People Places
History Art

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA's specific roles include: Supplying Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere; this is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate and commerce as well. Providing Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, local and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species.

Conducting Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate and water, commerce and transportation; the five "fundamental activities" are: Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time. Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies, some of which were among the oldest in the federal government: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration, into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965.

NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970 after U. S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment… for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources." NOAA is a part of the Department of Commerce rather than the Department of Interior because of a feud between President Nixon and his interior secretary, Wally Hickel, over the Nixon Administration's Vietnam War policy. Nixon did not like Hickel's letter urging Nixon to listen to the Vietnam War demonstrators, thus punished Hickel by not putting NOAA in the Interior Department. In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States Survey of the Coast. In 2013, NOAA closed 600 weather stations. NOAA was formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees.

Its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps. Since February 2019, NOAA has been headed by Neil Jacobs, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator. NOAA has not had a confirmed leader since January 2017. Trump nominated Jacobs to be the 11th administrator in December 2019, one month after his previous nominee Barry Myers withdrew for health reasons. Since February 25, 2019, Neil Jacobs, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Environmental Observation and Prediction, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Jacobs succeeded Timothy Gallaudet; the three have served in series as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration on January 20, 2017. In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration.

After two years in the nomination process, on November 21, 2019, Myers withdrew his name from consideration due to health concerns. NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Weather Service, the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations, and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration. The National Weather Service is tasked with providing "weather and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers, more than 120 local weather forecast offices.

They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and warnings on a daily basis. They issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming

Technology acceptance model

The technology acceptance model is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. The actual system use is the end-point where we want everyone to be able to do with technology, so we have to form Behavioral Intention, a factor that leads people to use the technology; the behavioral intention is influenced by the attitude, the general impression of the technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with a new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it, notably: Perceived usefulness – This was defined by Fred Davis as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance", it means. Perceived ease-of-use – Davis defined this as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort". If the technology is easy to use the barriers conquered. If it's not easy to use and the interface is complicated, no one has a positive attitudes towards it.

External variables such as social influence is an important factor to determine the attitude. When these things are in place, people will have the intention to use the technology. However, the perception may change depending on gender because everyone is different; the TAM has been continuously studied and expanded—the two major upgrades being the TAM 2 and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. A TAM 3 has been proposed in the context of e-commerce with an inclusion of the effects of trust and perceived risk on system use. TAM is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action in the literature. Davis's technology acceptance model is the most applied model of users' acceptance and usage of technology, it was developed by Richard Bagozzi. TAM replaces many of TRA's attitude measures with the two technology acceptance measures—ease of use, usefulness. TRA and TAM, both of which have strong behavioural elements, assume that when someone forms an intention to act, that they will be free to act without limitation.

In the real world there will be many constraints, such as limited freedom to act. Bagozzi and Warshaw say: Because new technologies such as personal computers are complex and an element of uncertainty exists in the minds of decision makers with respect to the successful adoption of them, people form attitudes and intentions toward trying to learn to use the new technology prior to initiating efforts directed at using. Attitudes towards usage and intentions to use may be ill-formed or lacking in conviction or else may occur only after preliminary strivings to learn to use the technology evolve. Thus, actual usage may not be a immediate consequence of such attitudes and intentions. Earlier research on the diffusion of innovations suggested a prominent role for perceived ease of use. Tornatzky and Klein analysed the adoption, finding that compatibility, relative advantage, complexity had the most significant relationships with adoption across a broad range of innovation types. Eason studied perceived usefulness in terms of a fit between systems and job profiles, using the terms "task fit" to describe the metric Legris, Ingham & Collerette 2003 suggest that TAM must be extended to include variables that account for change processes and that this could be achieved through adoption of the innovation model into TAM.

