First State National Historical Park
First State National Historical Park is a National Park Service unit which lies primarily in the state of Delaware but which extends partly into Pennsylvania in Chadds Ford, United States. The park covers the colonial history of Delaware and the role Delaware played in the establishment of the nation. It tells the story of the early settlement of the Delaware Valley by the Dutch, Finns. It seeks to preserve the landscape of the Brandywine River Valley. Russ Smith, the parks first superintendent, described its mission in part as, the recognition that its not all about Jamestown and Plymouth Rock. There were 13 different traditions established in the 1600s that came together in 1776, the designation helps shine a light on that story. The way this place differs from other places is the diversity of the settlement and you had Dutch, Finns, the English, the Germans. As I tell people, while Virginia was jailing Baptists and New England was burning Quakers, theres this misconception that the English were the only ones who had any kind of representative government, and so thats where we got it.
Well, the Netherlands were a Republic, the Swedes were not an absolute monarchy, so there was a tradition of self-determination as well. The building was used as the place for Delawares colonial assembly. The Declaration of Independence was read from the Court Houses second floor balcony, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase was impeached over his actions in the Court House during a trial in 1800. The Garrett trial was an inspiration to Harriet Beecher Stowe for certain scenes in Uncle Toms Cabin, the New Castle Green was first laid out as a town common in the 1650s by the Dutch colonists who founded New Castle. The Sheriffs House, built in 1857, abuts the Court House, the Court House and the Green are owned by the state of Delaware, with the National Park Service owning a conservation easement on them. The Sheriffs House is owned by the National Park Service, the Dover Green was first laid out as a public space in 1717 by William Penns surveyors, and has been host to several historic events.
The Declaration of Independence was read to the citizens of Dover from the Green in 1776, when the proximity of the British navy threatened New Castle, the state changed its capital city to Dover in 1777, and a State House was built just off the Green in 1787. At a tavern once stood on the Green, a convention ratified the Constitution on December 7,1787. The Green is owned by the city of Dover, with the National Park Service owning a conservation easement and it is approximately 40 miles south of the park headquarters in New Castle. The tract is adjacent to Delawares Brandywine Creek State Park, beaver Valley is owned by the National Park Service
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park
The idea for the present-day Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park was first conceived by Jerry Sharkey. Much of the Dayton neighborhood where Orville and Wilbur Wright had lived and worked had already destroyed by the 1970s. Neglect, riots during the 1960s, and a project through the city had leveled much of the neighborhood. Decades earlier, Henry Ford had relocated one of the Wrights bicycle shops from Dayton to its present location in Greenfield Village, for display. Sharkeys quest to preserve the Wright brothers legacy began when he purchased their last surviving bicycle shop in Dayton for just $10,000, which saved the building from demolition. He founded the Aviation Trail Inc. a nonprofit dedicated to the creation of a potential national park or historic district encompassing the Wright brothers buildings. Sharkey enlisted the help of political and media figures to lobby for the creation of the park. Notable figures who supported its creation included the descendants of the Wright brothers, aviation historian Tom Crouch, U. S.
District Judge Walter H. Rice, then-U. S. Rep. Dave Hobson, Dayton Daily News publisher Brad Tillson, and Michael Gessel, the group lobbied federal officials and the National Park Service to incorporate the landmarks related to the Wright brothers, which are scattered throughout the city, into a new historic trail. The U. S. Congress passed legislation to establish the new park, in 1992, President George H. W. Bush signed the bill which created the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park into law. In addition to the Wright brothers sites, the new park preserved the home of Paul Laurence Dunbar, Jerry Sharkey donated the Wright brothers bicycle shop, which he had saved from demolition, to the National Park Service as part of the agreement to create the park. A new visitor center was constructed in 2003 in time for the centennial of the Wright brothers first flight, Jerry Sharkey, who had first conceived of the future historic park, died in April 2014. Through the invention of powered flight and Orville Wright made significant contributions to human history, the Wrights perfected their invention during 1904 and 1905 at the Huffman Prairie Flying Field near their hometown of Dayton.
