana Olivero of IS was re-elected to the Córdoba provincial legislature, this post will be rotated with Cintia Frencia and Laura Vilches.
The list won 3.12% of the vote, this was concentrated in the provincial capital where it won 5.45%. They stood Jorge Altamira of the PO for president and Christian Castillo of the PTS for vice-president on 23 October. On 14 August Altamira and Castillo won 2.46 %, in a primary election. On 23 October 2011 they came close to winning a national deputy in two areas. In Buenos Aires city their vote was only 0.2% short. In Buenos Aires Province their share of the vote would have entitled them to a deputy, but they fell at a second hurdle where they needed to win 3% of the number of voters on the electoral register; the Front mounted a legal challenge to this hurdle. The Front participated in mobilisations in June 2012. In 2013 it put forward proposals to limit officials' salaries; the Front contested the election for Neuquén city council on 30 June 2013. It won 5.7% of the vote, around double its vote for this election in 2011, in line with its vote in the provincial election that year. Soon after it announced its candidates for the national election.
At the primary elections on 11 August 2013 the Front won over 900 000 votes close to doubling its vote compared to 2011. It increased its vote in nearly all provinces, in some provinces picking up a significant vote from nowhere, an exception was Buenos Aires city where its vote was down marginally on 2011. On 6 October the PO had a strong performance in provincial primary elections in Salta Province, winning 22% in Salta city. At the main election on 27 October they won over a million votes, 5.11%, more than double their vote in 2011. They won three national deputies: Néstor Pitrola in Buenos Aires Province, Pablo Sebastián López in Salta and Nicolás del Caño in Mendoza. There was a challenge to the result in Córdoba Province, they won three provincial deputies and a provincial senator in Mendoza, one provincial deputy in each of Buenos Aires City, Buenos Aires Province and Santiago del Estero, five new councillors, all in towns in Mendoza Province. On 10 November the PO had a serious success in provincial elections in Salta Province, winning a provincial senator and four provincial deputies all elected in the provincial capital.
They won 17 councilors, including 9 out of the 21 seats on Salta city council, where the PO is now the largest party. On 29 January the Front registered its alliance to contest the municipal election in Mendoza Province. In Mendoza, Argentina the list was headed by Macarena Escudero, a student, followed by Soledad Sosa and Andrés Elías; the PO headed the list in Mendoza. On 30 March the Front received 13.5% of the vote in Mendoza city, so Macarena Escudero was elected as a councillor. The Front's first election of 2015 was local primary elections on 22 February in Mendoza; the Front came 2nd with 16% of the vote, Andrés Elías is predicted to be elected as a city councilor. In April it won a second provincial deputy in Neuquén; the seats will be held by Patricia Jure, to be followed by Angélica Lagunas. It won a councilor in the town of Andacollo for the first time. In June in Mendoza Province Macarena Escudero was elected as a provincial deputy, Víctor da Vila was elected as a provincial senator.
In the presidential elections, two formulas competed in the primaries in August: one represented by Nicolas del Caño and Myriam Bregman against another composed of Jorge Altamira and Juan Carlos Giordano. The PTS formula won, with 375.874 votes against 356.977 of the PO+IS one, both adding up to a 3,25% of the total vote. On the main elections in October, Nestor Pitrola was elected as a national deputy for the Buenos Aires province, becoming the fourth Workers' Left Front deputy in the chamber, while the presidential formula headed by Del Caño got 812.530 votes, a 3.23% of the total. United Socialist Workers' Party Workers' Socialist Movement PO article PTS article Programme of the Workers' Left Front Castillo on result of primary elections Manifesto for the 2013 election Front's election bulletin page Map of performance at August 2013 primaries Map of performanc
The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina. The National Senate was established by the Argentine Confederation on July 29, 1854, pursuant to Articles 46 to 54 of the 1853 Constitution. There are three for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the number of senators per province was raised from two to three following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, the change took effect following the May 14, 1995, general elections. Senators are elected to six-year terms by direct election on a provincial basis, with the party with the most votes being awarded two of the province's senate seats and the second-place party receiving the third seat. Senators were indirectly elected to nine-year terms by each provincial legislature; these provisions were abrogated by a 1994 constitutional amendment, direct elections to the Senate took effect in 2001. One-third of the members are elected every two years. One-third of the provinces hold senatorial elections every two years.
