Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun known as Madame Lebrun or Madame Le Brun, was a prominent French portrait painter of the late eighteenth century. Her artistic style is considered part of the aftermath of Rococo with elements of an adopted Neoclassical style, her subject matter and color palette can be classified as Rococo, but her style is aligned with the emergence of Neoclassicism. Vigée Le Brun created a name for herself in Ancien Régime society by serving as the portrait painter to Marie Antoinette, she enjoyed the patronage of European aristocrats and writers, was elected to art academies in ten cities. Vigée Le Brun created 200 landscapes. In addition to many works in private collections, her paintings are owned by major museums, such as the Louvre, Hermitage Museum, National Gallery in London, Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, many other collections in continental Europe and the United States. Born in Paris on 16 April 1755, Élisabeth Louise Vigée was the daughter of a portraitist and fan painter, Louis Vigée, from whom she received her first instruction.
Her mother, was a hairdresser. In 1760, at the age of five, she entered a convent, where she remained until 1766, her father died. In 1768, her mother married a wealthy jeweler, Jacques-François Le Sèvre, shortly after, the family moved to the Rue Saint-Honoré, close to the Palais Royal. In her memoir, Vigée Le Brun directly stated her feelings about her step-father: "I hated this man, he wore his clothes, just as they were, without altering them to fit his figure." During this period, Élisabeth benefited from the advice of Gabriel François Doyen, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Joseph Vernet, whose influence is evident in her portrait of her younger brother, Étienne Vigée. By the time she was in her early teens, Élisabeth was painting portraits professionally. After her studio was seized for her practicing without a license, she applied to the Académie de Saint-Luc, which unwittingly exhibited her works in their Salon. In 1774, she was made a member of the Académie. On 11 January 1776 she married a painter and art dealer.
Vigée Le Brun began exhibiting her work at their home in Paris, the Hôtel de Lubert, the Salons she held here supplied her with many new and important contacts. Her husband's great-great-uncle was Charles Le Brun, the first director of the French Academy under Louis XIV. Vigée Le Brun painted portraits of many of the nobility. On 12 February 1780, Vigée-Le Brun gave birth to a daughter, Jeanne Lucie Louise, whom she called Julie and nicknamed "Brunette." In 1781 she and her husband toured Flanders and the Netherlands, where seeing the works of the Flemish masters inspired her to try new techniques. Her Self-Portrait with Straw Hat was a "free imitation" of Peter Paul Rubens' La Chapeau de Paille. Dutch and Flemish influences have been noted in The Comte d'Espagnac and Madame Perregaux. In 1787, she caused a minor public scandal when her Self-Portrait with Her Daughter Julie was exhibited at the Salon of 1787 showing her smiling and open-mouthed, in direct contravention of traditional painting conventions going back to antiquity.
The court gossip-sheet Mémoires secrets commented: "An affectation which artists, art-lovers and persons of taste have been united in condemning, which finds no precedent among the Ancients, is that in smiling, shows her teeth." In light of this and her other Self-Portrait with Her Daughter Julie, Simone de Beauvoir dismissed Vigée Le Brun as narcissistic in The Second Sex: "Madame Vigée-Lebrun never wearied of putting her smiling maternity on her canvases." As her career blossomed, Vigée Le Brun was granted patronage by Marie Antoinette. She painted more than thirty portraits of the queen and her family, leading to the common perception that she was the official portraitist of Marie Antoinette. At the Salon of 1783, Vigée Le Brun exhibited Marie-Antoinette in a Muslin Dress, sometimes called Marie-Antoinette en gaulle, in which the queen chose to be shown in a simple, informal white cotton garment; the resulting scandal was prompted by both the informality and the queen's decision to be shown in that way.
Vigée Le Brun's Marie-Antoinette and her Children was evidently an attempt to improve the queen's image by making her more relatable to the public, in the hopes of countering the bad press and negative judgments that the queen had received. The portrait shows the queen at home in the Palace of Versailles, engaged in her official function as the mother of the king's children, but suggests Marie-Antoinette's uneasy identity as a foreign-born queen whose maternal role was her only true function under Salic law. On 31 May 1783, Vigée Le Brun was received as a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, she was one of only fifteen women to be granted full membership in the Académie between 1648 and 1793. Her rival, Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, was admitted on the same day. Vigée Le Brun was refused on the grounds that her husband was an art dealer, but the Académie was overruled by an order from Louis XVI because Marie Antoinette put considerable pressure on her husband on behalf of her portraitist.
