George Rogers Clark National Historical Park
President Calvin Coolidge authorized a classical memorial and President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the completed structure in 1936. On February 25,1779, Lieutenant Colonel George Rogers Clark, older brother of William Clark, lead the capture of Fort Sackville, governor Henry Hamilton as part of the celebrated Illinois Campaign, which lasted from 1778 to 1779. The heroic march of Clarks men from Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River in mid-winter, in 1966, Indiana transferred the site to the National Park Service. Adjacent to the memorial is a center which presents interpretive programs. The center is situated on South 2nd Street in Vincennes, the site is located in the Vincennes Historic District. The memorial is placed at the site of Fort Sackville, no archeological evidence has shown the exact location. The episode being commemorated marked the finest moment in General George Rogers Clarks life and he was sent by the state of Virginia to protect its interest in the Old Northwest. His 1778-1779 campaign included the founding of Louisville and the capture of British forts in the lower Ohio and Mississippi valleys.
This led to the newly formed United States claiming control of what would become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, as Vincennes grew in the 1800s, it overran the site of Fort Sackville and its boundaries were lost. In 1905, the Daughters of the American Revolution placed a marker on what they believed was the location of the fort. In 1929, local residents made an effort to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Clarks campaign. The state of Indiana chose to build a memorial to General Clarks triumph in the 1930s, with the assistance of the United States government, the various funds amounted to $2,500,000. The memorial was designed by New York architect Frederic Charles Hirons and dedicated June 14,1936, the north and east corners have restrooms and various maintenance rooms. Except for the rooms, these feature plastered walls and ceilings, marble wainscoting. Visitors enter the memorial by climbing thirty granite steps in the northwest corner, the basement is unfinished, with fluorescent lighting revealing a ceiling and walls of exposed concrete, and a dirt floor.
The adjacent grounds of the Basilica of St. Francis Xavier hold a 1934 bronze statue by Albin Polasek honoring Father Pierre Gibault, raoul Josset designed the Lincoln Memorial Bridge across the Wabash River to compliment the memorial aesthetically. It includes relief carvings designed by a monument by Nellie Walker on the Illinois side of the bridge, a concrete floodwall that protects the memorial and Vincennes from Wabash flooding is designed in a complimentary Classical style. Muralist Ezra Winter executed a series of murals for the building
Salem Maritime National Historic Site
Salem Maritime is the first National Historic Site established in the United States. The National Park Service manages both the National Historic Site and a Regional Visitor Center in downtown Salem, the National Park Service is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. The National Park Service celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2016, Derby Wharf – Salems longest wharf. When in active use, it was lined with warehouses of goods from around the world, the Derby Wharf Light remains at the end of the wharf. Friendship of Salem – a replica of a 1797 East Indiaman, the original Friendship made 15 voyages during her career, to Batavia, China, South America, the Caribbean, Germany, the Mediterranean, and Russia. She was captured as a prize of the War of 1812 by the British in September 1812, Hawkes House – designed by famous Salem architect Samuel McIntire, building was begun in 1780. The unfinished building was purchased and completed around 1800 by Benjamin Hawkes, narbonne House – The part of the house with the high peaked roof was built by butcher Thomas Ives, who added a lean-to the south side and a kitchen lean-to at the back.
Around 1740 the southern lean-to was replaced by todays gambrel-roofed addition, from 1750 to 1780, the house was owned by Capt. Joseph Hodges, and in 1780 the house was purchased by tanner Jonathan Andrew. The house was lived in by descendants of the Andrew family from 1780 to 1964, Salem Custom House – the 13th Customs House in Salem, the first was built in 1649. Taxes were collected on imported cargoes, St. Joseph Hall – Original home of The St. Joseph Society, a fraternal society established by Polish immigrants. The first floor was retail space that could be rented out to provide an income for the support of the building, on the top floor, the Society built several apartments to house new immigrants until they could get permanently settled. The building now serves as park headquarters, by 1836, Charles Dexter had a shop in this building. It was one of many that served the needs of Salem households by selling candles, clothing and glassware. Besides stocking general groceries such as grain, dried beans and even rum, the store continued to operate as a retail space throughout the nineteenth century.
