The National Museum of African Art is the Smithsonian Institution's African art museum, located on the National Mall of the United States capital. Its collections include 9,000 works of traditional and contemporary African art from both Sub-Saharan and Arab North Africa, 300,000 photographs, 50,000 library volumes, it was the first institution dedicated to African art in the United States, remains the largest collection. The Washington Post called the museum a mainstay in the international art world and the main venue for contemporary African art in the United States; the museum was founded in 1964 by a Foreign Service officer and layman who bought African art objects in Germany and multiple houses in the Capitol Hill neighborhood in which to display them. The collection focused on traditional African art and an educational mission to teach black cultural heritage. To ensure the museum's longevity, the founder lobbied the national legislature to adopt the museum under the Smithsonian's auspices.
It became the National Museum of African Art two years later. A new underground museum building was completed in 1987, just off the National Mall and adjacent to other Smithsonian museums, it is among the Smithsonian's smallest museums. The African art museum took a scholarly direction over the next twenty years, with less social programming, it collected contemporary works of historical importance. Exhibitions include works both internal and borrowed, have ranged from solo artist to broad, survey shows; the museum hosts ten special events annually. Reviewers criticized the National Mall building's architecture its lack of natural light; the museum is scheduled for remodeling as part of the Smithsonian's upcoming South Mall project. In the 1950s, American Foreign Service officer Warren M. Robbins collected African figures, masks and textiles from German antique shops. Upon returning to Washington, D. C. in 1960, he opened his collection for viewing. Robbins, without museum, arts, or fundraising experience, believed that the collection could advance interracial civil rights and improve national respect for a major component of black cultural heritage.
Starting in 1963, he expanded his Capitol Hill house museum into adjacent townhouses, including the former house of abolitionist Frederick Douglass. The collections occupied nine townhouses and over a dozen other properties near the Supreme Court Building; the museum was formally founded in 1964 as the Museum of African Art, its first show consisted of the collection and two outside pieces. Under Robbins's tenure, the museum focused on traditional African art and its educational mission to teach black cultural heritage, it served as a convivial meeting place for individuals interested in American racial politics, in keeping with the 1960s and'70s Black Arts Movement effort to change American perceptions towards African cultures. Robbins referred to his museum as "an education department with a museum attached". By 1976, the African art museum had a 20-person staff, 6,000-object collection, Robbins had visited Africa for the first time. To ensure the museum's longevity, Robbins lobbied the national legislature to absorb his museum into the Smithsonian Institution, a federal group of museums and research centers.
The House of Representatives approved this plan in 1978 with backing from Representatives John Brademas, Lindy Boggs, Ron Dellums, the Congressional Black Caucus, former Vice President Hubert Humphrey. The Smithsonian directors adopted the museum the next year and began plans to move the collection from the townhouses into a proper museum. In 1981, the museum was renamed the National Museum of African Art. In early 1983, Sylvia Williams became the museum's director; that year, the Smithsonian broke ground on a new, dedicated building for the African art museum on the National Mall. The complex was situated underground, expanded the museum's exhibition space upon its September 1987 opening. Over time, perspectives towards African art shifted from ethnographic interest to the study of traditional objects for their craftsmanship and aesthetic properties. Williams took a scholarly, art historian approach to the museum, pursued risky, high-cost pieces before their ultimate values were settled; the collection expanded into contemporary works and works from Arab North Africa, beyond the traditional Sub-Saharan.
The museum's founder criticized this direction and felt that the institution was neglecting its public role for "esoteric scholarship". Following Williams's death in 1996, curator Roslyn Walker, served as director from 1997 through her 2002 retirement. Walker continued the direction of her predecessor and added a dedicated contemporary art gallery and curator, she created a development office, which raised money for an early 2000s renovation of the museum's pavilion. Sharon Patton, former director of Oberlin College's Allen Memorial Art Museum, served as director between 2003 and 2008, her tenure included more shows targeting children and an advisory board mass resignation over Smithsonian leadership. Johnnetta Cole, an anthropologist and former president of Spelman and Bennett College, became the museum's director in 2009, her tenure became associated with a controversial 2015 exhibit that featured works from comedian Bill Cosby's private collection just as allegations of sexual assault against him became public.
Two years earlier, the 2013 federal budget sequestration closed one of the museum's permanent exhibitions. Cole retired in March 2017 and was succeeded by British filmmaker and curator Gus Casely-Hayford in February 2018; as of the late 2000s, The Washington Post wrote that the museum struggled with low att
Master of Business Informatics is a postgraduate degree in Business Informatics. BI programs are common in central Europe; the first master programs in Business Informatics were offered by the University of Rostock, as a face-to-face program, by the Virtual Global University together with the European University Viadrina Frankfurt as an online program. An MBI programme, which includes inter-cultural studies affecting business operations in European markets, was first offered by Dublin City University. Within the Bologna process, many Central European universities have been, or are in the process of, setting up master programmes in Business Informatics. Due to legal frameworks and restrictions, most of these programs are forced to award an M. Sc. degree instead of an MBI degree. A typical MBI program is the VGU's "International Master of Business Informatics" program in Germany. Since this program was set up and accredited in accordance with nationwide guidelines for content and structure, it reflects well the state-of-the-art of Business Informatics master programs.
If studied full-time, the MBI program is a four-semester program and can be composed of courses from the following areas of study. Another typical MBI program is the MIAGE program in France, present in more than 20 universities; some MBI programs are organized in tracks or profiles, guiding the students in the design of their master study plan. This is the case of the "Master in Business Informatics" in Utrecht University, which allows students to specialize in one of the following four career areas: business consultant, IT consultant, IT researcher. Basic Technology:Courses may include topics like applied computer science, computer networks and Internet technology, website engineering, programming, or information security. Business Informatics Methods:Courses may focus on information systems development, database management, information systems architectures, business intelligence, or business process modelling. Management:Management oriented topics may be studied in courses on management information systems, information management, project management, management control, knowledge management and organization of IT departments, or software engineering management.
Applications:Important application domains of Business Informatics may be investigated in courses like enterprise resource planning, e-commerce and e-business networking, industrial information systems, or electronic finance/electronic banking. Graduates in Business Informatics can fill positions like information manager, systems analyst, systems designer, project manager, business solutions developer, IT entrepreneur, IS specialist, consultant in areas like enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, customer relationship management, or knowledge management. Virtual Global University Virtual education Virtual University Business Informatics
Miss Moto Maroc is the first all-female motorcycle club in Morocco, the Arab world and in Africa. The club was founded in Casablanca by Dalia Mosbah in 2011. Mosbah claims that the other motorcycle clubs in Morocco were for men and decided that she wanted to create a club for women bikers. Mosbah claims she started the club to breakdown "the Western image of Muslim women as restricted and oppressed, showing that Moroccan women were as free as their Western counterparts", she wanted to push against the gender taboos. The club hosts an international biker rally called March Moto Madness held in Marrakesh during the same month as the International Women's Day. Marrakesh was chosen because of its unique history of women on mopeds and motorcycles since the 1960s and is the subject of Hassan Hajjaj's pop art depiction of women on bikes. Official page: https://www.missmotomaroc.com/
Mayte Michelle Rodriguez is an American actress. Her breakout role was as a troubled boxer in the independent film Girlfight, met with critical acclaim and earned her several awards, including the Independent Spirit Award and Gotham Award for Best Debut Performance; the following year, she starred as Letty Ortiz in the blockbuster film The Fast and the Furious, a role she has reprised in five additional films in the Fast & Furious franchise. During her career, Rodriguez has played in a number of successful action films, including Resident Evil, S. W. A. T. and Avatar. Rodriguez branched into television, playing Ana Lucia Cortez in the second season of the television series Lost, she has had numerous voice work appearances in video games such as Call of Duty and Halo, lent her voice for the 3D animated film Turbo and the television series IGPX. With her films grossing over $5 billion collectively, a 2013 Entertainment Weekly article described Rodriguez as "arguably the most iconic actress in the action genre, as well as one of the most visible Latinas in Hollywood".
Rodriguez was born in Texas. Her mother, Carmen Milady Rodriguez, is Dominican, her father, Rafael Rodriguez, was a Puerto Rican, who served in the U. S. Army. Rodriguez moved to the Dominican Republic with her mother when she was eight years old and lived there until age 11, she moved to Puerto Rico until the age of 17, settled in Jersey City, New Jersey. She dropped out of William L. Dickinson High School, but earned her GED. In total, she was expelled from five schools, she attended business school before quitting to pursue a career in acting, with the ultimate goal of becoming a screenwriter and director. Rodriguez has 10 half-siblings, she was raised by her devoutly religious maternal grandmother, was brought up as a Jehovah's Witness, although she has since abandoned the faith. A DNA test of Rodriguez, performed by the television program Finding Your Roots, found that her ancestry is 72.4% European, 21.3% African, 6.3% Native American. She stated on the show that there was some racial conflict between her families, since her Puerto Rican father had a light complexion and her Dominican mother had a dark complexion.
Having run across an ad for an open casting call and attending her first audition, Rodriguez beat 350 other applicants to win her first role in the low-budget 2000 independent film Girlfight. With her performance as Diana Guzman, a troubled teen who decides to channel her aggression by training to become a boxer, Rodriguez accumulated several awards and nominations for the role in independent circles, including major acting accolades from the National Board of Review, Deauville Film Festival, Independent Spirit Awards, Gotham Awards, Las Vegas Film Critics Sierra Awards, many others; the film itself took home a top prize at the Sundance and won Award of the Youth at the Cannes Film Festival. Rodriguez has had notable roles in other successful movies, including Letty in The Fast and the Furious and Rain Ocampo in Resident Evil, she appeared in Blue Crush and S. W. A. T.. In 2004, Rodriguez lent her voice to the video game Halo 2, she provided the voice of Liz Ricarro in the Cartoon Network series IGPX.
From 2005 to 2006, she played tough cop Ana Lucia Cortez on the television series Lost during the show's second season, returned for a cameo in the second episode of the show's fifth season, "The Lie", in 2009. She returned again in the penultimate episode of the series, "What They Died For", in 2010. In 2006, Rodriguez was featured in her own episode of G4's show Icons. In 2008, Rodriguez appeared in the political drama Battle in Seattle opposite Charlize Theron and Woody Harrelson. In 2009, she appeared in Fast & Furious, the fourth installment of The Fast and the Furious film series; that year, Rodriguez starred in James Cameron's high-budget sci-fi adventure epic Avatar, which became one of the highest-grossing films in history and Rodriguez's most successful film to date. In 2009, Rodriguez starred in Trópico de Sangre, an independent film based on the Dominican Republic's historic Mirabal sisters. In 2010, Rodriguez appeared in Robert Rodriguez's Machete. In 2011, she appeared with Aaron Eckhart in the science fiction film Battle: Los Angeles which grossed over US$200 million in the worldwide box office.
In 2012, she returned to play the good clone and bad clone of Rain Ocampo in Resident Evil: Retribution. In 2013, she reprised her roles as Letty in Fast & Furious 6 and Luz / Shé in the Robert Rodriguez sequel Machete Kills, she voiced a character in DreamWorks Animation's Turbo. In 2015, she appeared in Furious 7. In 2016 she starred in The Assignment alongside Sigourney Weaver. In 2017, she lent her voice to Smurfs: The Lost Village, she starred in The Fate of the Furious, which broke records for the largest global box office opening of all-time. In 2018, she starred opposite Viola Davis in Widows from award-winning director Steve McQueen, in 2019 reunited with director James Cameron on the film Alita: Battle Angel; as of 2013, Rodriguez stated she was working on several projects including a family adventure film, a drug drama, a female-oriented period piece. Rodriguez's hobbies include tactical gun training, DJing. In early 2000, Rodriguez broke off an engagement to a Muslim boyfriend, citing opposition to religious requests he made of her.
The Star Chamber was an English court which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late 15th century to the mid-17th century, was composed of Privy Counsellors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters. The Star Chamber was established to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against and politically prominent people so powerful that ordinary courts would hesitate to convict them of their crimes. However, it became synonymous with social and political oppression through the arbitrary use and abuse of the power it wielded. In modern usage, legal or administrative bodies with strict, arbitrary rulings, no “due process” rights to those accused, secretive proceedings are sometimes called, metaphorically or poetically, "star chambers"; this intended to cast doubt on the legitimacy of the proceedings. "Star Chamber" can rarely, be used in its original meaning, for instance when a politician uses parliamentary privilege to examine and exculpate or condemn a powerful organisation or person.
Due to the constitutional separation of powers and the ceasing of the Star Chamber, the main powers of select committees are to enhance the public debate. Politicians are deemed to no longer wield powers in the criminal law; the first reference to the "star chamber" is as the Sterred chambre. Both forms recur throughout the fifteenth century, with Sterred Chambre last attested as appearing in the Supremacy of the Crown Act 1534; the origin of the name has been explained as first recorded by John Stow, writing in his Survey of London, who noted "this place is called the Star Chamber, at the first all the roofe thereof was decked with images of starres gilted". Gold stars on a blue background were a common medieval decoration for ceilings in richly decorated rooms: the Star Chamber ceiling itself is still to be seen at Leasowe Castle, a similar examples are in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua and elsewhere. Alternatively, William Blackstone, a notable English jurist writing in 1769, speculated that the name may have derived from the legal word "starr" meaning the contract or obligation to a Jew.
This term was in use until 1290. Blackstone thought the "Starr Chamber" might have been used for the deposition and storage of such contracts. However, the Oxford English Dictionary gives this etymology "no claim to consideration". Other etymological speculations mentioned by Blackstone on the use of star include the derivation from Old English steoran meaning "to govern"; the Court evolved from meetings of the King's Council, with its roots going back to the medieval period. Contrary to popular belief, the so-called "Star Chamber Act" of King Henry VII's second Parliament did not empower the Star Chamber, but rather created a separate tribunal distinct from the King's general Council. Well regarded because of its speed and flexibility, Star Chamber was regarded as one of the most just and efficient courts of the Tudor era. Sir Edward Coke once described Star Chamber as "The most honourable court, in the Christian world. Both in respect of the judges in the court and its honourable proceeding."The Star Chamber was made up of Privy Counsellors, as well as common-law judges, it supplemented the activities of the common-law and equity courts in both civil and criminal matters.
In a sense, the court was a court of appeal, a supervisory body, overseeing the operation of the lower courts, although it could hear cases by direct appeal as well. The court was set up to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against the English upper class, those so powerful that ordinary courts could never convict them of their crimes. Another function of the Court of Star Chamber was to act like a court of equity, which could impose punishment for actions which were deemed to be morally reprehensible but were not in violation of the letter of the law; this gave the Star Chamber great flexibility, as it could punish defendants for any action which the court felt should be unlawful when in fact it was technically lawful. However, this meant that the justice meted out by the Star Chamber could be arbitrary and subjective, it enabled the court to be used on in its history as an instrument of oppression rather than for the purpose of justice for which it was intended. Many crimes which are now prosecuted, such as attempt, criminal libel, perjury, were developed by the Court of Star Chamber, along with its more common role of dealing with riots and sedition.
The cases decided in those sessions enabled both the powerful and those without power to seek redress. Thus King Henry VII used the power of Star Chamber to break the power of the landed gentry, such a cause of problems in the Wars of the Roses. Yet, when local courts were clogged or mismanaged, the Court of Star Chamber became a site of remittance for the common people against the excesses of the nobility. In the reign of King Henry VIII, the court was under the leadership of Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cranmer. From this time forward, the Court of Star Chamber became a political weapon for bringing actions against opponents to the policies of King
WFXU, virtual channel 48, is a dual MyNetworkTV/MeTV-affiliated television station licensed to Live Oak, United States, serving the Big Bend of Florida and Southwest Georgia. The station is owned by Gray Television, as part of a duopoly with Thomasville, Georgia-licensed CBS affiliate WCTV; the two stations share studios on Halstead Boulevard in Tallahassee. There is no separate website for WFXU. Due to its transmitter being located on the eastern fringe of the Tallahassee–Thomasville market, WFXU's signal is unable to reach Tallahassee proper. To overcome this, it is relayed on Tallahassee-licensed low-power translator WUFX-LD, which serves the immediate Tallahassee area from a transmitter on North Meridian Road in Tallahassee. In order to serve the entire market, WFXU is relayed on the second digital subchannel of WCTV from that station's transmitter in unincorporated Thomas County, southeast of Metcalf, along the Florida state line; this is the source of WFXU's on-air branding, WCTV 2. WFXU began broadcasting June 15, 1998 as a full-time satellite of Fox affiliate WTLH, intending to improve that station's signal in the eastern part of the market.
It broadcast an analog signal on UHF channel 57 from the transmitter location near Jasper. Owned by L. O. Telecast, Inc. WFXU was sold to KB Prime Media in 1999 and to WTLH owner Pegasus Communications in 2002; that April, WFXU became a UPN affiliate. WFXU's signal was not nearly strong enough to cover the entire market. To make up for this shortfall in coverage, it launched WTLF on May 2003 as a full-time satellite. Pegasus declared bankruptcy in June 2004 over a dispute with DirecTV over marketing of the direct broadcast satellite service in rural areas. On April 1, 2005, WFXU and WTLF switched to The WB, via The WB 100+. Prior to this, The WB was carried on a cable-only WB 100+ station, "WBXT", operated by WTXL-TV. On January 24, 2006, The WB and UPN announced that they would merge to form The CW, it was announced on April 24 that WTLH would create a new second digital subchannel to become Tallahassee's CW affiliate. These plans were modified around August 2006 to make WFXU/WTLF the primary CW affiliate, with a simulcast on WTLH-DT2.
Although most of the Pegasus station group was sold in August 2006 to private investment firm CP Media, LLC of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, WFXU was instead sold to Budd Broadcasting that November. Since the station has operated intermittently as an independent station, with CW programming being seen only on WTLF and WTLH-DT2. More it resumed operations from October 17 to November 14, 2010 and from November 12 to early December 2011 after being silent since November 2009. In June 2008, WFXU applied to relocate its digital transmitter to west of High Springs, near Gainesville, with the intent of refocusing its viewership on that market; the FCC dismissed the application that December. The call letters were changed to WTXI on December 12, 2011, parking the call letters for a co-owned station in Miami; the station had a construction permit, which would have enabled the station to broadcast at 1000 kilowatts at 278.9 meters HAAT, from a transmitter site along US 441 in northern Columbia County, about 20 miles north of Lake City, allowing rimshot coverage into Gainesville and Waycross, Georgia.
This permit expired sometime in the late 2010s. Gray Television agreed to purchase WFXU, along with translator WUFX-LD, on June 26, 2017 in a $600,000 deal; the sale made WFXU and WUFX-LD sister stations to WCTV in Thomasville, Georgia and WCJB-TV in Gainesville. The sale was completed on December 27. On April 30, 2018, WFXU became affiliated with MyNetworkTV and MeTV; the stations' digital signals are multiplexed: Query the FCC's TV station database for WFXU Query the FCC's TV station database for WUFX-LD BIAfn's Media Web Database -- Information on WFXU-TV