His work, which reflected much of the African American experience in the United States, contributed to a social consciousness. Although he died in 1906, his writings contributed to developments in African American history, such as the Harlem Renaissance. He was a neighbor and lifelong friend of Wilbur and Orville Wright, the park is a cooperative effort between the National Park Service and several partners. Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park is located within the National Aviation Heritage Area, the U. S. Department of the Interior listed three units of the park on the 2008 U. S. World Heritage Tentative List as part of the Dayton Aviation Sites listing, the park is a central component of the National Aviation Heritage Area
Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve
Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve protects significant examples of the rich natural and cultural resources of Louisianas Mississippi River Delta region. The park, named after Jean Lafitte, seeks to illustrate the influence of environment, the park consists of six physically separate sites and a park headquarters. Acadian Cultural Center, in Lafayette Prairie Acadian Cultural Center, in Eunice, wetlands Acadian Cultural Center, in Thibodaux The Barataria Preserve, at 6588 Barataria Boulevard in Marrero, interprets the natural and cultural history of the region. The preserve has trails and canoe tours through bottomland hardwood forests, additionally, an Education Center provides curriculum-based programming for school groups and a visitor center with a film and exhibits. Former Louisiana State Senator Elwyn Nicholson of Marrero was particularly known for his advocacy of the creation of the historical park, in Chalmette, six miles southeast of New Orleans, is the Chalmette Battlefield and National Cemetery.
It was the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans, a visitor center offers exhibits and information and is located near the battleground monument — one stop on a tour route of the battlefield, which can be taken by car, by bicycle, or on foot. Hurricane Katrina destroyed the center in 2005, a replacement has since been constructed. Visitors to this unit of the park can embark and disembark by boat along the Mississippi River. In 2008 the park provided the War of 1812 backdrop depicted in the Mystery Mardi Gras Shipwreck documentary, the park operates a French Quarter Visitor Center at 419 Decatur Street, in the historic French Quarter. It interprets more generally the history of New Orleans and the cultures of Louisianas Mississippi River Delta region. The headquarters of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve are located in New Orleans, Chalmette Monument and Grounds were established on March 4,1907, to commemorate the site of the Battle of New Orleans. It was transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10,1933, the Chalmette site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places October 15,1966.
It was incorporated into the multi-site Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park The National Parks, Index 2001-2003. Washington, U. S. Department of the Interior
George Rogers Clark National Historical Park
President Calvin Coolidge authorized a classical memorial and President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the completed structure in 1936. On February 25,1779, Lieutenant Colonel George Rogers Clark, older brother of William Clark, lead the capture of Fort Sackville, governor Henry Hamilton as part of the celebrated Illinois Campaign, which lasted from 1778 to 1779. The heroic march of Clarks men from Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River in mid-winter, in 1966, Indiana transferred the site to the National Park Service. Adjacent to the memorial is a center which presents interpretive programs. The center is situated on South 2nd Street in Vincennes, the site is located in the Vincennes Historic District. The memorial is placed at the site of Fort Sackville, no archeological evidence has shown the exact location. The episode being commemorated marked the finest moment in General George Rogers Clarks life and he was sent by the state of Virginia to protect its interest in the Old Northwest. His 1778-1779 campaign included the founding of Louisville and the capture of British forts in the lower Ohio and Mississippi valleys.
This led to the newly formed United States claiming control of what would become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, as Vincennes grew in the 1800s, it overran the site of Fort Sackville and its boundaries were lost. In 1905, the Daughters of the American Revolution placed a marker on what they believed was the location of the fort. In 1929, local residents made an effort to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Clarks campaign. The state of Indiana chose to build a memorial to General Clarks triumph in the 1930s, with the assistance of the United States government, the various funds amounted to $2,500,000. The memorial was designed by New York architect Frederic Charles Hirons and dedicated June 14,1936, the north and east corners have restrooms and various maintenance rooms. Except for the rooms, these feature plastered walls and ceilings, marble wainscoting. Visitors enter the memorial by climbing thirty granite steps in the northwest corner, the basement is unfinished, with fluorescent lighting revealing a ceiling and walls of exposed concrete, and a dirt floor.