Later occupants included painters, a tobacconist, and a wine and liquor merchant
United States Secretary of the Interior
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the U. S. Department of the Interior. The Secretary serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board, the Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. The U. S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond primarily to the Department of Homeland Security in the U. S, Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice. On December 13,2016, President-elect Donald Trump picked Ryan Zinke for the position of Interior Secretary, the most recent to die was William P. Clark, Jr. on August 10,2013. List of Secretaries of the Interior List of Secretaries of the Interior The Department of Everything Else, Highlights of Interior History
Salem is a coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States, located on Massachusetts North Shore. It is a New England bedrock of history and is considered one of the most significant seaports in Puritan American history, the citys reported population was 41,340 at the 2010 census. Salem and Lawrence are the county seats of Essex County, though the county government was abolished in 1999, much of the citys cultural identity reflects its role as the location of the Salem witch trials of 1692, as featured in Arthur Millers The Crucible. Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites and a vibrant downtown that has more than 60 restaurants, cafes, in 2012, the Retailers Association of Massachusetts chose Salem for their inaugural Best Shopping District award. President Barack Obama signed executive order HR1339 on January 10,2013, more than one million tourists from all around the world visit Salem annually, bringing in at least $100 million in tourism spending each year.
More than 250,000 visited Salem over Halloween weekend in 2016, Salem is located at the mouth of the Naumkeag river at the site of an ancient American Indian village and trading center. It was first settled by Europeans in 1626, when a company of fishermen arrived from Cape Ann, led by Roger Conant. Conants leadership provided the stability to survive the first two years, but he was replaced by John Endecott, one of the new arrivals, Conant graciously stepped aside and was granted 200 acres of land in compensation. These New Planters and the Old Planters agreed to cooperate, in part due to the diplomacy of Conant. In 1628, Endecott ordered that the Great House be moved from Cape Ann, when Higginson arrived in Salem, he wrote that we found a faire house newly built for the Governor which was remarkable for being two stories high. A year later, the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony with Matthew Craddock as its governor in London, John Winthrop was elected Governor in late 1629, and arrived with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, beginning the Great Migration.
In 1639, Endecotts was one of the signatures on the contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the First Church in Salem. This document remains part of the records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life, Samuel Skelton was the first pastor of the First Church of Salem, which is the original Puritan church in North America. Endecott already had a relationship with Skelton, having been converted by him. Roger Conant died in 1679 at the age of 87, a statue commemorating him stands overlooking Salem Common. Salem originally included much of the North Shore, including Marblehead, most of the accused in the Salem witch trials lived in nearby Salem Village, now known as Danvers, although a few lived on the outskirts of Salem. Salem Village included Peabody and parts of present-day Beverly, Topsfield and Manchester-by-the-Sea were once parts of Salem
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
The Liberty Bell is an iconic symbol of American independence, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Formerly placed in the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House, the bell today is located in the Liberty Bell Center in Independence National Historical Park. The bell first cracked when rung after its arrival in Philadelphia, in its early years the bell was used to summon lawmakers to legislative sessions and to alert citizens about public meetings and proclamations. While there is no account of the Liberty Bell ringing. After American independence was secured the bell fell into obscurity until, in the 1830s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies. The bell acquired its distinctive large crack some time in the early 19th century—a widespread story claims it cracked while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835. The bell became famous after an 1847 short story claimed that an aged bellringer rang it on July 4,1776, despite the fact that the bell did not ring for independence on that July 4, the tale was widely accepted as fact, even by some historians.
Beginning in 1885, the City of Philadelphia, which owns the bell, allowed it to go to various expositions, the bell attracted huge crowds wherever it went, additional cracking occurred and pieces were chipped away by souvenir hunters. The last such journey occurred in 1915, after which the city refused further requests, after World War II, the city allowed the National Park Service to take custody of the bell, while retaining ownership. The bell was used as a symbol of freedom during the Cold War and was a site for protests in the 1960s. It was moved from its home in Independence Hall to a nearby glass pavilion on Independence Mall in 1976. The bell has been featured on coins and stamps, and its name, philadelphias city bell had been used to alert the public to proclamations or civic danger since the citys 1682 founding. The original bell hung from a tree behind the Pennsylvania State House and was said to have brought to the city by its founder. In 1751, with a tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House, civic authorities sought a bell of better quality.
Isaac Norris, speaker of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, gave orders to the colonys London agent, Robert Charles, let the bell be cast by the best workmen & examined carefully before it is Shipped with the following words well shaped around it vizt. By Order of the Assembly of the Povince of Pensylvania for the State house in the City of Philada 1752 and Underneath Proclaim Liberty thro all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof. -Levit. Charles duly ordered the bell from Thomas Lester of the London bellfounding firm of Lester and Pack for the sum of £150 13s 8d, including freight to Philadelphia and it arrived in Philadelphia in August 1752. Norris wrote to Charles that the bell was in good order, the bell was mounted on a stand to test the sound, and at the first strike of the clapper, the bells rim cracked
Lowell National Historical Park
Lowell National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of the United States located in Lowell, Massachusetts. In 2019, the park is scheduled to be included as Massachusetts representative in the America the Beautiful Quarters series, unlike many other mill towns, Lowells manufacturing facilities were built based on a planned community design. Specifically Lowell was planned as reaction to the communities in Great Britain. Lowell attracted both immigrants from abroad and migrants from within New England and Quebec who lived in the dormitories, the textile industry in New England experienced a sharp decline after World War II and by the 1960s, many of the Lowells textile mill buildings were abandoned. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, several important forces came together from which emerged the Lowell National Historical Park, together these circles of interest became a collaborating force led by United States Senator and Lowell native Paul Tsongas to enact legislation for a national park.