Several researchers have replicated Davis's original study to provide empirical evidence on the relationships that exist between usefulness, ease of use and system use. Much attention has focused on testing the robustness and validity of the questionnaire instrument used by Davis. Adams et al. replicated the work of Davis to demonstrate the validity and reliability of his instrument and his measurement scales. They extended it to different settings and, using two different samples, they demonstrated the internal consistency and replication reliability of the two scales. Hendrickson et al. found high good test-retest reliability. Szajna found that the instrument had predictive validity for intent to use, self-reported usage and attitude toward use; the sum of this research has confirmed the validity of the Davis instrument, to support its use with different populations of users and different software choices. Segars and Grover re-examined al.'s replication of the Davis work. They were critical of the measurement model used, postulated a different model based on three constructs: usefulness and ease-of-use.

These findings do not yet seem to have been replicated. However, some aspects of these findings were tested and supported by Workman by separating the dependent variable into information use versus technology use. Mark Keil and his colleagues have developed Davis's model into what they call the Usefulness/EOU Grid, a 2×2 grid where each quadrant represents a different combination of the two attributes. In the context of software use, this provid


The RS-449 specification known as EIA-449 or TIA-449, defines the functional and mechanical characteristics of the interface between data terminal equipment a computer, data communications equipment a modem or terminal server. The full title of the standard is EIA-449 General Purpose 37-Position and 9-Position Interface for Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange. 449 was part of an effort to replace RS-232C, offering much higher performance and longer cable lengths while using the same DB-25 connectors. This was split into two related efforts, RS-422 and RS-423; as feature creep set in, the number of required pins began to grow beyond what a DB-25 could handle, the RS-449 effort started to define a new connector. 449 emerged as an unwieldy system using a large DC-37 connector along with a separate DE-9 connector if the 422 protocol was used. The resulting cable mess was dismissed as hopeless before the standard was finalized; the effort was abandoned in favor of RS-530, which used a single DB-25 connector.

During the late 1970s, the EIA began developing two new serial data standards to replace RS-232. RS-232 had a number of issues that limited its practicality. Among these was the large voltages used for signalling, +5 and -5V for mark and space. To supply these, a +12V power supply was required, which made it somewhat difficult to implement in a market, being dominated by +5/0V transistor-transistor logic circuitry and lower-voltage CMOS implementations; these high voltages and unbalanced communications resulted in short cable lengths, nominally set to a maximum of 50 feet, although in practice they could be somewhat longer if running at slower speeds. The reason for the large voltages was due to ground voltages. RS-232 included both a protective ground and a signal ground in the standard, but did not define how these were to be implemented, it was the case that the protective ground was left unconnected, the signal ground was connected to ground at both ends. As a result, if there was a slight difference in ground potential at the two ends of the cable, the voltage in the signal ground pin might not be zero, large signal voltages were needed to provide a positive signal in this case.

To address this problem, the new RS-422 and RS-423 standards used well-defined grounding, always based on the sender's reference, made the signal only 400 mV above or below this reference. In the case of RS-422, for instance, every signal had a second pin operating at the opposite voltage, thereby balancing the voltages and always providing a positive signal; when this process was starting, the decision was made to unbundle the mechanical aspects of the standard from the electrical, with the former becoming the RS-449 standards track. The primary difference between RS-422 and RS-423 was that the former had a return line for every signal, while the had a single shared signal ground; this meant. Along with other changes, the number of connections began to grow, to the point where RS-423, functionally similar to RS-232, no longer fit in a DB25 connector; this led to the use of the larger DC-37, but that did not have enough pins to support RS-422, so this was "solved" by adding the additional ground wires to a separate DE-9 connector.

This resulted in a "horrendous number of wires" and the conclusion in 1983 that its "success... remains to be seen."The standard was used, although it could be found on some network communication equipment. EIA-449-1 was rescinded in January 1986 and superseded by EIA/TIA-530-A, the final version EIA-449-1 was withdrawn in September 2002; the most widespread use of RS-422/423, the early Apple Macintosh computers, used a simple 9-pin DIN connector and for inter-machine links used only three-wire connectors. Electronic Industries Association, EIA Standard 449 November 1977, reprinted in Telebyte Technology "Data Communication Library" Greenlawn NY, 1985, no ISBN, no Library of Congress card number Witten, Ian. "Welcome to the Standards Jungle". Byte. Vol. 8 no. 2. Pp. 146–178. Media related to RS-422-423 449 pinout at Wikimedia Commons EIA/TIA Standards RS-449 interface pinout and signals