Frontline (U.S. TV program)
Frontline is the flagship investigative journalism program of the Public Broadcasting Service, producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, broadcasting them on air and online. Produced at WGBH-TV in Boston and distributed through PBS in the United States, the critically acclaimed program has received every major award in broadcast journalism, its investigations have helped breathe new life into terrorism cold cases, freed innocent people from jail, prompted U. N. resolutions, spurred both policy and social change. Since the program's debut in 1983, Frontline has broadcast for 35 seasons, producing over 600 documentaries from both in-house and independent filmmakers; the program has produced original digital reporting and analysis, worked to innovate the documentary form through interactive documentaries and virtual reality journalism projects. More than 200 Frontline documentaries are available on the program's website, with new Frontline documentaries made available for free online streaming at the same time as their PBS television broadcast.
The program debuted in 1983, with NBC anchorwoman Jessica Savitch as the show's first host, but Savitch died after the first-season finale. PBS NewsHour's Judy Woodruff took over as host in 1984, hosted the program for five years, combining her job with a sub anchor place on The MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour when Jim Lehrer was away. In 1990, episodes of Frontline began airing without a host, the narrator was left to introduce each episode. Since 1988, Frontline has aired "The Choice"—a special edition aired during the lead-up to the presidential election every four years, focusing on the Democratic and Republican candidates contending for the office of President of the United States. "The Choice 2016" is the most recent installment, aired on September 27, 2016, featuring Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. The previous version aired on October 9, 2012, featured a dual biography tracing the lives and careers of incumbent President Barack Obama and his challenger, Mitt Romney. A prior installment aired on October 14, 2008, using the same dual-biography format for Barack Obama and John McCain.
The 2008 documentary, produced by Michael Kirk, generated favorable reviews from The New York Times, which stated that the program helped viewers "gain perspective" about the "idea-oriented campaign", Los Angeles Times, which labeled it "refreshingly clear" and "informative". Most Frontline reports are an hour in length, but some are extended to 90 minutes, 2 hours, or beyond. Frontline produces and transmits such occasional specials as From Jesus to Christ, The Farmer's Wife, Country Boys. Since 1995, Frontline has been producing deep-content, companion web sites for all of its documentaries; the program publishes extended interview transcripts, in-depth chronologies, original essays, sidebar stories, related links and readings, source documents including photographs and background research. Frontline has made many of its documentaries available via streaming Internet video, from its website. Will Lyman is the distinctive voice who has narrated most of the installments of the program since its inception in 1983.
However, certain reports have been narrated by David Ogden Peter Berkrot. The show is produced by the WGBH Educational Foundation, the parent company of WGBH-TV in Boston, responsible for its content. WGBH is the creator of The Documentary Consortium, with another 4 PBS stations, including WNET in New York and KCTS in Seattle. In 2015, the creator and founding executive producer of Frontline, David Fanning, retired after more than 32 years as executive producer of the program, Raney Aronson-Rath succeeded him in senior grade. Fanning, remains editor-at-large of Frontline as a founding member. On September 14, 2017, the program launched; the podcast is a production of PBS and WGBH in Boston alongside PRX. Frontline/World is a spin-off program from Frontline, first transmitted on May 23, 2002, transmitted four to eight times a year on Frontline until it was canceled in 2010, it focused on issues from around the globe, used a "magazine" format, where each hour-long episode had three stories that ran about 15 to 20 minutes in length.
Its tagline was: Stories from a small planet. A co-production of WGBH, Boston and KQED, San Francisco, Frontline/World was based in part at the University of California at Berkeley's Graduate School of Journalism, where the program's producers recruited a new generation of reporters and producers to the Frontline program. Frontline/World streamed stories on its website, which won two Webby awards in 2008 for its original program of online videos called "Rough Cuts." In 2005, the Overseas Press Club of America gave the program its Edward R. Murrow Award for the best TV coverage of international events, citing producers David Fanning, Stephen Talbot, Sharon Tiller and Ken Dornstein; the program broke new ground in 2007 by winning two Emmys. Other Frontline reports focus on political and criminal justice issues. Ofra Bikel, a producer for Frontline since the first season, has produced a significant number of films on the criminal justice system in the United States; the films have focused on issues ranging from post-conviction DNA testing, the use of drug snitches and mandatory minimum sentencing laws, the plea system, the use of eyewitness testimony.