In 1978, the United States Congress established the Lowell National Historical Park, the Lowell Historic Preservation District, and the Lowell Historic Preservation Commission. The visitor center provides a free self-guided tour of the history of Lowell, a footpath along the Merrimack Canal from the visitor center is lined with plaques describing the importance of various existing and former sites along the canal. The Boott Mills along the Merrimack River, on the Eastern Canal, is the most fully restored manufacturing site in the district, the Boott Mill provides a walk-through museum with living recreations of the textile manufacturing process in the 19th century. The walking tour includes a detour to a memorial to local author Jack Kerouac, a walkway along the river leads to several additional unrestored mill sites, providing views of restored and unrestored canal raceways once used by the mills. Additionally, the park includes the Patrick J Mogan Cultural Center, which focuses on the lives of Lowells many generations of immigrants
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park
The idea for the present-day Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park was first conceived by Jerry Sharkey. Much of the Dayton neighborhood where Orville and Wilbur Wright had lived and worked had already destroyed by the 1970s. Neglect, riots during the 1960s, and a project through the city had leveled much of the neighborhood. Decades earlier, Henry Ford had relocated one of the Wrights bicycle shops from Dayton to its present location in Greenfield Village, for display. Sharkeys quest to preserve the Wright brothers legacy began when he purchased their last surviving bicycle shop in Dayton for just $10,000, which saved the building from demolition. He founded the Aviation Trail Inc. a nonprofit dedicated to the creation of a potential national park or historic district encompassing the Wright brothers buildings. Sharkey enlisted the help of political and media figures to lobby for the creation of the park. Notable figures who supported its creation included the descendants of the Wright brothers, aviation historian Tom Crouch, U. S.
District Judge Walter H. Rice, then-U. S. Rep. Dave Hobson, Dayton Daily News publisher Brad Tillson, and Michael Gessel, the group lobbied federal officials and the National Park Service to incorporate the landmarks related to the Wright brothers, which are scattered throughout the city, into a new historic trail. The U. S. Congress passed legislation to establish the new park, in 1992, President George H. W. Bush signed the bill which created the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park into law. In addition to the Wright brothers sites, the new park preserved the home of Paul Laurence Dunbar, Jerry Sharkey donated the Wright brothers bicycle shop, which he had saved from demolition, to the National Park Service as part of the agreement to create the park. A new visitor center was constructed in 2003 in time for the centennial of the Wright brothers first flight, Jerry Sharkey, who had first conceived of the future historic park, died in April 2014. Through the invention of powered flight and Orville Wright made significant contributions to human history, the Wrights perfected their invention during 1904 and 1905 at the Huffman Prairie Flying Field near their hometown of Dayton.
His work, which reflected much of the African American experience in the United States, contributed to a social consciousness. Although he died in 1906, his writings contributed to developments in African American history, such as the Harlem Renaissance. He was a neighbor and lifelong friend of Wilbur and Orville Wright, the park is a cooperative effort between the National Park Service and several partners. Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park is located within the National Aviation Heritage Area, the U. S. Department of the Interior listed three units of the park on the 2008 U. S. World Heritage Tentative List as part of the Dayton Aviation Sites listing, the park is a central component of the National Aviation Heritage Area
Chaco Culture National Historical Park
Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park hosting the densest and most exceptional concentration of pueblos in the American Southwest. The park is located in northwestern New Mexico, between Albuquerque and Farmington, in a canyon cut by the Chaco Wash. Containing the most sweeping collection of ancient ruins north of Mexico, between AD900 and 1150, Chaco Canyon was a major center of culture for the Ancient Pueblo Peoples. Chacoans quarried sandstone blocks and hauled timber from great distances, assembling fifteen major complexes that remained the largest buildings in North America until the 19th century, evidence of archaeoastronomy at Chaco has been proposed, with the Sun Dagger petroglyph at Fajada Butte a popular example. Many Chacoan buildings may have been aligned to capture the solar and lunar cycles, requiring generations of astronomical observations, climate change is thought to have led to the emigration of Chacoans and the eventual abandonment of the canyon, beginning with a fifty-year drought commencing in 1130.