As her reception piece, Vigée Le Brun submitted an allegorical painting, Peace Bringing Back Abundance, instead of a portrait. As a consequence, the Académie did not place her work within a standard category of painting—either history or portraiture. Vigée Le Brun's membership in the Académie dissolved after the French Revolution because female acad
Clara Peeters was a still-life painter who came from Antwerp and trained in the tradition of Flemish Baroque painting, but made her career in the new Dutch Republic, as part of Dutch Golden Age painting. Many aspects of her life and work remain unclear outside the period 1607 to 1621 from which period dated paintings are known; as Seymour Slive puts it "Not a single uncontested document has surfaced about her life but there is reason to believe she was active in both Flanders and Holland." She was unusual for her time in being a female painter, is the earliest significant woman painter of the Dutch Golden Age. Most female Dutch painters specialized in still lifes, which did not require knowledge of anatomy, among other advantages for women. Unlike Maria van Oosterwyck and Rachel Ruysch, who specialized in flower painting, Peeters painted subjects including food, was prominent among the artists who shaped the traditions of the Dutch ontbijtjes, "breakfast pieces" with plain food and simple vessels, banketje, "banquet pieces" with expensive cups and vessels in precious metals.
More than any other artist, her works include careful depictions of different types of cheese. Little is known about the life of Clara Peeters, it is agreed by scholars that her work points to her being a native of Antwerp. The city of Antwerp's archives hold a record of a Clara Peeters, daughter of Jean Peeters, baptized on 15 May 1594 in the Church of St. Walburga in Antwerp. A second document indicates a marriage between a Clara Peeters and Henricus Joosen on 31 May 1639, in the same church. However, both Clara and Peeters were common names in Antwerp. A baptism in 1594 would imply that her 1607-dated paintings were done when she was 12 or 13; some scholars doubt that those early works could have been done by one so young and have posited that she was born in the 1580s. Peeters was established in Amsterdam by 1611 and is documented in The Hague in 1617; some have suggested that in light of there not being any evident work by Peeters after 1621, she ceased painting after getting married, as for example Judith Leyster did.
Because of the number of apparent copies of her work by various hands, some speculate that she may have headed a small school of artists. Two 1630s paintings of nearly the same still life, in her style and signed CP, are considered anonymous and not from her hand. A painting by her and dated 1657 was recorded but is now lost; this is much than the dating given to her surviving works. No record indicating Peeters' date of death has been found. Peeters' first known painting is signed and dated 1607, her work suggests training in Antwerp, a city where artists stressed detail and careful finish in painting. No record of her apprenticeship has been found. Most artists as well as apprentices were included in the records of the local Guild of Saint Luke. However, her name is not found in any of the Guild's records in Antwerp nor those of Amsterdam, Delft, The Hague or Middelburg. Scholars speculate that she may have been the daughter of a painter, thus not required to be included in the apprenticeship records.
Or the answer may be in the fact that the Antwerp Guild records were lost for the years 1607 to 1628, some of the names are known only through other documents. Many scholars believe her work resembles that of Osias Beert and suppose a relationship between the two; some suggest. Beert began his career as a still-life painter when he became a master of the Antwerp guild in 1602; however none of his works are dated, although some of the copper plates were stamped with dates from 1606 to 1609 by their supplier. Their relationship must remain speculative, she has been linked to Antwerp artists Hans van Essen and Jan van der Beeck. Jan Bruegel the elder has been suggested as a possible teacher. Although she was not in its records, at least one painting of Peeters bears the stamp of the Antwerp Guild on its back, indicating she was indeed a member, or at least working on panels made by members of the Antwerp Guild. There is much more information about her works than of her life. Peeters signed thirty-one works "CLARA PEETERS" or "CLARA P.", dated many of them, leaving a strong record of her work from 1607 to 1621.
