Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere
The Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, or USC, is a high-ranking official in the United States Department of Commerce and the principal advisor to the United States Secretary of Commerce on the environmental and scientific activities of the Department. The Under Secretary is dual hatted as the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration within the Commerce Department; the Under Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The current acting Under Secretary is Neal Jacobs, the agency’s assistant secretary for environmental observation and prediction, who took office on February 25, 2019, after being promoted to replace Timothy Gallaudet so that Gallaudet could focus on his Senate-confirmed post as the assistant secretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere. Donald Trump nominated former AccuWeather CEO Barry Myers to serve as Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere on Oct 12, 2017.
His nomination was returned to President Trump by the Senate on January 3, 2018, resubmitted on January 8, 2018 returned again on January 3, 2019, resubmitted again on January 16, 2019. As the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Under Secretary oversees the day-to-day functions of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as laying out its strategic and operational future. Components of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that the Administrator oversees include the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Ocean Service, National Weather Service and Atmospheric Research and Aviation Operations, the NOAA Corps. With the rank of Under Secretary, the USC is a Level III position within the Executive Schedule Since January 2010, the annual rate of pay for Level III is $165,300; the Under Secretary ranks fifth in the line of succession for the office of Secretary of Commerce.
The position of Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere was created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Fisheries Program Authorization Act of 1985. The position was created to serve as the Administrator of NOAA, it created an Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere to serve as Deputy Administrator of NOAA. William Evans was the first person to have the title of Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere; the position of Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was created earlier by the Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1970. Officials reporting to the USC/Administrator include: Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Conservation and Management/Deputy Administrator Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Environmental Observation and Prediction/Deputy Administration NOAA Chief Scientist Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Operations Assistant Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service Assistant Administrator, National Ocean Service Assistant Administrator, National Environmental Satellite and Information Service Assistant Administrator and Atmospheric Research Assistant Administrator, National Weather Service Assistant Administrator, Program Planning and Integration From 1970 to 1988, the head of NOAA was the NOAA Administrator.
Starting with Bill Evans in 1988, that person held the title of Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere
Northwest (Washington, D.C.)
Northwest is the northwestern quadrant of Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States, is located north of the National Mall and west of North Capitol Street. It is the largest of the four quadrants of the city, it includes the central business district, the Federal Triangle, the museums along the northern side of the National Mall, as well as many of the District's historic neighborhoods. Politically, Northwest is made up of parts of Wards 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, with Wards 1 and 3 being the only wards located within the quadrant. Northwest includes the following 57 neighborhoods: Northwest contains many college campuses, including American University, George Washington University, Georgetown University, Howard University, the University of the District of Columbia; the Capital One Arena, home of the Washington Wizards, the Washington Capitals, the Georgetown Hoyas as well as the venue for many concerts and other events, is located in the District's Chinatown in Northwest. The National Cathedral, the White House, Rock Creek Park, Embassy Row are located in this quadrant.
Northwest is bounded by the Potomac River on the west, Western Avenue and Eastern Avenue to the north, North Capitol Street to the east, the National Mall to the south. Other principal roads include Connecticut Avenue between Chevy Chase and the White House, Wisconsin Avenue between Friendship Heights and Georgetown, Pennsylvania Avenue between Georgetown and the Capitol, K Street, Massachusetts Avenue, 16th Street. Northwest is served by all six lines of the Washington Metro: the Orange, Red, Blue and Green Lines. Many Metrobus lines run through the quadrant, as well as the DC Circulator. SW—Southwest, Washington, D. C. SE—Southeast, Washington, D. C. NE—Northeast, Washington, D. C
Rick Perry 2012 presidential campaign
The Rick Perry presidential campaign of 2012 began when Rick Perry, four-term Governor of Texas, announced via a spokesman on August 11, 2011, that he would be running for the 2012 Republican Party nomination for president of the United States. Perry was considered as a potential candidate since as early as the 2008 presidential election denying he was interested in the office but becoming more open-minded, he formally launched his campaign on August 2011, in Charleston, South Carolina. While he was successful in fundraising and was considered a serious contender for the nomination, he struggled during the debates and his poll numbers began to decline. After finishing fifth with just over 10% of the vote in the Iowa caucuses on January 3, 2012, Perry considered dropping out of the presidential race but did not. After a poor showing in New Hampshire and with "lagging" poll numbers in South Carolina, Perry formally announced he was suspending his campaign on January 19, 2012. Perry had persistently denied aspirations to higher office.