The adjacent grounds of the Basilica of St. Francis Xavier hold a 1934 bronze statue by Albin Polasek honoring Father Pierre Gibault, raoul Josset designed the Lincoln Memorial Bridge across the Wabash River to compliment the memorial aesthetically. It includes relief carvings designed by a monument by Nellie Walker on the Illinois side of the bridge, a concrete floodwall that protects the memorial and Vincennes from Wabash flooding is designed in a complimentary Classical style. Muralist Ezra Winter executed a series of murals for the building
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. The park includes land in Jefferson County, West Virginia, Washington County and Loudoun County, the park is managed by the National Park Service, an agency of the U. S. Department of the Interior. Originally designated as a National Monument in 1944, the park was declared a National Historical Park by the U. S. Congress in 1963. The park includes the town of Harpers Ferry, notable as a center of 19th century industry. Due to a mixture of events and ample recreational opportunities, all within 50 miles of Washington. The Parks Superintendent is presently Tyrone Brandyburg, native American history in the region dates back to at least 8,000 years ago. One of these European immigrants, Robert Harper, obtained a patent for the land from the Virginia legislature in 1751, note that prior to 1863, West Virginia was still a part of Virginia. The town was known as Shenandoah Falls at Mr.
Harpers Ferry due to the ferry business Robert Harper managed and operated. Today, the house built by Robert Harper is the oldest remaining structure in the lower part of the park. Though it is believed that George Washington visited the area earlier, his trip to the confluence in 1785. Later, Washington began the construction of the federal Harpers Ferry Armory on the site, meriwether Lewis, under government contract, procured most of the weaponry and associated hardware that would be needed for the Lewis and Clark Expedition at the armory in Harpers Ferry. Blacksmiths built an iron boat frame for the expedition. Between the years 1820 to 1840, John H. Hall worked to perfect the manufacturing of parts at the armory. Subsequently, the development of the bullet to replace the round lead slug was achieved by James H. Burton. Employing at times up to 400 workers, the armory produced over half a million muskets, abolitionist John Brown led an armed group in the capture of the armory in 1859. Brown had hoped he would be able to arm the slaves and lead them against U. S. forces in a rebellion to overthrow slavery.
After his capture in the armory by a group of Marines, Brown was hanged, predicting in his last words that civil war was looming on the horizon, a prediction that came true less than two years later. The most important building remaining from John Browns raid is the firehouse, the American Civil War found Harpers Ferry right on the boundary between the Union and Confederate forces
Grey Towers National Historic Site
Grey Towers National Historic Site, known as Gifford Pinchot House or The Pinchot Institute, is located just off US6 west of Milford, Pennsylvania, in Dingman Township. It is the home of Gifford Pinchot, first director of the United States Forest Service and twice elected governor of Pennsylvania. The house, built in the style of a French château to reflect the Pinchot familys French origins, was designed by Richard Morris Hunt with some work by Henry Edwards-Ficken. Situated on the hills above Milford, it overlooks the Delaware River, Pinchot grew up there and returned during the summers when his life took him to Washington and Harrisburg. His wife Cornelia made substantial changes to the interior of the home and gardens, in collaboration with different architects. In 1963 his family donated it and the surrounding 102 acres to the Forest Service, three years the Department of the Interior designated it a National Historic Landmark. Today it is open to the public for tours and hiking on its trails, it is home to the Pinchot Institute.
The mansion itself is a three-story L-shaped fieldstone chateau, conical roofed towers at three of the corners give the property its name. A service wing juts out from the fourth corner, as originally built it contained 43 rooms, with the first floor featuring a large entrance hall, billiard room, dining room and sitting room. Bedrooms were located on the floor, with more on the third floor plus storage spaces. The house boasts a number of outbuildings, in 1875, Giffords father, James W. Pinchot, retired after a successful career in the wallpaper business and moved his family from New York City back to Milford, where he had grown up. He bought 3,000 acres of land overlooking the Delaware in Dingman Township, particularly attractive to him and his family was a small waterfall on Sawkill Creek. There, James Pinchots primary endeavor was planning and designing Grey Towers, at first, he developed the land along lines of the ornamental farm advocated by Andrew Jackson Downing. The original drive up the hill was meant to show off his orchards, two years it was complete, but not before Pinchot altered the plans slightly to save money.
