Thorndon, New Zealand
Thorndon is a historic inner suburb of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Because the suburb is level compared to the hilly terrain elsewhere in Wellington it contained Wellington's elite residential area until its best was destroyed in the 1960s by a new motorway and the erection of tall office buildings on the sites of its Molesworth Street retail and service businesses. Before Thorndon was Thorndon it was Haukawakawa and in 1824 Pipitea På was settled at its southern end. More Pipitea Marae and the land under the Government Centre have been separated from Thorndon and the name Pipitea returned to them in 2003; the reclamations have been included in the new suburb Pipitea. Thorndon combines the home of upmarket residential accommodation, it is located at the northern end of the Central Business District. Pipitea has been said to have been named for the pipi beds along Thorndon Quay. Ngāti Mutunga from Taranaki established the fortified village, Pipitea Pā, in 1824 on the Haukawakawa flats.
The Ngāti Mutunga left on the sailing ship Rodney in 1835 settling in the Chatham Islands and Te Āti Awa occupied the pā. The pā declined after European settlement. There were other villages near 191 Thorndon Quay and near the junction of Hobson Street with Fitzherbert Terrace; the Pā's gardens reached the Botanic Garden. Part of the pā site opened in 1980 as an urban marae; the site transferred to Te Āti Awa/Taranaki whānui as part of the local Treaty Settlement in 2009. Pipitea Marae and its meeting house, Te Upoko o te Ika a Māui, is a meeting place for Taranaki Whānui ki te Upoko o te Ika and Te Āti Awa. Thorndon like Te Aro is one of the few comparatively flat areas on the harbour. Haukawakawa / Thorndon flats became a significant part of Port Nicholson's first organised European settlement in 1840. S C Brees described it in 1848 as "the court end of town". European settlers built their houses alongside the Maori settlement of Pipitea and the New Zealand Company named all the flats Thorndon after the estate of W H F Petre one of their directors.
The buildings of the New Zealand Parliament are located in Thorndon. Thorndon is the location of national institutions including the Appeal and High Courts —the Supreme Court is on Lambton Quay facing Parliament— the National Library and Archives New Zealand; the national museum moved from behind Parliament in Museum Street to a much larger purpose-built building in Buckle Street just before the second world war in 1998 to the harbour edge and is now Te Papa Tongarewa. Thorndon is home to two Cathedrals: Anglican St Paul's Cathedral built between 1937 and 1998 to replace the pro-cathedral now known as Old St Paul's, Wellington which in turn had replaced the 230 seat St Paul's built in 1844 on the site of the Beehive. Thorndon occupies the northern end of the narrow coastal plain that makes up the heart of Wellington, it is flanked by the green hills of Wadestown and Kelburn to the west and south, to the south and east, Pipitea with the Government Centre, the marae and the port facilities of Wellington Harbour.
The boundaries of Thorndon form an approximate triangle. Starting from the lower south-west corner, at the intersection of Glenmore St and Collins Tce, the boundary goes up through Tinakori Hill, across through Weld St and along to Baker St; the boundary follows the west side of Thorndon Quay down until Hill St, where it goes across to Bowen St, Tinakori Road and Glenmore St. The new suburb of Pipitea was created and its boundaries were fixed at a meeting of the full Wellington City Council on 20 August 2003. After that time suburb changes must receive the further consent of the New Zealand Geographic Board. Boundaries the sites of Pipitea Pā and Old St Paul's on the inland side of Thorndon Quay, the reclaimed land east and south of Thorndon Quay and Hutt Road from along the shoreline from Kaiwharawhara to Whitmore Street, the Government Centre bounded by Kate Sheppard Place, Hill Street, Sydney Street West, Bowen Street and the reclaimed land. Schools located in Thorndon include Wellington Girls' College, St Mary's College, Queen Margaret College and primary schools Thorndon School and Sacred Heart Cathedral School.
