People Places
History Art
Science
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention within the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, its current director is John Howard NIOSH is headquartered in Washington, D. C. with research laboratories and offices in Cincinnati, Ohio. NIOSH is a professionally diverse organization with a staff of 1,200 people representing a wide range of disciplines including epidemiology, industrial hygiene, psychology, engineering and statistics; the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon, on December 29, 1970, created both NIOSH and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. NIOSH was established to help ensure safe and healthful working conditions by providing research, information and training in the field of occupational safety and health.

NIOSH provides national and world leadership to prevent work-related illness, injury and death by gathering information, conducting scientific research, translating the knowledge gained into products and services. Although NIOSH and OSHA were established by the same Act of Congress, the two agencies have distinct and separate responsibilities. NIOSH abides by a strategic plan for allocating resources; the Institute has seven overarching goals: These goals are supported by NIOSH's program portfolio. The portfolio categorizes Institute efforts into 10 broad industrial sectors and their intersection with the 7 strategic goals. There are an abundance of specialty programs across diverse topics such as the Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies, the Center for Occupational Robotics Research, more. In addition to these intramural programs, NIOSH funds many extramural research projects. Unlike its counterpart, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, NIOSH is not a regulatory agency.

It does not issue safety and health standards that are enforceable under U. S. law. Rather, NIOSH's authority under the Occupational Safety and Health Act is to "develop recommendations for health and safety standards", to "develop information on safe levels of exposure to toxic materials and harmful physical agents and substances", to "conduct research on new safety and health problems". NIOSH may "conduct on-site investigations to determine the toxicity of materials used in workplaces" and "fund research by other agencies or private organizations through grants and other arrangements". NIOSH was intended to function as an agency at the same level as, independent from, the Centers for Disease Control. NIOSH was placed within the Centers for Disease Control in order to obtain administrative support from the Centers until NIOSH was ready to assume those responsibilities for itself. Pursuant to its authority granted to it by the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, NIOSH may "develop recommendations for mine health standards for the Mine Safety and Health Administration", "administer a medical surveillance program for miners, including chest X‑rays to detect pneumoconiosis in coal miners", "conduct on-site investigations in mines similar to those authorized for general industry under the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

NIOSH research covers a wide range of fields. The knowledge obtained through intramural and extramural research programs is used to develop products and publication offering innovative solutions for a wide range of work settings; some of the publications produced by NIOSH include: Alerts are put out by the agency to request assistance in preventing and controlling newly identified occupational hazards. They present what is known about the risk for occupational injury and death. Criteria Documents contain recommendations for the prevention of occupational injuries; these documents are submitted to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the Mine Safety and Health Administration for consideration in their formulation of binding safety and health standards. Current Intelligence Bulletins analyze new information about occupational safety hazards; the National Agricultural Safety Database contains citations and summaries of scholarly journal articles and reports about agricultural health and safety.

The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program publishes occupational fatality data that are used to publish fatality reports by specific sectors of industry and types of fatal incidents. The NIOSH Power Tools Database contains sound power levels, sound pressure levels, vibrations data for a variety of common power tools that have been tested by NIOSH researchers; the NIOSH Hearing Protection Device Compendium contains attenuation information and features for commercially available earplugs and semi-aural insert devices. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods contains recommendations for collection and analysis of contaminants in the workplace and industrial hygiene samples, including air filters, biological fluids and bulks for occupationally relevant analytes; the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards informs workers and occupational health professionals about workplace chemicals and their hazards. NIOSH Education and Res

Legislative Assembly of Amazonas

The Legislative Assembly of Amazonas is the state legislature of Amazonas. The parliament was founded in 1852 as the Provincial Legislature of the province of Amazonas, it has been installed in four different buildings, the current headquarters was opened in July 28 of 2006. MDB Belarmino Lins Marco Antônio Chico Preto Marcos Rotta Nelson Azedo Vicente Lopes PTB Vera Lúcia Castelo Branco Walzenir Falcão PSD David Almeida PP Adjuto Afonso Conceição Sampaio Wallace Souza PR Ricardo Nicolau Sabá Reis PCdoB José Lobo Wilson Lisboa. PV Ângelus Figueira DEM Therezinha Ruiz PSDB Arthur Bisneto PHS Liberman Moreno PMN Carlos Almeida. PRP Edilson Gurgel PSB Josué Neto PPS Luiz Castro PT Sinésio Campos PCdoB Eron Bezerra PSC Francisco Souza http://www.ale.am.gov.br/