The sites are considered sacred ancestral homelands by the Hopi and Pueblo people, the park is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. Ancient Chacoans drew upon dense forests of oak, piñon, ponderosa pine, the canyon itself, located within lowlands circumscribed by dune fields and mountains, is aligned along a roughly northwest-to-southeast axis and is rimmed by flat massifs known as mesas. Large gaps between the southwestern cliff faces—side canyons known as critical in funneling rain-bearing storms into the canyon. The principal Chacoan complexes, such as Pueblo Bonito, Nuevo Alto, the alluvial canyon floor slopes downward to the northwest at a gentle grade of 30 feet per mile, it is bisected by the Chaco Wash, an arroyo that rarely bears water. The canyons main aquifers were too deep to be of use to ancient Chacoans, aside from occasional storm runoff coursing through arroyos, substantial surface water—springs, wells—is virtually nonexistent.
A sandy and swampy coastline oscillated east and west, alternately submerging and uncovering the area atop the present Colorado Plateau that Chaco Canyon now occupies. The Chaco Wash flowed across the upper strata of what is now the 400-foot Chacra Mesa, cutting into it, the mesa comprises sandstone and shale formations dating from the Late Cretaceous, which are of the Mesa Verde formation. The canyon bottomlands were further eroded, exposing Menefee Shale bedrock, the canyon and mesa lie within the Chaco Core—which is distinct from the wider Chaco Plateau, a flat region of grassland with infrequent stands of timber. As the Continental Divide is only 15, an arid region of high xeric scrubland and desert steppe, the canyon and wider basin average 8 inches of rainfall annually, the park averages 9.1 inches. Chaco Canyon lies on the side of extensive mountain ranges to the south and west. The region sees four distinct seasons, rainfall is most likely between July and September, while May and June are the driest months.
Occasional aberrant northward excursions of the convergence zone may boost precipitation in some years. Chaco endures remarkable climatic extremes, temperatures range between −38 to 102 °F, and may swing 60 °F in a single day, the region averages fewer than 150 frost-free days per year, and the local climate swings wildly from years of plentiful rainfall to prolonged drought
Grey Towers National Historic Site
Grey Towers National Historic Site, known as Gifford Pinchot House or The Pinchot Institute, is located just off US6 west of Milford, Pennsylvania, in Dingman Township. It is the home of Gifford Pinchot, first director of the United States Forest Service and twice elected governor of Pennsylvania. The house, built in the style of a French château to reflect the Pinchot familys French origins, was designed by Richard Morris Hunt with some work by Henry Edwards-Ficken. Situated on the hills above Milford, it overlooks the Delaware River, Pinchot grew up there and returned during the summers when his life took him to Washington and Harrisburg. His wife Cornelia made substantial changes to the interior of the home and gardens, in collaboration with different architects. In 1963 his family donated it and the surrounding 102 acres to the Forest Service, three years the Department of the Interior designated it a National Historic Landmark. Today it is open to the public for tours and hiking on its trails, it is home to the Pinchot Institute.
The mansion itself is a three-story L-shaped fieldstone chateau, conical roofed towers at three of the corners give the property its name. A service wing juts out from the fourth corner, as originally built it contained 43 rooms, with the first floor featuring a large entrance hall, billiard room, dining room and sitting room. Bedrooms were located on the floor, with more on the third floor plus storage spaces. The house boasts a number of outbuildings, in 1875, Giffords father, James W. Pinchot, retired after a successful career in the wallpaper business and moved his family from New York City back to Milford, where he had grown up. He bought 3,000 acres of land overlooking the Delaware in Dingman Township, particularly attractive to him and his family was a small waterfall on Sawkill Creek. There, James Pinchots primary endeavor was planning and designing Grey Towers, at first, he developed the land along lines of the ornamental farm advocated by Andrew Jackson Downing. The original drive up the hill was meant to show off his orchards, two years it was complete, but not before Pinchot altered the plans slightly to save money.
While Hunt was away in Europe, he had Edwards-Ficken alter Hunts design slightly when bedrock on the site made it difficult to build the raised foundation Hunt had originally planned. Edwards-Ficken added some of his own touches to the house, such as the front door, interior paneling and wrought iron porches on the south. Almost all the materials came from local sources, hemlock timbers were floated down the Delaware on rafts from Lackawaxen, and another river town, provided the bluestone and windows. Roofing slate came from across the river, in Lafayette, New Jersey, all the workers and contractors hired were Milford residents
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent