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National Medal of Science

The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, chemistry, engineering and physics. The twelve member presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science is responsible for selecting award recipients and is administered by the National Science Foundation; the National Medal of Science was established on August 25, 1959, by an act of the Congress of the United States under Pub. L. 86–209. The medal was to honor scientists in the fields of the "physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences"; the Committee on the National Medal of Science was established on August 23, 1961, by executive order 10961 of President John F. Kennedy. On January 7, 1979, the American Association for the Advancement of Science passed a resolution proposing that the medal be expanded to include the social and behavioral sciences.

In response, Senator Ted Kennedy introduced the Science and Technology Equal Opportunities Act into the Senate on March 7, 1979, expanding the medal to include these scientific disciplines as well. President Jimmy Carter's signature enacted this change as Public Law 96-516 on December 12, 1980. In 1992, the National Science Foundation signed a letter of agreement with the National Science and Technology Medals Foundation that made the National Science and Technology Medals Foundation the metaorganization over both the National Medal of Science and the similar National Medal of Technology; the first National Medal of Science was awarded on February 18, 1963, for the year 1962 by President John F. Kennedy to Theodore von Kármán for his work at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory; the citation accompanying von Kármán's award reads: For his leadership in the science and engineering basic to aeronautics. The first woman to receive a National Medal of Science was Barbara McClintock, awarded for her work on plant genetics in 1970.

Although Public Law 86-209 provides for 20 recipients of the medal per year, it is typical for 8–15 accomplished scientists and engineers to receive this distinction each year. There have been a number of years; those years include: 1985, 1984, 1980, 1978, 1977, 1972 and 1971. The awards ceremony is organized by the Office of Technology Policy, it is presided by the sitting United States president. Each year the National Science Foundation sends out a call to the scientific community for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Science. Individuals are nominated by their peers with each nomination requiring three letters of support from individuals in science and technology. Nominations are sent to the Committee of the National Medal of Science, a board composed of fourteen presidential appointees comprising twelve scientists, two ex officio members—the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the president of the National Academy of Sciences. According to the Committee, successful candidates must be U.

S. citizens or permanent residents who are applying for U. S. citizenship, who have done work of outstanding merit or that has had a major impact on scientific thought in their field. The Committee values those who promote the general advancement of science and individuals who have influenced science education, although these traits are less important than groundbreaking or thought-provoking research; the nomination of a candidate is effective for three years. The Committee makes their recommendations to the President for the final awarding decision; the National Medal of Science depicts Man, surrounded by earth and sky, contemplating and struggling to understand Nature. The crystal in his hand represents the universal order and suggests the basic unit of living things; the formula being outlined in the sand symbolizes scientific abstraction. List of general science and technology awards List of recipients of the National Medal of Arts National Medal of Technology and Innovation National Science Foundation Searchable Database of National Medal of Science Recipients National Science & Technology Medals Foundation Using the National Medal of Science to recognize advances in psychology

Société des Avions Marcel Bloch

The Société des Avions Marcel Bloch was a French aircraft manufacturer of military and civilian aircraft that changed its name to Dassault Aviation after the end of World War II. It was founded by Marcel Bloch who changed his name to Marcel Dassault due to persecution of Jews under the Vichy French regime. MB.80 & MB.81 1932 MB.200, 1933 MB.210 & MB.211, 1934 MB.130, 1935 MB.211, 1935 MB.131, 1936 MB.150 & MB.157, 1937 MB.133, 1937 MB.134, 1937 MB.170 & MB.176, 1938 MB.462, c.1938 MB.500, 1938 MB.690, c.1938 MB.730, c.1938 MB.135, 1939 MB.480, 1939 MB.162, 1940 MB.700, 1941 MB.800, 1947 MB.60 & MB.61, 1930 MB.90 & MB.92 1932 MB.120, 1932 MB.110, 1933 MB.220, 1935 MB.300, 1935 MB.161 - 1939 Media related to Société des Avions Marcel Bloch at Wikimedia Commons

Pernambuco falando para o mundo

Pernambuco falando para o mundo is the third album recorded by the Brazilian musician Antonio Nóbrega. Released in 1998 and produced by himself, the album presents several songs composed according to Pernambuco folklore; this is the reason for the name of the album, which can be translated for English as Pernambuco speaking to the world. Antonio Nóbrega: vocals, violin Isaar França: vocals Karina Buhr: vocals Renata Mattar: vocals Telma César: vocals Antônio Bombarda: accordion Oswaldinho do Acordeon: accordion Edmilson Capelupi: cavaquinho, violacho, 7 string acoustic guitar Marco Cesar de Oliveira Brito: viola, cavaquinho Cláudio Faria: trumpet Enok Chagas: trumpet Daniel Allain: flute, piccolo Eugênia Nóbrega: flute, piccolo Gilberto: tenor saxophone Jotagê Alves: bass clarinet Nilsinho Amarante: trombone Renato Farias: trombone, euphonium Spok: alto saxophone Adriano Busko: percussion Bré: percussion Gabriel Almeida: percussion Zezinho Pitoco: snare drum, alto saxophone, tenor saxophone

Maisonneuve (electoral district)

Maisonneuve was a federal electoral district in Quebec, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1896 to 1935. A "Maisonneuve" riding existed from 1966 to 1970 when it renamed "Maisonneuve—Rosemont", from 1976 to 1978 when it was renamed "Hochelaga—Maisonneuve". See those article for information on those periods; this riding was created in 1892 from parts of Hochelaga ridings. The electoral district of Maisonneuve consisted of: the towns of Maisonneuve and Côte St. Louis, the villages of Côte de la Visitation and Mile End, Hochelaga and St. Jean Baptiste wards in the city of Montreal. In 1914, it was redefined to consist of: the town of Maisonneuve, Rosemount ward and Longue Point ward of the city of Montreal, Pointe-aux-Trembles town and parish, Rivière-des-Prairies, Sault au Recollet town and parish, St. Léonard-de-Port-Maurice, the town of Montréal Est, the town of St. Michel-de-Laval, the area on, situated the St. Jean-de-Dieu hospital. In 1924, it was redefined to consist of: the portion of the Island of Montreal lying north of a line drawn from Rivière des Prairies along Ste.

Claire Avenue, the southern boundary of the Seminary of St. Sulpice's domain, Crémazie Boulevard, St. Hubert Street, Côte St. Michel Road, the northwestern limit of the city of Montreal, Iberville Street, the Canadian Pacific Railway track, Nolan Street, Bourbonnière Avenue, to the St. Lawrence River, it was abolished in 1933 when it was redistributed into Maisonneuve—Rosemont and Mercier ridings. This riding elected the following Members of Parliament: By-election: On Mr. Préfontaine being appointed Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 11 November 1902 By-election: On Mr. Préfontaine's death, 25 December 1905 By-election: On Mr. Robitaille's death, 16 January 1932 List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts Riding history from the Library of Parliament

Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga

Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga was a Dutch politician and colonial official, who served as Governor of the Dutch Gold Coast between 1865 and 1867 and as Governor of Surinam between 29 June 1867 and 1 August 1873. Van Idzinga was born in Baardwijk, the Netherlands, to Hendrik van Idsinga, a pastor, Joanna Elisabeth van Nimwegen, he made a career in the Royal Netherlands Navy. In his late twenties, Van Idzinga began his political career in the colonies, first becoming landdrost of the district of Nickerie in Surinam between 1850 and 1853, before becoming Lieutenant Governor of Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten. In 1865, he was first promoted to the rank of Governor, in the rather dilapidated colony of the Dutch Gold Coast. In 1867, he was appointed Governor of Surinam, he married Emmeline Theodora Elisabeth van Raders, daughter of former Governor of Surinam Reinier Frederik van Raders, on 31 October 1849 in Paramaribo, Surinam. They had one daughter. Dutch politician Johan Willem Herman Meyert van Idsinga was one of their sons

Lemp Mansion

The Lemp Mansion is a historical house in Benton Park, St. Louis, Missouri, it is the site of three suicides by Lemp family members after the death of the son Frederick Lemp, whose William J. Lemp Brewing Co. dominated the St. Louis beer market before Prohibition with its Falstaff beer brand; the mansion is said to be haunted by members of the Lemp family. The house was built in 1890 according to the St. Louis Tax records. In 1911, the house underwent major renovations including conversion of some space into offices for the Lemp Brewery, which ceased all production when it was sold to International Shoe Company at auction in 1922; the Lemps lived in the house until 1949. In 1950, the mansion became a boarding house; the construction of Interstate 55 during the 1960s led to the destruction of much of the grounds and one of the carriage houses. Although many of the original details of the home have been replaced, there are still some remaining pieces; the decorative iron gates from the open-air elevator can be viewed from the basement restaurant.