The Vice President of the Republic is ex officio President of the Senate, with a casting vote in the event of a tie. In practice, the Provisional President presides over the chamber most of the time; the Senate must obtain this being an absolute majority. It has the power to approve bills passed by the Chamber of Deputies, call for joint sessions with the Lower House or special sessions with experts and interested parties, submit bills for the president's signature; the Senate must introduce any changes to federal revenue sharing policies, ratify international treaties, approve changes to constitutional or federal criminal laws, as well as confirm or impeach presidential nominees to the cabinet, the judiciary, the armed forces, the diplomatic corps, among other federal posts. There are twenty-four standing committees made up of fifteen members each, namely: Agreements Constitutional Affairs Foreign Affairs and Worship Justice and Criminal Affairs General Legislation Budget and Finance Administrative and Municipal Affairs National Defense Domestic Security and Drug Trafficking National Economy and Investment Industry and Trade Regional Economies, Micro and Medium Enterprises Labor and Social Security Agriculture, Cattle Raising and Fishing Education, Culture and Technology Rights and Guarantees Mining and Fuels Health and Sports Infrastructure and Transport Systems and Freedom of Speech Environment and Human Development Population and Human Development Federal Revenue Sharing Tourism.
According to Section 55 of the Argentine Constitution, candidates for the Argentine Senate must: be at least 30 years old have been a citizen of Argentina for six years be native to the province of his office, or have been a resident of that province for two years. See List of current members of the Argentine SenateAll data from official website; the current members of the Senate were elected in 2013, 2015 and 2017. The titular President of the Senate is the Vice President of Argentina. However, day to day leadership of the Senate is exercised by the Provisional President. Current leadership positions include: List of current Argentine senators Argentine Chamber of Deputies List of former Argentine Senators List of legislatures by country senado.gov.ar – Senate of Argentina
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses; as of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures. The members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country; this can lead to the two chambers having different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature; when this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism; some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature. The idea was to have the Senate be wiser. Benjamin Rush saw this though, noted that "this type of dominion is always connected with opulence"; the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more deliberate—a sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the "fickleness and passion" that could absorb the House, he noted further that "The use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with more system and with more wisdom, than the popular branch." Madison's argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness and caution were deemed important. State legislators chose the Senate, senators had to possess significant property to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In 1913, the 17th Amendment passed, which mandated choosing Senators by popular vote rather than State legislatures.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had states represented and the House had them represented by population. The British Parliament is referred to as the Mother of Parliaments because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have organised parliaments with a ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house, a smaller upper house. A formidable sinister interest may always obtain the complete command of a dominant assembly by some chance and for a moment, it is therefore of great use to have a second chamber of an opposite sort, differently composed, in which that interest in all likelihood will not rule. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have adopted it, the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
The older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Senate of Canada or the election of the Senate of France; the relationship between the two chambers varies. The first tends to be those with presidential governments; the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. There are two streams of thought: Critics believe bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of gridlock—particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers—while proponents argue the merits of the "checks and balances" provided by the bicameral model, which they believe help prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Formal communication between houses is by various methods, including: Sending messages Formal notices, such as of resolutions or the passing of bills done in writing, via the clerk and speaker of each house Transmission of bills or amendment to bills requiring agreement from the other house Joint session a plenary session of both houses at the same time and place. Joint committees which may be formed by committees of each house agreeing to join, or by joint resolution of each house Conferences Conferences of the Houses of the English Parliament met in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. There were a distinction between an "ordinary conference" and a "free conference". A "free conference" meets in private to resolve a dispute; the last fr
Transport in Argentina
Transport in Argentina is based on a complex network of routes, crossed by inexpensive long-distance buses and by cargo trucks. The country has a number of national and international airports; the importance of the long-distance train is minor today, though in the past it was used and is now regaining momentum after the re-nationalisation of the country's commuter and freight networks. Fluvial transport is used for cargo. Within the urban areas, the main transportation system is by the colectivo. Buenos Aires additionally has an underground, the only one in the country, Greater Buenos Aires is serviced by a system of suburban trains. A majority of people employ public transport rather than personal cars to move around in the cities in common business hours, since parking can be both difficult and expensive. Cycling is becoming common big cities as a result of a growing network of cycling lanes in Cities like Buenos Aires and Rosario; the Colectivo cover the cities with numerous lines. Fares might be fixed for the whole city.