In April 2008 while appearing as a guest on CNBC's Kudlow & Company, he stated that he would not agree to serve as vice president in a McCain administration, stating that he had "the best job in the world" as governor of Texas. Further, during a Republican gubernatorial debate in January 2010, when asked if he would commit to serving out his term if re-elected, he replied that "the place hasn't been made yet" where he would rather serve than the governor of Texas. In December 2010, when asked if he was a "definite maybe" to run for president in 2012, he replied, "a definite no, brother". On May 27, 2011, he said he was "going to think about" running for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination after the close of the Texas legislative session. Perry said in a response to a question from a reporter, "but I think about a lot of things," he added with a grin. Republican donors persistently asked Perry to run for office, the efforts to draft Perry intensified in July and August 2011 until he decided to run.
It was reported by the Associated Press that Perry had called many of his warm contacts and done aggressive networking throughout 2011, used Texas state phones to do so. The use of government phones for election and campaign activity is considered an ethical violation of an elected office; the Associated Press noted that its investigation was incomplete because the Perry administration had "censored dozens of calls for privacy reasons, his schedules in recent years contain only partial information". A spokesman for the Governor's office insisted. On August 11, 2011, a Perry spokesman said that he will be running for president, with plans to announce his formal entry into the race two days later. Perry himself confirmed it on a visit to the ABC affiliate in Austin, the state capital; as the Associated Press bulletin announcing his entry into the race came across the wire, Perry signed and dated a printed copy of the bulletin. On August 13, 2011, in a speech at Charleston, South Carolina, Perry announced that he would be a candidate for the Republican nomination.
He stated that it was his wife who encouraged him to run for president, as he was happy being governor of Texas. Perry said Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke should stop printing more money to stimulate the economy, saying it was "treasonous" and that he would be treated "pretty ugly down in Texas" for his actions, he criticized Barack Obama for not serving in the military, saying, "The president had the opportunity to serve his country. I'm sure at some time he made the decision that isn't what he wanted to do."On August 17, 2011 at a breakfast with business leaders in New Hampshire Perry said that he does not believe the science behind global warming. He said "there are a substantial number of scientists who have manipulated data so that they will have dollars rolling into their projects." Because of Perry's comparatively late entry into the race, he was behind other candidates in fundraising and was under pressure to raise money quickly. Questions were raised about his fundraising methods.
For one, his campaign was supported by a super PAC called "Make Us Great Again". A super PAC is allowed to raise unlimited funds from individuals and from corporations, which cannot contribute to federal candidates, but the super PAC is required to be independent from the campaign. Make Us Great Again was created and headed by Mike Toomey, Perry's chief of staff; this arrangement was criticized as illegal by Fred Wertheimer, the president of the watchdog group Democracy 21, who said, "The idea that such a PAC is going to be independent from the campaign is ridiculous." Perry's former legislative director, Dan Shelley, is running a pro-Perry super PAC. Perry's longstanding feud with Karl Rove may be another factor in his Super PAC fundraising, as Rove is a key advisor to many major Republican donors. Perry took the fundraising lead in his first reporting period; the biggest source of his donations was from employees of George Brint Ryan's tax and accounting firm. As of January 16, 2012, the PAC had spent $3.96 million on promoting Perry's campaign.
Perry's performances in the GOP debates received poor reviews from the media. His botched attempt to criticize Mitt Romney as a flip-flopper in a debate held in Orlando, Florida was described as a "spectacular failure." His speech was so garbled that Mark Hemingway of the Weekly Standard asked if Perry had suffered a stroke, Brit Hume of Fox News stated that Perry, "at a time when he neede
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP. Growth is calculated in real terms - i.e. inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. Measurement of economic growth uses national income accounting. Since economic growth is measured as the annual percent change of gross domestic product, it has all the advantages and drawbacks of that measure; the economic growth rates of nations are compared using the ratio of the GDP to population or per-capita income. The "rate of economic growth" refers to the geometric annual rate of growth in GDP between the first and the last year over a period of time; this growth rate is the trend in the average level of GDP over the period, which ignores the fluctuations in the GDP around this trend. An increase in economic growth caused by more efficient use of inputs is referred to as intensive growth.
GDP growth caused only by increases in the amount of inputs available for use is called extensive growth. Development of new goods and services creates economic growth; the economic growth rate is calculated from data on GDP estimated by countries' statistical agencies. The rate of growth of GDP per capita is calculated from data on GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis of the analyst. In national income accounting, per capita output can be calculated using the following factors: output per unit of labor input, hours worked, the percentage of the working age population working and the proportion of the working-age population to the total population. "The rate of change of GDP/population is the sum of the rates of change of these four variables plus their cross products."Economists distinguish between short-run economic changes in production and long-run economic growth. Short-run variation in economic growth is termed the business cycle. Economists attribute the ups and downs in the business cycle to fluctuations in aggregate demand.
In contrast, economic growth is concerned with the long-run trend in production due to structural causes such as technological growth and factor accumulation. Increases in labor productivity have been the most important source of real per capita economic growth. "In a famous estimate, MIT Professor Robert Solow concluded that technological progress has accounted for 80 percent of the long-term rise in U. S. per capita income, with increased investment in capital explaining only the remaining 20 percent."Increases in productivity lower the real cost of goods. Over the 20th century the real price of many goods fell by over 90%. Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital and the increase in productivity and creation of new goods arising from technological innovation. Further division of labour is fundamental to rising productivity. Before industrialization technological progress resulted in an increase in the population, kept in check by food supply and other resources, which acted to limit per capita income, a condition known as the Malthusian trap.
The rapid economic growth that occurred during the Industrial Revolution was remarkable because it was in excess of population growth, providing an escape from the Malthusian trap. Countries that industrialized saw their population growth slow down, a phenomenon known as the demographic transition. Increases in productivity are the major factor responsible for per capita economic growth – this has been evident since the mid-19th century. Most of the economic growth in the 20th century was due to increased output per unit of labor, materials and land; the balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs. Both of these changes increase output; the increased output included more of the same goods produced and new goods and services. During the Industrial Revolution, mechanization began to replace hand methods in manufacturing, new processes streamlined production of chemicals, iron and other products. Machine tools made the economical production of metal parts possible, so that parts could be interchangeable.
See: Interchangeable parts. During the Second Industrial Revolution, a major factor of productivity growth was the substitution of inanimate power for human and animal labor. There was a great increase in power as steam powered electricity generation and internal combustion supplanted limited wind and water power. Since that replacement, the great expansion of total power was driven by continuous improvements in energy conversion efficiency. Other major historical sources of productivity were automation, transportation infrastructures, new materials and power, which includes steam and internal combustion engines and electricity. Other productivity improvements included mechanized agriculture and scientific agriculture including chemical fertilizers and livestock and poultry management, the Green Revolution. Interchangeable parts made with machine tools powered by electric motors evolved into mass production, universally used today. Great sources of productivity improvement in the late 19th century were railroads, steam ships, horse-pulled reapers and combine harvesters, steam-powered factories.
The invention of processes for making cheap steel were important for many forms
United States Department of the Treasury
The Department of the Treasury is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. Established by an Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue, the Treasury prints all paper currency and mints all coins in circulation through the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint, respectively. S. government debt instruments. The Department is administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, a member of the Cabinet. Senior advisor to the Secretary is the Treasurer of the United States. Signatures of both officials appear on all Federal Reserve notes; the first Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton, sworn into office on September 11, 1789. Hamilton was appointed by President George Washington on the recommendation of Robert Morris, Washington's first choice for the position, who had declined the appointment. Hamilton established—almost singlehandedly—the nation's early financial system and for several years was a major presence in Washington's administration.
His portrait appears on the obverse of the ten-dollar bill, while the Treasury Department building is depicted on the reverse. The current Secretary of the Treasury is Steven Mnuchin, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 13, 2017. Jovita Carranza, appointed on April 28, 2017, is the incumbent treasurer; the history of the Department of the Treasury began in the turmoil of the American Revolution, when the Continental Congress at Philadelphia deliberated the crucial issue of financing a war of independence against Great Britain. The Congress had no power to levy and collect taxes, nor was there a tangible basis for securing funds from foreign investors or governments; the delegates resolved to issue paper money in the form of bills of credit, promising redemption in coin on faith in the revolutionary cause. On June 22, 1775—only a few days after the Battle of Bunker Hill—Congress issued $2 million in bills. On July 29, 1775, the Second Continental Congress assigned the responsibility for the administration of the revolutionary government's finances to joint Continental treasurers George Clymer and Michael Hillegas.
The Congress stipulated. To ensure proper and efficient handling of the growing national debt in the face of weak economic and political ties between the colonies, the Congress, on February 17, 1776, designated a committee of five to superintend the Treasury, settle accounts, report periodically to the Congress. On April 1, a Treasury Office of Accounts, consisting of an Auditor General and clerks, was established to facilitate the settlement of claims and to keep the public accounts for the government of the United Colonies. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, the newborn republic as a sovereign nation was able to secure loans from abroad. Despite the infusion of foreign and domestic loans, the united colonies were unable to establish a well-organized agency for financial administration. Michael Hillegas was first called Treasurer of the United States on May 14, 1777; the Treasury Office was reorganized three times between 1778 and 1781. The $241.5 million in paper Continental bills devalued rapidly.
By May 1781, the dollar collapsed at a rate of from 500 to 1000 to 1 against hard currency. Protests against the worthless money swept the colonies, giving rise to the expression "not worth a Continental". Robert Morris was designated Superintendent of Finance in 1781 and restored stability to the nation's finances. Morris, a wealthy colonial merchant, was nicknamed "the Financier" because of his reputation for procuring funds or goods on a moment's notice, his staff included a comptroller, a treasurer, a register, auditors, who managed the country's finances through 1784, when Morris resigned because of ill health. The treasury board, consisting of three commissioners, continued to oversee the finances of the confederation of former colonies until September 1789; the First Congress of the United States was called to convene in New York on March 4, 1789, marking the beginning of government under the Constitution. On September 2, 1789, Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be a Department of Treasury, in which shall be the following officers, namely: a Secretary of the Treasury, to be deemed head of the department.
Alexander Hamilton took the oath of office as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789. Hamilton had served as George Washington's aide-de-camp during the Revolution and was of great importance in the ratification of the Constitution; because of his financial and managerial acumen, Hamilton was a logical choice for solving the problem of the new nation's heavy war debt. Hamilton's first official act was to submit a report to Congress in which he laid the foundation for the nation's financial health. To the surprise of many legislators, he insisted upon federal assumption and dollar-for-dollar repayment of the country's $75 million debt in order to revitalize the public credit: "he debt of the United States was the price of liberty; the faith of America has been pledged for it, with solemnities that give peculiar force to the obligation." Hami
Wilbur Louis Ross Jr. is an American investor and the current United States Secretary of Commerce. On November 30, 2016, then-President-elect Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Ross for that post. On February 27, 2017, the Senate confirmed him in a 72–27 vote, he was sworn into office on February 28, 2017. Before he was appointed, Ross was a banker known for restructuring failed companies in industries such as: steel, telecommunications, foreign investment and textiles and who specialized in leveraged buyouts and distressed businesses. In February 2017, Forbes magazine reported. However, financial disclosure forms Ross filed after his nomination for Secretary of Commerce showed less than $700 million in assets, Forbes removed him from their billionaires list in November 2017, he is called the "King of Bankruptcy" because of his record of buying bankrupt companies in the manufacturing and steel industries, selling them for a large profit after operations improve. In November 2017, leaked documents known as the Paradise Papers showed that Ross had failed to disclose a financial interest in a Russian company during his confirmation hearings.