Eighteen of these were completed by the time. In addition, another seventy-six works are speculated to be in her oeuvre, although documentation is lacking to assign them affirmatively to Peeters. Several of her paintings, including two illustrated here, carry the signature represented as an engraved inscription on the side of the handle of the same decorated knife; the knife has two nude female figures, no doubt allegorical, on the main face of the handle, visible, is typical of the sort of "brides knife" Antwerp silversmiths produced around 1595‒1600. These may represent a real knife owned by Peeters, or an imagined one. Peeters was in the earliest group of painters of still lifes and flowers, while this genre was still new. Fewer than ten paintings of flowers and fewer than five of food produced in the Netherlands can be dated before 1608, when she painted her first recorded work, she painted a set of four larger than usual still lifes, three dated 1611, that were in the Spanish royal collection by the following century and are now in the Prado.
The set includes the e
Marie Laurencin was a French painter and printmaker. She became an important figure in the Parisian avant-garde as a member of the Cubists associated with the Section d'Or. Laurencin was born in Paris, where she lived much of her life. At 18, she studied porcelain painting in Sèvres, she returned to Paris and continued her art education at the Académie Humbert, where she changed her focus to oil painting. During the early years of the 20th century, Laurencin was an important figure in the Parisian avant-garde. A member of both the circle of Pablo Picasso, Cubists associated with the Section d'Or, such as Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri le Fauconnier and Francis Picabia, exhibiting with them at the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d'Automne, Galeries Dalmau at the first Cubist exhibition in Spain, she became romantically involved with the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, has been identified as his muse. In addition, Laurencin had important connections to the salon of the American expatriate and famed lesbian writer Natalie Clifford Barney.
She had lesbian affairs. During the First World War, Laurencin left France for exile in Spain with her German-born husband, Baron Otto von Waëtjen, since through her marriage she had automatically lost her French citizenship; the couple subsequently lived together in Düsseldorf. After they divorced in 1920, she returned to Paris, where she achieved financial success as an artist until the economic depression of the 1930s. During the 1930s she worked as an art instructor at a private school, she lived in Paris until her death. Laurencin's works include paintings, watercolors and prints, she is known as one of the few female Cubist painters, with Sonia Delaunay, Marie Vorobieff, Franciska Clausen. While her work shows the influence of Cubist painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, her close friend, she developed a unique approach to abstraction which centered on the representation of groups of women and female portraits, her work lies outside the bounds of Cubist norms in her pursuit of a feminine aesthetic by her use of pastel colors and curvilinear forms.
Laurencin continued to explore themes of femininity and what she considered to be feminine modes of representation until her death. Her works include paintings, watercolors and prints. In 1983, on the one hundredth anniversary of Laurencin's birth, the Musée Marie Laurencin opened in Nagano Prefecture, Japan; the museum is home to more than 500 of an archive. Selected works Birnbaum, Paula J. Women Artists in Interwar France: Framing Femininities, Ashgate, 2011. Gere, Charlotte. Marie Laurencin, London - Paris, Flammarion, 1977 Groult, Flora. Marie Laurencin, Mercure de France, 1987 Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. "Marie Laurencin: Une Femme Inadaptée" in Feminist Histories of Art Ashgate Publishing, 2003. Marchesseau, Daniel. Marie Laurencin, Tokyo, éd. Kyuryudo & Paris, Hazan, 1981 Marchesseau, Daniel. Marie Laurencin, Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre gravé, Tokyo, éd. Kyuryudo, 1981 Marchesseau, Daniel. Marie Laurencin, Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, 2 vol. Tokyo, éd. Musée Marie Laurencin, 1985 & 1999 Marchesseau, Daniel.
Marie Laurencin, Cent Œuvres du musée Marie Laurencin, Fondation Pierre Gianadda, 1993 Marchesseau, Marie Laurencin, Musée Marmottan Monet / Hazan, 2013 Otto, Elizabeth. "Memories of Bilitis: Marie Laurencin beyond the Cublist Context". Genders.org. Archived from the original on 2007-02-12. Pierre, José. Marie Laurencin, France-Loisirs, 1988ArchivesFonds Marie Laurencin, Bibliothèque littéraire Jacques Doucet, Université de Paris Media related to Marie Laurencin at Wikimedia Commons Marie Laurencin Bio - Findlay Galleries Marielaurencin.com Musée Marie Laurencin, Japan. Artcyclopedia.com: Marie Laurencin
Lenore "Lee" Krasner was an American abstract expressionist painter, with a strong speciality in collage, married to Jackson Pollock. This somewhat overshadowed her contribution at the time, though there was much cross-pollination between their two styles. Krasner’s training, influenced by George Bridgman and Hans Hofmann, was the more formalized in the depiction of human anatomy, this enriched Pollock’s more intuitive and unstructured output. Krasner is now seen as a key transitional figure within abstraction, who connected early-20th-century art with the new ideas of postwar America, her work fetches high prices at auction, she is one of the few female artists to have had a retrospective show at the Museum of Modern Art. Krasner was born as Lena Krassner on October 27, 1908 in New York. Krasner was the daughter of Joseph Krasner, her parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants, from a Jewish community in what is now Ukraine. Her parents fled to the United States to escape the Russo-Japanese War, her mother Chane changed her name to Anna.
Lee was the fourth of five children, including her sister and the first, born in America. She was the only one of her siblings to be born in the United States. From an early age, Krasner knew. Krasner's career as an artist began, she sought out enrollment at Washington Irving High School for Girls since they offered an art major. After graduating from high school, she attended the Women's Art School of Cooper Union on a scholarship. Here, she completed the course work required for a teaching certificate in art. Krasner pursued yet more art education at the illustrious National Academy of Design, completing her course load there in 1932. By 1928, she enrolled in the National Academy of Design. By attending a technical art school, Krasner was able to gain an extensive and thorough artistic education as illustrated through her knowledge of the techniques of the Old Masters, she became skilled in portraying anatomically correct figures. There are few works that survive from this time period apart from a few self-portraits and still lifes since most of the works were burned in a fire.
One of the images that still exists from this time period is her "Self Portrait" painted in 1930. She submitted it to the National Academy in order to enroll in a certain class, but the judges could not believe that the young artist produced a self-portrait en plein air. In it, she depicts herself with a defiant expression surrounded by nature, she briefly enrolled in the Art Students League of New York in 1928. Here, she took a class led by George Bridgman. Krasner was influenced by the opening of the Museum of Modern Art in 1929, she was affected by post-impressionism and grew critical of the academic notions of style she had learned at the National Academy. In the 1930s, she began studying modern art through learning the components of composition and theory; this initial investigation into modern art formed her work throughout the rest of her career. She began taking classes from Hans Hofmann in 1937, which modernized her approach to the nude and still life, he emphasized the two-dimensional nature of the picture plane and usage of color to create spatial illusion, not representative of reality through his lessons.
Throughout her classes with Hofmann, Krasner worked in an advanced style of cubism known as neo-cubism. During the class, a human nude or a still life setting would be the model from which Krasner and other students would have to work, she created charcoal drawings of the human models and oil on paper color studies of the still life settings. She illustrated female nudes in a cubist manner with tension achieved through the fragmentation of forms and the opposition of light and dark colors; the still lifes illustrated her interest in fauvism since she suspended brightly colored pigment on white backgrounds. Hans Hofmann "was negative" she said "but one day he stood before my easel and he gave me the first praise I had received as an artist from him, he said,'This is so good, you would never know it was done by a woman". She received praise from Piet Mondrian who once told her "You have a strong inner rhythm, it became too difficult for Krasner to support herself as a waitress due to the Great Depression.
In order to provide for herself, she joined the Works Progress Administration's Federal Art Project in 1935. She worked on the mural division as an assistant to Max Spivak, her job was to enlarge other artists' designs for large-scaled public murals. Since murals were created to be understood and appreciated by the general public, the abstract art Krasner produced was undesirable for murals. While Krasner was happy to have a job, she was dissatisfied since she did not like working with figurative images created by other artists. Throughout the late 1930s and early 1940s, she created gouache sketches in the hopes of one day creating an abstract mural; as soon as one of her proposals for a mural was approved for the WYNC radio station, the Works Progress Administration turned into War Services and all art had to be created for war propaganda. She continued working for War Services by creating collages for the war effort which were displayed in the windows of nineteen department stores in Brooklyn and Manhattan.
She was involved with the Artists Union during her employment with the WPA but was one of the first to quit the organization when she realized the communists were taking it over. By being part
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Lesley Dill is an American contemporary artist. Her work, using a wide variety of media including sculpture, performance art and others, explores the power of language and the mystical nature of the psyche. Dill lives and works in Brooklyn, New York, her work is represented by Nohra Haime Gallery in New York City. Dill was born in 1950 to high school teachers, was raised in Maine; the natural landscape in Maine served as an inspiration for her work and its impact can be found in several pieces, including the installation piece SHIMMER. Dill received a Bachelor of Arts in English in 1972 from Trinity College and went on to receive a Master of Arts in Teaching from Smith College in 1974. After a period of teaching in public and private schools, Dill went on to receive a Master of Fine Arts from the Maryland Institute College of Art in 1980, it wasn't until her late twenties. Growing up, she was an avid reader, her fascination with language can be found in her art. Before pursuing a career in art, Dill's exposure to art was limited to the crafts practiced by various family members, including ceramics, linocut printing, rug making, weaving.
As a result, some craft practices can be found in her art. In 1985, Dill married filmmaker Ed Robbins, their life together has played a role in shaping her work in the places they traveled together. In the eighties, Dill began creating both wood and cast bronze sculptures. A gift of Emily Dickinson poems in 1990 proved to be important to the development of Dill's style, as she began to work the text of poems directly into her pieces, something that she has continued throughout her career with the works of a variety of poets, including Emily Dickinson, Pablo Neruda, Salvador Espiru. Another major influence on Dill's work is the time she spent living and working in India with her husband. There she was impacted by the landscape, architecture and other sensory aspects of her environment, her decision to experiment with painting text on human models and photographing these "living sculptures" was inspired by watching Indian women creating henna designs. Her forays into photography transitioned into working in performance art, with pieces like Speaking Dress.
She explores the relationship of text and language to a variety of media employing a diverse range of materials. Voices in My Head from 1997, in the collection of the Honolulu Museum of Art, demonstrates how the artist combines photography with text, embellishing the work with charcoal and thread. Dill has described language as being "...the touchstone, the pivot point of all my work." Her work crosses traditional boundaries between artistic disciplines and includes printmaking, sculpture and performance art used in tandem with one another. In the 1990s, Dill began a project with Graphicstudio/USF in Tampa, through which she created several large-scale pieces which were hung as billboards around the city; the billboards reached a broader audience, including many who may not visit traditional museum or gallery settings. In addition to her sculpture and works on paper, Dill is known for her performance work and public projects. In 2000, the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, Winston-Salem presented Lesley Dill, Tongues on Fire: Visions and Ecstasy, the artist's first community-based project, which included a performance done in collaboration with the Emmanuel Baptist Church Spiritual Choir.
In 2003, Dill's performance project I Heard a Voice, done in collaboration with Tom Morgan and the Ars Nova Singers, was presented at the Evergreen Cultural Centre. It included the world premiere of the performance piece. In 2008, Dill conceived and directed a full-scale opera, Divide Light, based on the language of Emily Dickinson, it premiered in August 2008 at the Montalvo Arts Center, California. The opera was commissioned by Montalvo Arts Center and was supported in part by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation Multi Arts Production Fund, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts. A film of the opera, Divide Light, premiered in New York City at the Anthology Film Archives in April 2009; the music was done in collaboration with composer Richard Marriott. In 2012, Dill began collaborating with Pamela Ordoñez on Drunk with the Starry Void, a multimedia musical performance, it premiered in the summer of 2015 at the McNay Museum in San Antonio.
In April 2018, Divide Light was re-performed at Dixon Place in New York City by the New Camerata Opera. Dill's work has been exhibited and the subject of numerous solo shows across the United States at both commercial galleries as well as museums such as the Neuberger Museum of Art, Mississippi Museum of Art, Queens Museum of Art and the Dorsky Museum, her work can be found in the collections of Buffalo. In 2002–2003, Dill's first museum retrospective, Lesley Dill: A Ten Year Survey, organized by the Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art at SUNY New Paltz, traveled to the CU Art Galleries, University of Colorado, Boulder. In 2007, Tremendous World, an exhibition at the Neuberger Museum in Purchase, NY, featured three new large-scale works, two measuring 20 x 65 feet, some of D
Mount Vernon Square
Mount Vernon Square is a city square and neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D. C; the square is located where the following streets would otherwise intersect: Massachusetts Avenue NW, New York Avenue NW, K Street NW, 8th Street NW. Mount Vernon Square is bounded on the east by 7th Street NW, on the west by 9th Street NW, on the north by Mount Vernon Place, on the south by a two-block section of K Street NW, offset from the rest of K Street. In the center of the square is the Carnegie Library of Washington D. C. finished as a gift of industrialist Andrew Carnegie. The white marble Beaux-Arts building was the central library for Washington, D. C. and housed the Historical Society of Washington, D. C. An Apple Store will occupy the building; the square was in the original L'Enfant Plan for the city but in the early 1800s was divided into four triangles by the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and New York Avenue. The old Northern Liberty Market stood along Seventh Street until 1872, when it was demolished by Governor Alexander Shepherd in a night raid with two to three hundred men.
The roadways were removed in 1882 at the request of residents who complained that "in its former condition the constant passage of vehicles of all descriptions through the park made it unpleasant and oftentimes dangerous for those frequenting it." The Carnegie Library of Washington D. C. was built in 1903. It was the central library for the city until 1972, when the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library was completed; the library sat abandoned for a decade until it was renovated as a library for the University of the District of Columbia. In 1999, the library became the headquarters for the Historical Society of Washington, D. C; the City Museum of Washington opened in the library in May 2003, but closed less than two years later. In 2008, a sculpture was installed on the lawn at the south side of the square - "The Hand" created by Jim Fauntleroy in the 1960s for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s Poor People’s Campaign; the Washington Convention and Sports Authority took over the library building in 2011, renting it out for events.
The building underwent significant renovations in 2018, to accommodate a new Apple Store and exhibit space for the Historical Society. Mount Vernon Square refers to the neighborhood northeast of the square, extending north to O Street and east to New Jersey Avenue. In the early 20th century, Victorian-style townhomes occupied the area, it was a vibrant business district until the Great Depression, when the area went into a steep decline. During the 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr. riots, the area around the square suffered rioting and extensive vandalism. In the 1980s, 7th Street was shut down for several years during the construction of the Green Line - the Mount Vernon Square station opened in 1991. Washington's Chinatown is just south of the square, the Shaw neighborhood is just to the north, Mount Vernon Triangle is the neighborhood directly to the east. In 1977, the city used eminent domain to purchase several blocks southwest of Mount Vernon Square. Over the next few years, the homes and businesses on these blocks were razed.
The old Washington Convention Center was constructed on the area block bounded by New York Avenue NW, 9th Street NW, H Street NW, 11th Street NW. Construction on the center began in 1980, it opened on December 10, 1982. At 800,000 square feet, it was the fourth largest facility in the United States at the time. However, during the 1980s and 1990s, numerous larger and more modern facilities were constructed around the country, by 1997 the Washington Convention Center had become the 30th largest facility. In 1998, construction began on a new larger convention center, occupying several blocks directly north of Mount Vernon Square; the new convention center was completed in 2003, renamed the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in 2007. Many small businesses existed around Mount Vernon Square before the construction of the convention centers. One of the last businesses to exist on the west side of the square was a Chinese restaurant named Nan King, open until 1979. By 2004, Alperstein's Furniture was the only store on 7th Street to survive through the construction of the Metro station and the new convention center.
It closed with a restaurant moving into its building. On the west side of the square is the 901 New York Avenue office building, completed in 2003. On the east are two large office buildings, including the headquarters of law firm Arnold & Porter, the headquarters for the Association of American Medical Colleges and the American Dental Education Association. On the south side is the Renaissance Washington DC Hotel, the Techworld plaza office development, undergoing redevelopment and re-branding as "Anthem Row."Across from the northwest corner of the square is the Washington Marriott Marquis, the largest hotel in the city, which opened in 2014. The lot at the southwest corner of the square was the former site of the old Washington Convention Center, now the CityCenterDC development, which opened in 2015. There are two historic buildings northwest of the square: the Mount Vernon Place United Methodist Church and the American Federation of Labor Building; the Mount Vernon Place church was built by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
The Labor building was built in 1916 as the headquarters for the American Federation of Labor. List of circles in Washington, D. C