As a result of the films, 13 people have been released from prison. After the September 11 attacks, the White House requested a copy of "Hunting Bin Laden". In 1999, Frontlin
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Kinescope, shortened to kine known as telerecording in Britain, is a recording of a television program on motion picture film, directly through a lens focused on the screen of a video monitor. The process was pioneered during the 1940s for the preservation, re-broadcasting and sale of television programmes before the use of commercial broadcast-quality videotape became prevalent for these purposes; the term can refer to the process itself, the equipment used for the procedure, or a film made using the process. Kinescopes were the only practical way to preserve live television broadcasts prior to the introduction of videotape in 1956. A small number of theatrically released feature films have been produced as kinescopes; the term kinescope referred to the cathode ray tube used in television receivers, as named by inventor Vladimir K. Zworykin in 1929. Hence, the recordings were known in kinescope recordings. RCA was granted a trademark for the term in 1932; the General Electric laboratories in Schenectady, New York experimented with making still and motion picture records of television images in 1931.
There is some evidence to suggest that the BBC experimented with filming the output of the television monitor before its television service was suspended in 1939 due to the outbreak of World War II. A BBC executive, Cecil Madden recalled filming a production of The Scarlet Pimpernel in this way, only for film director Alexander Korda to order the burning of the negative as he owned the film rights to the book, which he felt had been infringed. However, the evidence for this is purely anecdotal, indeed there is no written record of any BBC Television production of The Scarlet Pimpernel during the 1936–1939 period; the incident is, dramatised in Jack Rosenthal's 1986 television play The Fools on the Hill. Some of the surviving live transmissions of the Nazi German television station Fernsehsender Paul Nipkow, dating as far back as the 1930s, were recorded by pointing a 35mm camera to a receiver's screen, although most surviving Nazi live television programs such as the 1936 Summer Olympics, a number of Nuremberg Rallies, or official state visits were shot directly on 35mm instead and transmitted over the air as a television signal, with only a two minutes' delay from the original event, by means of the so-called Zwischenfilmverfahren from an early outside broadcast van on the site.
According to a 1949 film produced by RCA, silent films had been made of early experimental telecasts during the 1930s. The films were produced by aiming a camera at television monitors - at a speed of eight frames per second, resulting in somewhat jerky reproductions of the images. By the mid-1940s, RCA and NBC were including sound. By early 1946, television cameras were being attached to American guided missiles to aid in their remote steering. Films were made of the television images they transmitted for further evaluation of the target and the missile's performance; the first known surviving example of the telerecording process in Britain is from October 1947, showing the singer Adelaide Hall performing at the RadiOlympia event. Hall sings "Chi-Baba, Chi-Baba" and "I Can't Give You Anything But Love", as well as accompanying herself on ukulele and dancing; when the show was broadcast on BBC TV it was 60 minutes in length and included performances from Winifred Atwell, Evelyn Dove, Cyril Blake and his Calypso Band, Edric Connor and Mable Lee, was produced by Eric Fawcett.
The six-minute footage of Miss Hall is all. From the following month, the wedding of Princess Elizabeth to Prince Philip survives, as do various early 1950s productions such as It is Midnight, Dr Schweitzer, The Lady from the Sea and the opening two episodes of The Quatermass Experiment, although in varying degrees of quality. A complete 7-hour set of telerecordings of Queen Elizabeth II's 1953 coronation exists. In the era before satellite communications, kinescopes were used to distribute live events such as a royal wedding as as possible to other countries of the Commonwealth that had started a television service. A Royal Air Force aircraft would fly the telerecording from the UK to Canada, where it would be broadcast over the whole North American network. After the introduction of videotape, the BBC and the ITV companies made black and white kinescopes of selected programs for international sales, continued to do so until the early 1970s by which time programs were being videotaped in color.
Most, if not all, videotapes from the 405-line era have long since been wiped as have many from the introduction of 625-line video to the early days of color. The majority of British shows that still exist before the introduction of color, a number thereafter, do so in the form of these telerecordings. A handful of shows, including some episodes of Doctor Who and most of the first series of Adam Adamant Lives!, were deliberately telerecorded for ease of editing rather than being videotaped. In September 1947, Eastman Kodak introduced the Eastman Television Recording Camera, in cooperation with DuMont Laboratories, Inc. and NBC, for recording images from a television screen under the trademark "Kinephoto". Prior to the introduction of videotape in 1956, kinescopes were the only way to record television broadca
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born in Brookline, the second child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the U. S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, he commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953, he was subsequently elected to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960.
While in the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, the incumbent vice president. At age 43, he became the second-youngest man to serve as president, the youngest man to be elected as U. S. president, as well as the only Roman Catholic to occupy that office. He was the first president to have served in the U. S. Navy. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, he subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba.
However his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of 1962. In October 1962, U. S. spy planes discovered. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement, but was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Texas. Pursuant to the Constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatically became president upon Kennedy's death. Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was killed by Jack Ruby two days and so was never prosecuted. Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the conviction was on appeal in 1967. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act and the Revenue Act of 1964.
Kennedy continues to rank in polls of U. S. presidents with historians and the general public. His personal life has been the focus of considerable public fascination following revelations regarding his lifelong health ailments and alleged extra-marital affairs, his average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in suburban Brookline, Massachusetts, to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, his paternal grandfather P. J. Kennedy was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, his maternal grandfather and namesake John F. Fitzgerald served as a U. S. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings: Rosemary, Eunice, Robert and Edward.
As of 2019, he has been the only Catholic U. S. President. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life and attended the local St. Aidan's Church, where he was baptized on June 19, 1917, he was educated at the Edward Devotion School in Brookline, the Noble and Greenough Lower School in nearby Dedham and the Dexter School through the 4th grade. His father's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street and Hollywood. In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City. Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout Troop 2 and attended St. Joseph's Church; the Kennedy family spent summers and early autumns at their home in Hyannis Port and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter retreat in Palm Beach, Florida purchased in 1933.
In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, for 8th grade. In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy started attending Choate, a prestigious board
Arthur Joseph Goldberg was an American statesman and jurist who served as the 9th U. S. Secretary of Labor, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, the 6th United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Born in Chicago, Goldberg graduated from the Northwestern University School of Law in 1930, he became a prominent labor attorney and helped arrange the merger of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations. During World War II, he served in the Office of Strategic Services, organizing European resistance to Nazi Germany. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Goldberg as the Secretary of Labor. In 1962, Kennedy nominated Goldberg to the Supreme Court to fill a vacancy caused by the retirement of Felix Frankfurter. Goldberg aligned with the liberal bloc of justices and wrote the majority opinion in Escobedo v. Illinois. In 1965, Goldberg resigned from the bench to accept appointment by President Lyndon B. Johnson as the Ambassador to the United Nations.
In that role, he helped draft UN Resolution 242 in the aftermath of the Six-Day War. He was defeated by Nelson Rockefeller. After his defeat, he served as president of the American Jewish Committee and continued to practice law. Goldberg was born and raised on the West Side of Chicago, the youngest of eight children of Rebecca Perlstein and Joseph Goldberg, Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire, his paternal line derived from a shtetl called Zenkhov, in Ukraine. Goldberg's father, a produce peddler, died in 1916, forcing Goldberg's siblings to quit school and go to work to support the family; as the youngest child, Goldberg was allowed to continue school, graduating from Harrison Technical High School at the age of 16. Thereafter, Goldberg worked his way through Crane Junior College of the City Colleges of Chicago and DePaul University before earning B. S. L. and J. D. degrees from Northwestern University. Goldberg's interest in the law was sparked by the noted murder trial in 1924 of Leopold and Loeb, two wealthy young Chicagoans who were spared the death penalty with the help of their high-powered defense attorney, Clarence Darrow.
Goldberg pointed to the case as inspiration for his opposition to the death penalty on the bench, since he had seen how inequality of social status could lead to unfair application of the death penalty. In 1931, Goldberg married Dorothy Kargans, they had one daughter, Barbara Goldberg Cramer, one son, Robert M. Goldberg, he was the uncle of Barry Goldberg. During World War II, Goldberg was a member of the United States Army, wherein he served as a captain and a major, he served as well in an espionage group operated by the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor to the CIA, serving as chief of the Labor Desk, an autonomous division of the American intelligence agency, charged with the task of cultivating contacts and networks within the European underground labor movement during World War II. The Jewish Telegraphic Agency stated, "Goldberg's file notes that as both a civilian and a member of the Army, he supervised a section in the Secret Intelligence Branch of OSS to maintain contact with labor groups and organizations regarded as potential resistance elements in enemy-occupied and enemy countries.
He organized anti-Nazi European transportation workers into an extensive intelligence network." Goldberg became a prominent labor lawyer, representing striking Chicago newspaper workers on behalf of the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1938. Appointed general counsel to the CIO in 1948 to succeed Lee Pressman, Goldberg served as a negotiator and chief legal adviser in the merger of the American Federation of Labor and CIO in 1955. Goldberg served as general counsel of the United Steelworkers of America. Goldberg was by this time a prominent figure in labor union politics. President John F. Kennedy appointed Goldberg to two positions; the first was United States Secretary of Labor, where he served from 1961 to 1962. As secretary, he served as a mentor to the young Daniel Patrick Moynihan; the second was as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, replacing Felix Frankfurter, who had retired because of poor health. From 1961-1962, Goldberg was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
As of 2018, Goldberg is the last Supreme Court justice to have served in the United States Cabinet. Despite his short time on the bench, Goldberg played a significant role in the Court's jurisprudence, as his liberal views on Constitutional questions shifted the Court's balance toward a broader construction of constitutional rights, his best-known opinion came in the concurrence of Griswold v. Connecticut, arguing that the Ninth Amendment supported the existence of an unenumerated right of privacy, he argued that to determine if a right is a fundamental right, the court should look to whether the right involved is of such a character that it cannot be denied without violating those fundamental principles of liberty and justice which lie at the base of all our civil and political institutions. Goldberg's most influential move on the Court involved the death penalty. Goldberg argued in a 1963 internal Supreme Court memorandum that imposition of the death penalty was condemned by the international community and should be regarded as "cruel and unusual punishment," in contravention of the Eighth Amendment.
Finding support in this position from two other justices, Goldberg published an opinion dissenting from the Court's denial of certiorari in a case, Rudolph v. Alabama, involving the imposition of the death penalty for rape, in which
Television in the United States
Television is one of the major mass media of the United States. As of 2011, household ownership of television sets in the country is 96.7%, with 114,200,000 American households owning at least one television set as of August 2013. The majority of households have more than one set; the peak ownership percentage of households with at least one television set occurred during the 1996–97 season, with 98.4% ownership. As a whole, the television networks that broadcast in the United States are the largest and most distributed in the world, programs produced for U. S.-based networks are the most syndicated internationally. Due to a recent surge in the number and popularity of critically acclaimed television series during the 2000s and the 2010s to date, many critics have said that American television is undergoing a modern golden age. In the United States, television is available via broadcast – the earliest method of receiving television programming, which requires an antenna and an equipped internal or external tuner capable of picking up channels that transmit on the two principal broadcast bands high frequency and ultra high frequency, in order to receive the signal – and four conventional types of multichannel subscription television: cable, unencrypted satellite, direct-broadcast satellite television and IPTV.
There are competing video services on the World Wide Web, which have become an popular mode of television viewing since the late 2000s with younger audiences as an alternative or a supplement to the aforementioned traditional forms of viewing television content. Individual broadcast television stations in the U. S. transmit on either VHF channels 2 through 13 or UHF channels 14 through 51. During the era of analog television, broadcast stations transmitted on a single universal channel; the UHF band spanned from channels 14 to 83, though the Federal Communications Commission has twice rescinded the high-end portions of the band from television broadcasting use for emergency and other telecommunications purposes in 1983 and 2009. As in other countries, television stations require a license to broadcast and must comply with certain requirements in order to retain it. Free-to-air and subscription television networks, are not required to file for a license to operate. Over-the-air and free-to-air television do not necessitate any monthly payments, while cable, direct broadcast satellite, IPTV and virtual MVPD services require monthly payments that vary depending on the number of channels that a subscriber chooses to pay for in a particular package.
Channels are sold in groups, rather than singularly. Most conventional subscription television services offer a limited basic tier, a minimum base package that includes only broadcast stations within the television market where the service is located, public and government access cable channels. Elevated programming tiers start with an expanded basic package, offering a selection of subscription channels intended for wide distribution. A la carte subscription services in the U. S. are limited to pay television channels that are offered as add-ons to any programming package that a customer of a multichannel video programming distributor can subscribe to for an additional monthly fee. The United States has a "decentralized", market-oriented television system in regard to broadcast television; the nation has a national publi
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively; because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments claim authority to regulate them.
Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably.
Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news. To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link is used; the link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite.
The license specifies which other station it is allowed to carry. VHF stations have tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power, therefore use much less transmitter power output saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I are limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, or 45 kW digital ERP. Stations on band III can go up by 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1. UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, taking VHF instead.
This means. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials, they may be some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies. Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is used for newscasts or other local programming. There is a news department, where journalists gather information. There is a section where electronic news-gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production equipment are sent out with reporters, who may bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.
To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increas