Thorndon Farmers Market is set up each Saturday in Hill Street. The Thorndon Fair is held annually on the first Sunday of December; the fair has many stalls selling crafts and second-hand goods and is held for the benefit of Thorndon School. It is one of the main community events held in Thorndon. Parts of Tinakori Road and Hill Street are closed during the fair. Thorndon's Westpac Stadium is one of New Zealand's top sports venues; the Thorndon Tennis Club, established in the 19th century, is one of the oldest in the world. Governor-General at Bowen Street from 1871 to 1907 on what is now the site of the Beehive Prime Minister at 260 Tinakori Road Speaker Anglican Bishop of Wellington Catholic Archbishop of Wellington and Metropolitan of New Zealand Hobson Street Charles Abraham Alfred Brandon Alfred Brandon Alfred Brandon William Henry Clayton Charles Clifford John Duncan now the site of the Australian High Commission Robert Hart Charles Beard Izard Jacob Joseph Arthur Myers, Cabinet Minister Joseph Nathan merchant, founded Glaxo now GlaxoSmithKline Evelyn Margaret Page Robert Pharazyn merchant and runholder William Pharazyn merchant and runholder Robert Stains Thomas Coldham Williams runholder now Queen Margaret CollegeTinakori Roa
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System, SPARC. Sun contributed to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, virtualized computing. Sun was founded on February 24, 1982. At its height, the Sun headquarters were in Santa Clara, California, on the former west campus of the Agnews Developmental Center. On April 20, 2009, it was announced; the deal was completed on January 27, 2010. Sun products included computer servers and workstations built on its own RISC-based SPARC processor architecture, as well as on x86-based AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. Sun developed its own storage systems and a suite of software products, including the Solaris operating system, developer tools, Web infrastructure software, identity management applications. Other technologies included the Java platform and NFS.
In general, Sun was a proponent of open systems Unix. It was a major contributor to open-source software, as evidenced by its $1 billion purchase, in 2008, of MySQL, an open-source relational database management system. At various times, Sun had manufacturing facilities in several locations worldwide, including Newark, California. However, by the time the company was acquired by Oracle, it had outsourced most manufacturing responsibilities; the initial design for what became Sun's first Unix workstation, the Sun-1, was conceived by Andy Bechtolsheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, it was designed around the Motorola 68000 processor with an advanced memory management unit to support the Unix operating system with virtual memory support. He built the first ones from spare parts obtained from Stanford's Department of Computer Science and Silicon Valley supply houses.
On February 24, 1982, Vinod Khosla, Andy Bechtolsheim, Scott McNealy, all Stanford graduate students, founded Sun Microsystems. Bill Joy of Berkeley, a primary developer of the Berkeley Software Distribution, joined soon after and is counted as one of the original founders; the Sun name is derived from the initials of the Stanford University Network. Sun was profitable from its first quarter in July 1982. By 1983 Sun was known for producing 68k-based systems with high-quality graphics that were the only computers other than DEC's VAX to run 4.2BSD. It licensed the computer design to other manufacturers, which used it to build Multibus-based systems running Unix from UniSoft. Sun's initial public offering was in 1986 for Sun Workstations; the symbol was changed in 2007 to JAVA. Sun's logo, which features four interleaved copies of the word sun in the form of a rotationally symmetric ambigram, was designed by professor Vaughan Pratt of Stanford; the initial version of the logo was orange and had the sides oriented horizontally and vertically, but it was subsequently rotated to stand on one corner and re-colored purple, blue.
In the dot-com bubble, Sun began making much more money, its shares rose dramatically. It began spending much more, hiring workers and building itself out; some of this was because of genuine demand, but much was from web start-up companies anticipating business that would never happen. In 2000, the bubble burst. Sales in Sun's important hardware division went into free-fall as customers closed shop and auctioned high-end servers. Several quarters of steep losses led to executive departures, rounds of layoffs, other cost cutting. In December 2001, the stock fell to the 1998, pre-bubble level of about $100, but it kept falling, faster than many other tech companies. A year it had dipped below $10 but bounced back to $20. In mid-2004, Sun closed their Newark, California and consolidated all manufacturing to Hillsboro, Oregon. In 2006, the rest of the Newark campus was put on the market. In 2004, Sun canceled two major processor projects which emphasized high instruction-level parallelism and operating frequency.
Instead, the company chose to concentrate on processors optimized for multi-threading and multiprocessing, such as the UltraSPARC T1 processor. The company announced a collaboration with Fujitsu to use the Japanese company's processor chips in mid-range and high-end Sun servers; these servers were announced on April 17, 2007, as the M-Series, part of the SPARC Enterprise series. In February 2005, Sun announced the Sun Grid, a grid computing deployment on which it offered utility computing services priced at US$1 per CPU/hour for processing and per GB/month for storage; this offering built upon an existing 3,000-CPU server farm used for internal R&D for over 10 years, which Sun marketed as being able to achieve 97% utilization. In August 2005, the first commercial use of this grid was announced for financial risk simulations, launched as its first software as a service product. In January 2005, Sun reported a net profit of $19 million for fiscal 2005 second quarter, for the first time in three years.
This was followed by net loss of $9 million on GAAP basis for the third quarter 2005, as reported on April 14, 2005. In January 2007, Sun reported a net GAAP profit of $126
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Ex Libris Group
Ex Libris Group is an Israeli software company that develops integrated library systems and other library software. The company is headquartered in Jerusalem, has ten other offices around the world. In October 2015, Ex Libris is now a ProQuest company. Ex Libris started as an internal project at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1980 to develop a new library management system, as no system at the time was able to handle both Hebrew and Latin character sets as required by the University; the software was called Automated Library Expandable Program or ALEPH-100. In 1983, Yissum founded Aleph-Yissum Ltd.. Yohanan Spruch, the original developer of ALEPH, became the company's chief technology officer. Between 1983 and 1988, all of the eight universities in Israel bought the program and linked up in a network. In 1986 Ex Libris Ltd. was founded by technology entrepreneur Azriel Morag to market the software overseas. In 1993 ALEPH was deployed by the seventeen libraries of the Vatican and 200 libraries in 27 countries had bought it by 1995.
In 1995 Aleph-Yissum merged with Ex Libris Ltd. and reorganized as the Ex Libris Group, headed by Azriel Morag as the group's chief executive officer. In July 1997, Ex Libris acquired Dabis, a leading vendor of automated library systems in the German speaking countries. In 1998, venture capital funds Walden Israel and Tamar Ventures invested over $4m in Ex Libris. In February 2000, Ex Libris acquired the rights to SFX, an OpenURL link server software, from the University of Ghent. Ex Libris popularized OpenURL, which became the ANSI/NISO Z39.88 standard in the information industry. In July 2000, Ex Libris launched MetaLib, a federated search system that conducts simultaneous searches in multiple information resources such as library catalogs, journal articles, newspapers. In August 2002, Ex Libris launched DigiTool, a full function, digital asset management system designed for libraries and information centers. In 2004, Ex Libris launched Verde, an electronic resource management system that manages the acquisition and licensing of electronic resources.
In July 2006, Francisco Partners became the sole owner of Ex Libris Group. In November of that year, the developer of the Voyager integrated library system, was merged into Ex Libris. In May 2007, Ex Libris launched the Primo library delivery service. In August 2008, Leeds Equity Partners acquired Ex Libris Group. In May 2009, Ex Libris launched the bX recommender service, which provides library users with recommendations for scholarly articles. In 2009, Rosetta was introduced as a digital preservation and asset management solution. In January 2011, in collaboration with four development partners, the company released the Ex Libris Alma library management solution, the first SaaS cloud-based library services platform, representing the company's shift from an on-premise to a SaaS technology provider. Golden Gate Capital acquired Ex Libris in 2012. Ex Libris acquired oMbiel and its product campusM, a mobile campus platform, in April 2015, marking the company's expansion to EdTech solutions outside the library.
Leganto, the company's reading list management application, built on the Alma cloud platform, was launched in 2015, was Ex Libris' entry into the teaching and learning domain. In December 2015, ProQuest acquired Ex Libris, it was announced at that time that Ex Libris would manage the products of the Workflow Solutions division of ProQuest, such as Intota, 360 Link. In February 2018, Ex Libris partnered with five universities across the US to collaborate on the development of a new research services platform, Ex Libris Esploro, it was the company's first step into the research services market. The company provides services to thousands of customers in more than 90 countries; as of 2015, Ex Libris served 43 of the 50 top universities in the world. Over 40 national libraries use Ex Libris solutions. In August 2018, Ex Libris acquired Research Research Limited, which offers coverage of funding opportunities and publishes news and analysis of research politics and funding in the United Kingdom, Europe and New Zealand.
