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National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery of Art, its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D. C. located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated funds for construction; the core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, Chester Dale; the Gallery's collection of paintings, prints, sculpture and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder. The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, the 6.1-acre Sculpture Garden.

The Gallery presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America. Pittsburgh banker Andrew W. Mellon began gathering a private collection of old master paintings and sculptures during World War I. During the late 1920s, Mellon decided to direct his collecting efforts towards the establishment of a new national gallery for the United States. In 1930 for tax reasons, Mellon formed the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, to be the legal owner of works intended for the gallery. In 1930–1931, the Trust made its first major acquisition, 21 paintings from the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg as part of the Soviet sale of Hermitage paintings, including such masterpieces as Raphael's Alba Madonna, Titian's Venus with a Mirror, Jan van Eyck's Annunciation. In 1929 Mellon had initiated contact with the appointed Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Charles Greeley Abbot. Mellon was appointed in 1931 as a Commissioner of the Institution's National Gallery of Art.

When the director of the Gallery retired, Mellon asked Abbot not to appoint a successor, as he proposed to endow a new building with funds for expansion of the collections. However, Mellon's trial for tax evasion, centering on the Trust and the Hermitage paintings, caused the plan to be modified. In 1935, Mellon announced in The Washington Star, his intention to establish a new gallery for old masters, separate from the Smithsonian; when asked by Abbot, he explained that the project was in the hands of the Trust and that its decisions were dependent on "the attitude of the Government towards the gift". In January 1937, Mellon formally offered to create the new Gallery. On his birthday, 24 March 1937, an Act of Congress accepted the collection and building funds, approved the construction of a museum on the National Mall; the new gallery was to be self-governing, not controlled by the Smithsonian, but took the old name "National Gallery of Art" while the Smithsonian's gallery would be renamed the "National Collection of Fine Arts".

Designed by architect John Russell Pope, the new structure was completed and accepted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on behalf of the American people on March 17, 1941. Neither Mellon nor Pope lived to see the museum completed. At the time of its inception it was the largest marble structure in the world; the museum stands on the former site of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station, where in 1881 a disgruntled office seeker, Charles Guiteau, shot President James Garfield. As anticipated by Mellon, the creation of the National Gallery encouraged the donation of other substantial art collections by a number of private donors. Founding benefactors included such individuals as Paul Mellon, Samuel H. Kress, Rush H. Kress, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Chester Dale, Joseph Widener, Lessing J. Rosenwald and Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch; the Gallery's East Building was constructed in the 1970s on much of the remaining land left over from the original congressional action. Andrew Mellon's children, Paul Mellon and Ailsa Mellon Bruce, funded the building.

Designed by architect I. M. Pei, the contemporary structure was completed in 1978 and was opened on June 1 of that year by President Jimmy Carter; the new building was built to house the Museum's collection of modern paintings, drawings and prints, as well as study and research centers and offices. The design received a National Honor Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1981; the final addition to the complex is the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden. Completed and opened to the public on May 23, 1999, the location provides an outdoor setting for exhibiting a number of pieces from the Museum's contemporary sculpture collection. In 2011, an extensive refurbishment and renovation of the French galleries were undertaken; as part of the celebration of the reopening of this wing, organist Alexander Frey performed 4 sold-out recitals of music of France in one weekend in the French Gallery. The National Gallery of Art is supported through a private-public partnership; the United States federal government provides funds, through annual appropriations, to support the museum's operations and maintenance.

All artwork, as well as special programs, are provided through private funds. The museum is not part of the Smithsonian Institution. Noted directors of the National Gallery hav

Intimate Cabaret

Intimate Cabaret was a British television programme broadcast from 1937 to 1939 on BBC Television. It was one of several spin-offs from the BBC series Cabaret, it was a live variety programme. There were 24 episodes; the first seven were produced by the last two by Eric Fawcett. No episode has survived; the following performers appeared in the series five or more times, or as of February 2016 are the subjects of Wikipedia articles. Their numbers of appearances are given in parentheses. BBC Television Orchestra Evel Burns, pianist Jane Carr, English actress Cyril Fletcher, English comedian Steven Geray, Hungarian-born actor Tommy Handley, British comedian Bruno Hoffmann, German player of the glass harp Stanley Holloway, English comedian Nelson Keys, British actor and singer Magda Kun, Hungarian-born actress Eve Lister, British actress Billy Mayerl, English pianist and composer Derek Oldham, English singer and actor Irene Prador, Austrian actress Oliver Wakefield, British actor and comedian Cabaret Cabaret Cartoons Cabaret Cruise Comedy Cabaret Eastern Cabaret Western Cabaret Intimate Cabaret on IMDb "Search for Intimate Cabaret".

BBC. Retrieved 23 February 2016

PBA Bowling Tour: 1999 Season

This is a recap of the 1999 season for the Professional Bowlers Association Tour. It was the tour's 41st season, consisted of 26 events. Parker Bohn III collected five titles during the season to take PBA Player of the Year honors, ending Walter Ray Williams, Jr.'s streak of three straight POY awards. Tim Criss secured a major title at the PBA National Championship. Amateur Brian Boghosian took the title at the ABC Masters, while Bob Learn, Jr. won his first career major at Bowling's U. S. Open. Jason Couch collected $100,000 in winning the season-ending Brunswick World Tournament of Champions among his two titles on the year. During the season, Steve Jaros and Mike Miller rolled the 13th and 14th televised 300 games in PBA history. Another highlight of the season was the PBA's first-ever outdoor finals at the NYC PBA Experience, which took place on specially-built lanes in mid-town Manhattan's Bryant Park. 1999 Season Schedule


An isopycnic surface is a surface of constant density inside a fluid. In geology, Isopycnic surfaces occur in connection with cratons which are old geologic formations at the core of the continents, little affected by tectonic events; these formations are known as shields or platforms. These formations are, relative to other lithospheric formations and less dense but much more isopycnic. Isopycnic surfaces contrast with isobaric or isothermal surfaces, which describe surfaces of constant pressure and constant temperature respectively, it is common in conversational use to hear isopycnic surfaces referred to as "iso-density" surfaces, which while incorrect, is nonetheless abundantly more clear. The term "isopycnic" is encountered in the fluid dynamics of compressible fluids, such as in meteorology and geophysical fluid dynamics, astrophysics, or the fluid dynamics of explosions or high Mach number flows, it may be applied to other situations where a continuous medium has smoothly varying density, such as in the case of an inhomogeneous colloidal suspension.

In general isopycnic surfaces will occur in fluids in hydrostatic equilibrium coinciding with equipotential surfaces formed by gravity. Isopycnic describes surfaces, not processes. Unless there is a flux of mass into or out of a control volume, a process which occurs at a constant density occurs at a constant volume and is called an isochoric process and not an isopycnic process; the term "isopycnic" is encountered in biophysical chemistry in reference to a process of separating particles, subcellular organelles, or other substances on the basis of their density. Isopycnic centrifugation refers to a method wherein a density gradient is either pre-formed or forms during high speed centrifugation. After this gradient is formed particles move within the gradient to the position having a density matching their own; this technique is powerful. Isopycnic centrifugation Isosteric

Solaris Urbino 15 LE

Solaris Urbino 15 LE is a series of low-entry buses from the Solaris Urbino series, designed for transport, produced since 2008 by the Polish company Solaris Bus & Coach in Bolechowo near Poznań. In 2010 the company began manufacturing the bus with the engine powered by CNG. Solaris Urbino 15 LE was put into production since the spring of 2008, it was based on a model of the Solaris Urbino 15, built to be used for Alpine and Scandinavian countries. The bus is popular in the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the first customer, who contributed to production of the model by placing an order for three types of low-entry buses, is a Ledermair company in the city Schwaz, Austria. The first official information about the bus, including photographs, appeared in June 2008 during the AUTOTEC Trade Fair in Brno, that is, after the delivery to Austria; the official debut took place at IAA Nutzfahrzeuge Trade Fair in Hannover and the Transexpo Trade Fair in Kielce in autumn in 2008. It is one of the few buses with a length of 15 metres produced in the world.

Thanks to the high floor in the rear of the vehicle, the engine and gearbox are placed in the centre for the third axle. It works with the SCR technology using AdBlue. All axles are from ZF. Due to the use of larger wheel size 295/70 tires the bus has an extended wheel arch. Behind the front axle there is a storage for snow chains. Two illuminated steps provide access to the higher floor level at the rear. All seats are located on the raised floor and are equipped with safety belts, while those located on the side of the stairs have additional armrests and handles. Above the seats in the low floor part of the bus there are shelves for luggage on the ceiling; the higher door has wheelchair access. Optionally, in place of the wheelchair bay the space can be transformed for four additional passenger seats; the ventilation of the interior of the bus has two electric sunroofs. Instead of tilting windows there can be installed an air conditioning system. There are several versions of the cab: semi-closed and closed.