During the 2018-2019 U. S. federal government shutdown, Ross was criticized for making comments perceived as being out of touch with average American citizens after expressing bewilderment on CNBC about why furloughed, unpaid workers and contractors would choose to visit food banks rather than apply for a personal loan. In February 2019 it was reported that Ross' financial disclosure was rejected by the United States Office of Government Ethics after reporting he sold bank stock that other reports indicate he did not sell on his annual financial disclosure. Ross was born on November 28, 1937, in Weehawken, New Jersey, grew up in nearby North Bergen, his father, Wilbur Louis Ross Sr. was a lawyer who became a judge, his mother, was a school teacher. Ross drove two hours a day from New Jersey to attend the Catholic college preparatory Xavier High School in Manhattan, he was captain of the rifle team. He received his bachelor's degree from his father's alma mater. At Yale, Ross worked at the radio station.
He wanted to be a writer, but after his experience in a fiction class requiring 500 words daily, he concluded that he had "run out of material." His faculty adviser at Yale helped. He earned his MBA degree at Harvard Business School. After obtaining his MBA from Harvard, Ross launched his career, working for money-management firms and investment banks. In the late 1970s, Ross began his 24-year employment with the New York City office of N M Rothschild & Sons, where he ran the bankruptcy-restructuring advisory practice. In the 1980s, Donald Trump was in financial trouble, his three casinos in Atlantic City were under foreclosure threat from lenders. Ross, the senior managing director of Rothschild Inc. represented investors in the casino. Along with Carl Icahn, Ross convinced bondholders to strike a deal with Trump that allowed Trump to keep control of the casinos. Ross's private equity fund, WL Ross & Company, was created in April 2000, he had started a $200 million fund at Rothschild to invest in distressed assets.
As the U. S. bubble began to burst, he decided he wanted to advise less. In 2000, the 62-year-old banker raised $450 million to buy out the fund from Rothschild and make further investments in distressed assets; the new firm was named WL Co.. In 2003 investment committee was composed of David H. Storper, David L. Wax, Stephen J. Toy, Pamela K. Wilson, a J. P. Morgan & Co. veteran. In 2006 Ross sold WL Ross & Co. to Invesco Amvescap. WL Ross operates as a subsidiary of Invesco. In August 2016, Ross agreed to reimburse investors $11.8 million and pay a fine of $2.3 million to settle a Securities and Exchange Commission probe into the overcharging of fees by WL Ross & Co. The company did not admit any liability. According to Bloomberg Businessweek, by January 2016, WL Ross & Co. was the "biggest investor" in "Navigator Holdings, a liquefied gas shipping company."In December 2017, Irish politician and Member of the European Parliament Luke Ming Flanagan accused Ross of insider trading from WL Ross, as part of a 2014 sale of shares in the Bank of Ireland.
In 2002, Ross founded International Steel Group after purchasing the assets of several bankrupt steel companies. Ross had support from the local steelworkers union, negotiating a deal with them to "save" Pennsylvania's steel industry. Leo Gerard, international president of the United Steelworkers union stated about Ross that "he was open and accessible and candid and honest and he put a lot of money back into the mills, so tens of thousands of jobs were saved." Ross sold International Steel Group to Mittal Steel Company for $4.5 billion, half in cash and half in stock, in April 2005. Ross combined Burlington Industries and Cone Mills in 2004 to form International Textile Group. ITG operates five businesses, all of which operate under separate brand names: Cone Denim, Burlington Apparel Fabrics, Home Furnishings, Carlisle Finishing and Nano-Tex. In 2005, Ross purchased 77.3% of Safety Components International for $51.2 million. In 2006, Ross merged the firm into his International Textile Group.