Matti Shem Tov was the president and CEO of Ex Libris from 2003-2017. He was appointed as CEO of ProQuest in November 2017, Bar Veinstein took over as president of Ex Libris at that time. Alma: A SaaS Library Services Platform, released by company in 2012 Primo: Discovery service released in 2006 Summon: Index-based discovery service. Launched in January 2009 Rosetta: Digital preservation and asset management platform, launched in 2009 Leganto: Reading list management application launched in 2015 campusM: Mobile campus app platform for academic institutions, acquired in 2015 Esploro: Research services platform launched in February 2018 360 Link: Link resolver and knowledge base product 360 Resource Manager: Library content management Refworks: Citation and reference management solution Pivot: Comprehensive resource for finding funding opportunities available to researchers Aleph: Original integrated library system Voyager: Integrated library services platform, acquired by Ex Libris in November 2006 DigiTool: Digital asset management system bX: Scholarly article recommender service Verde: E system SFX: OpenURL link resolver software Official website Ex Libris on LinkedIn Library Technology Guides profile
1893 Women's Suffrage Petition
The 1893 Women's Suffrage Petition was the third of three petitions to the New Zealand Government in support of women's suffrage and resulted in the Electoral Act 1893, which gave women the right to vote in the 1893 general election. The 1893 petition was larger than the 1891 petition, which had around 9,000 signatures, larger still than the 1892 petition, which contained some 20,000 signatures. Politicians John Hall, Alfred Saunders, Premier John Ballance were all in favour of women's suffrage, but the effort was led by the New Zealand branch of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union led by Kate Sheppard from 1887; the petition is on display at the National Library of New Zealand in Wellington as part of the He Tohu exhibition, however it remains under the care of the Chief Archivist and Archives New Zealand. It has been on the UNESCO Memory of the World register since 1997; the 1891 petition has not survived but the 1892 petition is held by Archives New Zealand
Heritage New Zealand
Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga is a Crown entity with a membership of around 20,000 people that advocates for the protection of ancestral sites and heritage buildings in New Zealand. It was set up through the Historic Places Act 1954 with a mission to "...promote the identification, protection and conservation of the historical and cultural heritage of New Zealand" and is an autonomous Crown entity. Its current enabling legislation is the Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act 2014, it is governed by a Board of Trustees chaired by Shonagh Kenderdine, a Māori Heritage Council chaired by Sir Tumu Te Heuheu. Past chairs include Dame Anne Salmond; the head office is in Antrim House, while regional and area offices are in Kerikeri, Tauranga, Wellington and Dunedin. It publishes the quarterly magazine New Zealand Heritage. Buildings owned by Heritage New Zealand include the Mission House, the Stone Store, the Te Waimate mission house; the New Zealand Heritage List/Rārangi Kōrero is divided into four main areas: Historic Places Historic Areas Wahi Tapu Wahi Tapu AreasThe historic places are organised in two categories: Category I - "...places of'special or outstanding historical or cultural heritage significance or value'" Category II - "...places of'historical or cultural heritage significance or value'"As of 2013, the register contains over 5,600 entries.
The Canterbury earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011 resulted in damage to a number of historic buildings in Christchurch. Post-earthquake redevelopment has caused a significant loss of heritage buildings in Christchurch; the Māori Heritage Council sits within the New Zealand Historic Places Trust and was established by the Historic Places Act 1993. The functions of the Council include: the protection and registration of wahi tapu and wahi tapu areas assisting the Trust to develop and reflect a bicultural view in the exercise of its powers and functions providing assistance to whanau and iwi in the preservation and management of their heritage resources consideration of recommendations in relation to archaeological sites advocacy of the interests of the Trust and Council so far as they relate to Māori heritage at any public or Māori forum; as of 2013 Sir Tumu Te Heuheu is the Chair of the MHC. France - Monument historique Germany - Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz and National Heritage Sites Hong Kong - Historic building, see List of Grade I historic buildings in Hong Kong, List of Grade II historic buildings in Hong Kong and List of Grade III historic buildings in Hong Kong Netherlands - Rijksmonument United Kingdom - Listed building or Scheduled Ancient Monument United States - National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmark SAHANZ Category:New Zealand Historic Places Trust Heritage New Zealand