While Hunt was away in Europe, he had Edwards-Ficken alter Hunts design slightly when bedrock on the site made it difficult to build the raised foundation Hunt had originally planned. Edwards-Ficken added some of his own touches to the house, such as the front door, interior paneling and wrought iron porches on the south. Almost all the materials came from local sources, hemlock timbers were floated down the Delaware on rafts from Lackawaxen, and another river town, provided the bluestone and windows. Roofing slate came from across the river, in Lafayette, New Jersey, all the workers and contractors hired were Milford residents
Lowell National Historical Park
Lowell National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of the United States located in Lowell, Massachusetts. In 2019, the park is scheduled to be included as Massachusetts representative in the America the Beautiful Quarters series, unlike many other mill towns, Lowells manufacturing facilities were built based on a planned community design. Specifically Lowell was planned as reaction to the communities in Great Britain. Lowell attracted both immigrants from abroad and migrants from within New England and Quebec who lived in the dormitories, the textile industry in New England experienced a sharp decline after World War II and by the 1960s, many of the Lowells textile mill buildings were abandoned. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, several important forces came together from which emerged the Lowell National Historical Park, together these circles of interest became a collaborating force led by United States Senator and Lowell native Paul Tsongas to enact legislation for a national park.
In 1978, the United States Congress established the Lowell National Historical Park, the Lowell Historic Preservation District, and the Lowell Historic Preservation Commission. The visitor center provides a free self-guided tour of the history of Lowell, a footpath along the Merrimack Canal from the visitor center is lined with plaques describing the importance of various existing and former sites along the canal. The Boott Mills along the Merrimack River, on the Eastern Canal, is the most fully restored manufacturing site in the district, the Boott Mill provides a walk-through museum with living recreations of the textile manufacturing process in the 19th century. The walking tour includes a detour to a memorial to local author Jack Kerouac, a walkway along the river leads to several additional unrestored mill sites, providing views of restored and unrestored canal raceways once used by the mills. Additionally, the park includes the Patrick J Mogan Cultural Center, which focuses on the lives of Lowells many generations of immigrants
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14,411 feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States. Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles and other equipment, food processing and metal products, chemicals. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, flood control, the Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The area was part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. The area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, Washington is the only U. S. state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U. S. capital, which is named for George Washington, Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State, or, in more formal contexts. Washingtonians and other residents of the Pacific Northwest refer to the state simply as Washington, calling the nations capital Washington, D. C. or, Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches in Pullman, the Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state
The Chilkoot Trail is a 33-mile trail through the Coast Mountains that leads from Dyea, Alaska, in the United States, to Bennett, British Columbia, in Canada. It was an access route from the coast to Yukon goldfields in the late 1890s. The trail became obsolete in 1899 when a railway was built from Dyeas neighbor port Skagway along the parallel White Pass trail, the Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site was designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1978. In 1987, the trail was designated a National Historic Site of Canada, in 1998, the centennial of the gold rush, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia merged with the U. S. park to create the Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Tlingit Indians used the trail as a trade route to trade for resources available in the interior. As pressures from American settlers and the Hudsons Bay Company weakened the traditional Tlingit trading system, the Klondike Gold Rush transformed the Chilkoot Trail into a mainstream transportation route to Canadas interior.