In February 2014, Ross paid $81 million to settle a lawsuit brought by shareholders that Ross breached his fiduciary duty when structuring the merger of two companies that he majority-owned: Safety Components International Inc. and International Textile Group Inc. International Textile Group was sold to private equity firm Platinum E
Cabinet of the United States
The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause of the Constitution, is to serve as an advisory body to the President of the United States. Additionally, the Twenty-fifth Amendment authorizes the Vice President, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet, to declare the president "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office". Among the senior officers of the Cabinet are the Vice President and the heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom—if eligible—are in the line of succession. Members of the Cabinet serve at the pleasure of the President, who can dismiss them at will for no cause. All federal public officials, including Cabinet members, are subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason and other high crimes and misdemeanors"; the President can unilaterally designate senior White House staffers, heads of other federal agencies as members of the Cabinet, although this is a symbolic status marker and does not, apart from attending Cabinet meetings, confer any additional powers.
The tradition of the Cabinet arose out of the debates at the 1787 Constitutional Convention regarding whether the president would exercise executive authority singly or collaboratively with a cabinet of ministers or a privy council. As a result of the debates, the Constitution vests "all executive power" in the president singly, authorizes—but does not compel—the president to "require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices"; the Constitution does not specify what the executive departments will be, how many there will be, or what their duties should be. George Washington, the first U. S. President, organized his principal officers into a Cabinet, it has been part of the executive branch structure since. Washington's Cabinet consisted of five members: himself, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph.
Vice President John Adams was not included in Washington's Cabinet because the position was regarded as a legislative officer. It was not until the 20th century that Vice Presidents were included as members of the Cabinet and came to be regarded as a member of the executive branch. Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to differing extents and for different purposes. Secretary of State William H. Seward and Professor Woodrow Wilson advocated the use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government, but President Abraham Lincoln rebuffed Seward, Woodrow Wilson would have none of it in his administration. In recent administrations, Cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and various agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, subsequent Presidents have followed that practice. In 3 U. S. C. § 302 with regard to delegation of authority by the President, it is provided that "nothing herein shall be deemed to require express authorization in any case in which such an official would be presumed in law to have acted by authority or direction of the President."
This pertains directly to the heads of the executive departments as each of their offices is created and specified by statutory law and thus gives them the authority to act for the President within their areas of responsibility without any specific delegation. Under the 1967 Federal Anti-Nepotism statute, federal officials are prohibited from appointing their immediate family members to certain governmental positions, including those in the Cabinet. Under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, an administration may appoint acting heads of department from employees of the relevant department; these may be existing high-level career employees, from political appointees of the outgoing administration, or sometimes lower-level appointees of the administration. The heads of the executive departments and all other federal agency heads are nominated by the President and presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority. If approved, they receive their commission scroll, are sworn in and begin their duties.
An elected Vice President does not require Senate confirmation, nor does the White House Chief of Staff, an appointed staff position of the Executive Office of the President. The heads of the executive departments and most other senior federal officers at cabinet or sub-cabinet level receive their salary under a fixed five-level pay plan known as the Executive Schedule, codified in Title 5 of the United States Code. Twenty-one positions, including the heads of the executive departments and others, receiving Level I pay are listed in 5 U. S. C. § 5312, those forty-six positions on Level II pay are listed in 5 U. S. C. § 5313. As of January 2016, the Level I annual pay was set at $205,700; the annual salary of the Vice President is $235,300. The salary level was set by the Government Salary Reform Act of 1989, which provides an automatic cost of living adjustment for federal employees; the Vice President receives th