East Pikeland Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

East Pikeland Township is a township in Chester County, United States. The population was 7,079 at the 2010 census. Pike's Land was the first name given to a grant of 10,000 acres by William Penn to Joseph Pike from County Cork, Ireland, in 1705, it was sold by Pike's descendants and in 1838 was split in two parts, East Pikeland and West Pikeland. Mr. E. Kimber established the French Creek Boarding School for Girls in the 1830s and gave his name to the Village of Kimberton. East Pikeland today retains over 150 significant structures and sites; those located in the historic Kimberton Village are the Kimberton Inn, the girls' school, Chrisman's Mill, the Kimberton Train Station and Pennypackers Mill. The Zion Lutheran Church on Route 724 holds the distinction of being the second oldest Lutheran Church in the United States. East Pikeland was directly involved in the Revolutionary War from 1775 through 1778, most during the "Philadelphia Campaign" in 1777 and 1778, it was a source of provisions for the Army from its farms and cottage industries.

Military importance came in 1775 with the authorization by the Committee of Safety in Philadelphia from the Continental Powder Mill, the site chosen was at Rapps Dam on French Creek. The mill was a key element in a system of munitions supply that involved the Warwick and Reading iron furnaces near the headwaters of French Creek, which together with other furnaces such as Hopewell produced cannon and ammunition for Washington; the prime location of the mill on the creek with its long millrace was not forgotten after the war. Some of the mill buildings were reconstructed and over the next 150 years, continued to operate variously as oil, saw and spoke mills. East Pikeland Township has seen considerable change since the early part of the 20th century; the area around Kimberton saw expanded housing areas, as did the corridors near Routes 23 & 724. Only the main roads were paved, according to a 1938 map; the reason for the growth in the township over the years has been an influx of population that has found East Pikeland Township an attractive and practical place to live.

The suburbanization of the township, as most areas, occurred as the availability of automobiles made the general population mobile. In 1940, the township population was 976. Space to house the ever-increasing population came from the conversion of lands that had traditionally been dairy or wheat farms. Although some farms remain today, the predominant land use pattern in the central portion of the township is residential; the spread of suburban development has occurred in the French Creek valley, along Cold Stream Road. Occurring since World War II has been the development of townhouse complexes, shopping centers and industrial sites, such as the Cromby Power Station and shopping centers along Routes 23 & 724; the closing of the remaining one and two room school houses occurred in the 1950s, in favor of the regional school system. East Pikeland Township is a township of the second class operating under the Pennsylvania Second Class Township Code; the Board of Supervisors is the governing body, with three members elected at large by the voters for staggered six-year terms.

They are responsible for both the executive functions of the township. The township manager is appointed by the board and is responsible for the day-to-day business activities of the township; the manager coordinates the work of all operating departments and is directly responsible to the Board of Supervisors. The Hare's Hill Road Bridge, George Hartman House, Kimberton Village Historic District, Prizer's Mill Complex, Rapps Bridge are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 8.9 square miles, of which, 8.8 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. At the 2010 census, the township was 93.8% non-Hispanic White, 1.9% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.9% were two or more races. 1.6 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,551 people, 2,530 households, 1,834 families residing in the township; the population density was 745.1 people per square mile.

There were 2,604 housing units at an average density of 296.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 96.26% White, 1.36% African American, 0.08% Native American, 1.72% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.69% of the population. There were 2,530 households, out of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.8% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.07. In the township the population was spread out, with 25.8% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males.

The median income for a household in the township was $72,850, the median income for a family was $86,343. Males had a median income of $53,017 versus $40,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $31,774. About 0.5% of families and 1.8% of the population were belo