Colectivos cross municipal borders into the corresponding metropolitan areas. In some cases there are diferenciales which are faster, notably more expensive. Bus lines in a given city might be run by different private companies and/or by the municipal state, they might be painted in different colours for easier identification; the city of Buenos Aires has in recent years been expanding its Metrobus BRT system to compliment its existing Underground network and it is estimated that, along with other measures, it will increase the city's use of public transport by 30 percent. Taxis are common and accessible price-wise, they have different colours and fares in different cities, though a contrasted black-and-yellow design is common to the largest conurbations. Call-taxi companies are common, while the remisse is another form of hired transport: they are much like call-taxis, but do not share a common design, trip fares are agreed beforehand instead of using the meter. Although, there are fixed prices for common destinations.
Suburban trains connect Buenos Aires city with the Greater Buenos Aires area. Every weekday, more than 1.4 million people commute to the Argentine capital for work and other business. These suburban trains work between 4 AM and 1 AM; the busiest lines are electric, several are diesel powered, while some of these are being electrified, while the rolling stock is being replaced across the city. Until Trenes de Buenos Aires, UGOFE, Ferrovías and Metrovías were some of the private companies which provided suburban passenger services in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. However, with the modernisation and re-nationalisation of these services, many of these companies have had their contracts terminated or have been absorbed into Trenes Argentinos, though as of 2015 some private operators such as Metrovías do remain. Other cities in Argentina with a system of suburban trains include Resistencia, Paraná and Mendoza, home to the Metrotranvía Mendoza - an urban light rail network. A commuter rail network for Córdoba is planned to complement the existing Tren de las Sierras which runs through the city and to nearby towns and villages.
As of 2015, Buenos Aires is the only Argentine city with an underground metro system, nonetheless there is a project to build a system in the city of Córdoba making it the second underground system in Argentina. The Buenos Aires Underground has six lines, each labelled with a letter from A to H, though 3 more lines are planned. A modern tram line line E2 works as a feeder to Underground Line E at their outer terminus as well as the Urquiza Line for Underground Line B in Chacarita. Daily ridership is 1.3 million and on the increase. Most of the lines of the Buenos Aires Undergrounds connect the city centre with areas in the outskirts of the city proper, though none go outside the city limits to Greater Buenos Aires. In recent years, the Underground has seen a gradual expansion, with lines H, B and A seeing extensions; as of 2015, the extension of lines E and H are under construction, with work commenced on the new line F and two additional lines planned. The rolling stock has been replaced in recent years and there are further plans to modernise.
Trams, once common, were retired as public transportation in the 1960s but are now in the stages of a slow comeback. In 1987 a modern tram line was opened as a feeder for the underground system. A modern light rail line between the Bartolomé Mitre suburban railway station and Tigre inaugurated in 1996 operates in the northern suburbs. A 2-kilometre tram known as the Tranvía del Este was inaugurated 2007 in the Puerto Madero district of Buenos Aires using loaned French Citadis trams, but plans for its extension never came to fruition, declining patronage led the line's closure in 2012. Trams were once common in Buenos Aires, with the city having a large 875 km tramway network and the largest tramway-to-population ratio the world, which gained it notoriety as "the city of trams" across the world; the first trams began operating in the 1860s, however by the 1960s the network was dismantled and replaced by buses. There is a Heritage Tramway maintained by enthusiasts that operates a large collection of vintage trams on weekends, nea