Doors used in Solaris Urbino 15 LE all open to the outside

Henry Phillips (horticulturist)

Henry Phillips was a botanist, horticultural writer and landscape gardener from the seaside resort of Brighton in England. After spending time as a banker and teacher in London and Sussex, he came to national attention for his botanical articles and books, was renowned for his landscape gardening work in Brighton during its period of rapid growth. In the 1820s he became involved in several major schemes in the town and neighbouring Hove, encompassing gardens and similar, his grandiose Anthaeum project, an elaborate indoor botanical garden topped by "the largest dome in the world", ended in disaster when the structure spectacularly collapsed just before its official opening. Phillips was born in around 1779 in the West Sussex village of Henfield; the first 40 years of his life were spent in London and Sussex: he worked for a bank in Worthing and lived in the town moved to Brighton with his wife, Elizabeth Willmer who he had married on the 18 December 1800 at Petworth. In 1815 they moved to the Bayswater area of London, where Phillips opened "an academy for young gentlemen" and taught there.

He and his wife lived at Bedford Square on the seafront. They moved to nearby Regent Place. During his time in Worthing and London, Phillips developed a strong interest in botany and landscape gardening. By the 1820s, he was both locally and nationally known for his landscape gardening work and his writing, he gave botanical lectures in Brighton, his first book, Pomarium Britannicum, was published in 1820, he wrote several others in the 1820s. He joined The Royal Horticultural Society and, in 1825, the Linnean Society of London. In 1824 when painter John Constable came to Brighton on one of his regular visits to help improve his wife's ill health, he met Phillips and they became friends. In early 1831, the Brighton Herald newspaper stated that Phillips was due to sail on 1 February of that year to Caracas, where he would be appointed as the official botanist of Simón Bolívar's estate. Whether he did travel to South America or not is unknown, but Bolívar had died in December 1830. Around the same time, Phillips is believed to have designed the conservatory at Edward Cross's Surrey Zoological Gardens, which opened in 1831.

On the 27 January the Sussex Advertiser reported that Mr Henry Phillips, senior, of Brighton one of the most active supporters of the Anthaeum is now confined to Horsham Goal, "the fall of that noble structure is understood to have caused the pecuniary difficulties which led to his imprisonment. He is thus deprived of the means of supporting Mrs Phillips, those of his family, who are dependent on him. Henry had children: Marmaduke, Mary Cobden and Edgar, his surviving children were William, Daintry and the teacher and author Montagu Lyon. On the 13 May 1839 the Sussex Advertiser reported a melancholy event, the inquest on Mr Henry Phillips, junior of 26, Russell Square, who had taken his own life. Phillips died at 26 Russell Square, Brighton, on 8 March 1840 at the age of 61, he was suffering from enteritis. The 1851 census for 26, Russel Square, Brighton lists Elizabeth Phillips, aged 71 and brothers Daintry Phillips and Barclay Phillips. In 1852 Barclay Phillips married Alethea Burton and had issue Barclay Willmer Phillips and Ernest Willmer Phillips.

Henry Phillips' reputation as a landscape gardener brought him much work in the Brighton and Hove area. Together with local architect Amon Henry Wilds he designed The Level, a triangular area of former common land between the Ditchling and Lewes Roads, it was owned by Thomas Read Kemp until he donated it to the people of Brighton in 1822. It became a popular venue for games and similar public events. In 1823, he produced a proposed layout for the gardens on the Kemp Town estate, a high-class speculative residential development being built east of Brighton by Thomas Read Kemp; this scheme was not implemented, Read Kemp decided to put iron railings round the open space instead. Five years though, Phillips' revised scheme was put in place; the Kemp Town Enclosures, as the gardens became known, covered 15 acres and had paths around the edges surrounded by informally laid out flowers and small shrubs which were planted on small mounds to protect them from the windy weather on the exposed clifftop.

Planting began early in 1828: the Brighton Herald of 8 February 1828 reported that "the plants possess great novelty and beauty of style... 20,000 plants have been selected to embellish the grounds". The Brighton Guardian stated that "from the size and beauty of the trees, we should have taken it for a grove of seven years' standing, rather than... a few weeks only". Phillips charged Read Kemp £371.10s.8d, paid when he went to the first meeting of the Kemp Town Enclosures Management Committee on 3 June 1828. The original layout consisted of three linked sections, one of which featured a "rustic wooden summer-house", used until 1935 when it became too dilapidated to keep; the flowerbed which surrounded it was removed at the same time in favour of grass. Another unexecuted scheme for Thomas Read Kemp was an extravagant plan to develop the empty downland between Read Kemp's house in the embryonic Montpelier suburb and the completed Bedford Square with large villas surrounding an informally pl