In the office where William Lemp, Jr. committed suicide, there is still an Italian marble mantel. The ceiling in the parlor is hand-painted, the mantels are intricately carved African mahogany; the main bathroom includes a glass-enclosed shower that Lemp brought back to St. Louis from an Italian hotel; the three vaults where the Lemps stored their art pieces are located in the rear of the home. The Lemp Mansion is a restaurant and inn owned by the Pointer family. There are other nearby buildings of historic interest including the Chatillon-DeMenil House at 3325 DeMenil Place; the original patriarch of the Lemp Family was Johann "Adam" Lemp, born in 1798 in Grüningen, Germany. He became a naturalized citizen in November 1841, he arrived in the United States in 1836 settling in St. Louis in 1838. In the St. Louis city directory of 1840–41, he is listed as a grocer. Adam Lemp started a grocery store at Sixth and Morgan, called A. Lemp & Co. family grocery. This site is now occupied by the middle of the south side of The Dome at America's Center.

In addition to typical groceries, Lemp sold his own beer. By 1840 he focused on the manufacture and sale of beer, forming Western Brewery at 37 South Second Street. Adam Lemp’s beer became popular due to the increase of German population in the area. Lemp was one of the first in the country to produce German lager, a great difference from the English ale and porters; the business prospered, when a large storage space became necessary, a cave in south St. Louis was used for this purpose as it provided natural refrigeration; the cave was below the current locations of the Lemp and Chatillon-DeMenil House and the Lemp Brewery. By the 1860s there were 40 breweries in the St. Louis area taking advantage of the caves along the Mississippi, with the Western Brewery emerging as one of the most successful. Adam's son William J. Lemp was born in Germany in 1835. After completing his education at St. Louis University, he worked at the Western Brewery until he left the company to form a partnership with another brewer.

In 1861, he enlisted in the United States Army, achieved the rank of Orderly Sergeant. On December 3, 1861, he married Julia Feickert. On August 23, 1862, Adam Lemp died, William returned to the Western Brewery as owner and operator. In 1864 he began building a larger brewery above the caves. Under William Lemp, the Western Brewery became the largest brewery in St. Louis, the largest outside of New York with a single owner. William began to brew and bottle the beer in the same facility to meet growing demand, a practice, rare at that time. Further demonstrating his innovation and business sense, in 1878 he installed the first refrigeration machine in an American brewery, extended the idea to refrigerated railway cars, in a successful attempt to be the first beer in the United States with a national reach. Soon, Lemp Beer was sold worldwide. In 1892, the William J. Lemp Brewing Company was founded from the Western Brewery with William as President, his son William Jr. as Vice-President, his son Louis as Superintendent.

William J. "Billy" Lemp, Jr. was born on August 13, 1867. Like his father, he went to St. Louis University and studied the art of brewing. However, it was William Sr.'s fourth son, born in 1873, whom he hoped to groom to take over the company. Unknown to William Sr. and his family, Frederick had significant health problems. On December 12, 1901, Frederick died of heart failure due to complication of diseases. William Sr. became despondent and declined. He was dealt another blow on January 1904, when his best friend Frederick Pabst died. On the morning of February 13, 1904, William Lemp committed suicide by gunshot, died at 10:15 a.m. On November 7, 1904, William J. "Billy" Lemp, Jr. took over the brewing company as president. Billy had married Lillian Handlan five years earlier, they moved to a new home at 3343 South 13th Street. Lillian Handlan Lemp was nicknamed the “Lavender Lady” for her lavender-colored wardrobe and carriages, she filed for divorce in 1908, charging Billy with cruel treatment and other indignities.

Their divorce proceedings lasted 11 days and ended in Lillian being granted her divorce and custody of William III - their only child - with Billy given only visitation rights. After the trial, Billy built "Alswel" - his country home ov