The gold rush was focused in the region around Dawson City in Yukon. Of the several overland routes, the Chilkoot Trail was the most direct, least expensive, the other primary route to the headwaters of the Yukon River, was based out of Skagway, the rival White Pass route. The White Pass route was longer but less rigorous and steep, whereas the Chilkoot was shorter. Skagway, because of its harbor, served as the principal port for both routes. Prospectors who chose the Chilkoot were ferried to Dyea by small boat or ferry, prospectors ferried the gear from campsites along the trail, slowly moving closer to the headwaters of the Yukon. With all the equipment and supplies being transported, alternative methods, especially those with a supplemental income. Many prospectors purchased pack animals, and many others paid Tlingit Indians to haul gear on a rate from campsite to campsite. Aerial tramway companies soon were hauling tons of gear over the head of the every day. By the end of the Chilkoot Trails heyday, there were five distinct tramway operations on different parts of the trail competing for the influx of gear, many of the trams constituted world-class engineering feats of the era.
After the Klondike Gold Rush, the became more or less deserted. Prospectors late to the gold rush now made their way to the Yukon on the new White Pass and Yukon Route narrow-gauge railroad, which took them all the way to Whitehorse, Yukon in the Yukon Territory. In 1969, the U. S. and Canadian governments jointly declared their intention to make Chilkoot Trail a component of a Klondike Gold Rush International Historic Park
Saint Croix Island, Maine
The island was the site of an early attempt at French colonization by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons in 1604. In 1984 it was designated by the United States Congress as Saint Croix Island International Historic Site, there is no public access to the island, but there is a visitor contact station on the U. S. mainland and a display on the Canadian mainland opposite the island. The 6.5 acre island measures approximately 200 yd long by 100 yd wide, the island was called Muttoneguis by the Passamaquoddy Nation who had used or lived on the island for numerous centuries before European discovery. French noble Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons established a settlement on Saint Croix Island in June 1604 under the authority of Henry IV and this outpost was one of the first attempts by France at year-round colonization in the territory they called lAcadie. Earlier attempts by Jacques Cartier at Charlesbourg-Royal in 1541, at Sable Island in 1598 by Marquis de La Roche-Mesgouez, cartographer Samuel de Champlain was part of the Dugua expedition and settlement on the small river island in 1604.
The following spring and François Gravé Du Pont, moved the settlement to a new location on the shore of the Bay of Fundy called Port-Royal. The Port Royal location was the first permanent European settlement in New France, during the winter more than half the settlers had perished due to a land-sickness believed to be scurvy. Champlain had discovered this new location earlier in the spring during a reconnaissance of the Bay of Fundy for a more suitable settlement site. In 1608, Samuel de Champlain and some of the settlers moved from Port-Royal to a settlement on the Saint Lawrence River that became Québec and it became known as Bone Island in the 18th century after many of the graves were exposed by erosion. 23 sets of remains were removed in 1969 and subsequently reburied in 2003, analysis of the bones showed that many of them had indications of scurvy, confirming the cause of the deaths described by Champlain. One skull showed signs of having been autopsied which Champlain wrote that he had ordered to try to discover the cause of their illness, the island was neutral territory in the War of 1812, leading it to be sometimes called Neutral Island.
Named by the French, Ile Ste-Croix, the island has been called Demonts Island, Canada issued a nationally circulating quarter in 2004 that commemorated the island and the beginnings of Acadia there. In the United States, the island was designated Saint Croix Island National Monument by the United States Congress in 1949, the monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966. It was given its current designation by Congress as an International Historic Site on September 25,1984, in Canada, the island was first recognized in 1958 by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board as having national historic significance. It recommended creation of Dochet Island National Historic Site, but this was rejected by the government on the basis that its location fell outside national jurisdiction, the two nations routinely cooperate on commemorative activities and promotions. Special commemorations by the two nations in 2004 marked the 400th anniversary of French settlement in North America, in 2009, the site started offering a full French translation of its U. S.
website, offered by teen volunteer Olivier Fontenelle. Its Parks Canada website, like all others in its network, has offered in French since first appearing online. The HSMB designates three categories of commemoration, nationally significant Sites and Persons, while the HSMB had recommended Dochet Island National Historic Site in 1958, it was unclear whether the HSMBs recommendation, in 1968, was to name it a Site or an Event